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issued by pope Martin v, 288; real
character of, 290 and n. 2
Basel, council of, new theory of papal

power established by the, 281
Basing, John, assists Grosseteste in
translating the Testaments of the
Twelve Patriarchs, 110; the disco-
verer of the manuscript at Athens,ib.
Bartolus, a writer on jurisprudence

attacked by Valla, 419
Bateman, Wm., bp. of Norwich and

founder of Trinity Hall, 240; his
character, 241; his funeral at
Avignon, ib. n. 1; his design în
the foundation of Trin. Hall, 242;
account of library presented by, to
Trin. Hall, 243; assistance given
by, to Gonville Hall, 244; alters
the name of the Hall, 245
Bayeux, Collége de, in Paris, a
foundation of the fourteenth cen-
tury, 128; designed for the study
of medicine and of the civil law, ib.
Beaufort, cardinal, bequeathed £1000

to King's College, 310; his attain-
ments as a canonist, ib.; his Ul-
tramontanism, ib. n. 1
Bec, monastery at, catalogue of its
library, 101; lands taken from to
found King's College, 305; lands
of, purchased by William of Wyke-
ham, ib. n. 3

Becon, Tho., his testimony to the
value of Stafford's lectures, 567
Bede, the Venerable, his writings the
text-books of subsequent ages, 9;
a reputed doctor of divinity of the
university of Cambridge, 66; state
of learning in England subsequent
to the time of, 81

Bedell, special, attendant on the

master of glomery, 226, n. 1
Bedells, originally attended the

schools of different faculties, 144
Bedford Level, the, 330
Begging, a common practice with

students in the middle ages, 347;
restrictions imposed on the prac-
tice by the university authorities,

Benedictine era, the, 2

Benedict, St., monastery of, on Monte
Cassino, 5

motives to which the formation
of new branches of the order is
attributable, ib. and n. 3; degene-
racy of the whole order, 86
Benet College, Corpus Christi Col-

lege formerly so called, 249, n. 4
Benet's St., bells of, used in the

13th century to convene university
meetings, 299, n. 3
Berengar, view of, respecting the
Lord's Supper, 46; his controversy
with Lanfranc, 47; his mental
characteristics compared with
those of Lanfranc, 48; his sub-
mission to the Lateran Council, ib.
Bernard, St., of Chartres, character
of the school over which he pre-
sided, 57

Benedictines, the, culture of, 3;
schools of, 13; destruction of the
monasteries of in the tenth cen-
tury, 81; rapid extension of the
order of, under Cnut and Edward
the Confessor, 82; different prin-
cipal foundations of, ib.; growing
laxity of discipline among, 85;

Bernard, St., of Clairvaux, com-
plains of excessive devotion of the
clergy to the civil law, 39; alarm
of at the progress of enquiry, 58
Bessarion, cardinal, 403; his patrio-
tic zeal, ib.; his efforts to bring
about a union of the two churches,
ib.; his conversion to the western
Church, 404; his example produc-
tive of little result, ib.
Beverley, town of, Fisher born at, 423
Bible, the, lecturers not allowed to

lecture on, until they had lectured
on the Sentences, 363, n. 2
Biblici ordinarii and cursores, 363
Bidellus, an officer in the university
of Bologna, 73
Bilney, Thos., testimony of to the
influence of Erasmus's Greek Test.,
556; his eccentric character, 560;
his account of his spiritual ex-
periences, ib.; his character, by
Latimer, 562; converts of, ib.;
his influence as a Norfolk man,
563; summoned before the chapter
at Westminster, 605; recants a
second time, 607; penance of, at
Paul's Cross, ib.; returns to Cam-
bridge, 608

Bishops, list of, in 1500, who had

been educated at Cambridge, 425
Blackstone, Sir R., inaccuracy of his

account of the early study of the
civil law, 209

Boethius, a text-book during the
Middle Ages, 21; the allegory in
the De Consolatione of, probably
in imitation of Martianus, 27; his
services to learning, ib.; his trea-
tise compared with that of Mar-
tianus, ib.; not a Christian, 28;
commentaries of, on the Topica of
Cicero used by Gerbert at Rheims,

44; the same as Manlius, ib. note
1; his commentary on the trans-
lation of Porphyry by Victorinus,
51; his translation of Porphyry,
ib.; change in his philosophic
opinions, ib.; importance attached
by, to the question respecting uni-
versals, ib.; difference in his views
with respect to universals as ex-
pressed in his two commentaries,
53; his conclusions with respect to
the question adverted to by Por-
phyry, ib.; does not attempt to
decide between Plato and Aristotle,
ib.; reason, according to Cousin,
why he adopted the Aristotelian
theory, ib.; translations of Aris-
totle by, how distinguished from
those of a later period, 93; passed
for a Christian writer in the Mid-
dle Ages, 96; the philosopher and
the theologian confounded in cata-
logue of library at Christchurch,
104; Chaucer's translation of the
De Consolatione of, the commence-
ment of the university library, 323
Bologna, university of, the chief

school of civil law in Europe in
the twelfth century, 71; official
recognition of, by the emperor
Frederic 1, 72; provisions contain-
ed in charter of, ib.; constitution
of, 73; compared with university
of Paris, 75; numbers at, in the
thirteenth century, 130; professors
of civil law at, dressed as laymen,
210; first received a faculty of
theology, 215
Bonaventura, commentary of, on the
Sentences, 62; a native of Tus-
cany, 113; character of the genius
of, 118; indifferent to Aristotle,
ib. n. 1

Boniface VIII, pope, defied by William
of Occam, 187; rapacity of alienates
the English Franciscans, 194
Booksellers, at Cambridge, required
to suppress heretical books, 500, n.
2; generally foreigners, ib.; licence
of 1534 for, 626

Booth, Lawrence, chanc., raises the
funds for building arts schools and
civil law schools, 360

Bouquet, Dom, describes the bene-
fits of the system introduced by
Charlemagne, 14
Bourgogne, foundation of the Collége
de, 129

Bradshaw, Mr. H., his opinion with
respect to date of the catalogue of
library at Christchurch, Canter-

bury, 100, n. 1; his criticism on
early statute relating to hostels
quoted, 220 n. 1
Bradwardine, Thomas, his De Causa
Dei, 198; the treatise a source of
Calvinistic doctrine in the English
Church, ib.; its eccentric method,
199; the work criticised by Sir
Henry Savile, 199, n. 1'; referred
to by Chaucer, ib.; edited by Savile,
ib.; its extensive erudition, 200;
had access to Richard of Bury's
library, ib.; chaplain to the same,
203; apocryphal authors cited by,
ib. n. 1; compared with Occam,
205, n. 1; styled by Lechler & præ-
nuntius Reformationis, ib.
Bresch, Jean, Essay on the Sentences
by, 60, n. 2

Brewer, professor, observations of,
on the Latinity of medieval
writers, 171, n. 1; criticism of, on
Erasmus's New Testament, 509
Bromyard, John, his Summa Prædi-

cantium, 293; a Dominican, ib.;
character of his work, 294; con-
trasted with Pecock, ib.
Bruni, Leonardo, his services to the
study of Aristotle, 398; his transla-
tions of the Ethics and the Poli-
tics, ib.; his dedication of the
latter to the duke of Gloucester, 399
Brucker, unsatisfactory decision of,

with respect to the Latin transla-
tions of Aristotle, 92; condemna-
tion of the scholastic Aristotle by,123
Bruliferius, the university forbidden
to study, 630

Bryan, John, fell. of King's, a pupil
of Erasmus at Cambridge, 499;
rejected the scholastic Aristotle,
ib.; takes the Greek text of Aris-
totle as the basis of his lectures,
517; not an eminent Grecian, 520
Buckenham, prior of the Dominicans,

sermon by, in reply to Latimer, 610
Buckmaster, Dr, fell. of Peterhouse,
letter of to Dr Edmunds on the
feeling of the university in con-
nexion with the divorce, 621
Buhle, theory of, that the mediæval
knowledge of Aristotle was derived
from Arabic translations, 93
Bullock, Henry, fell. of Queens', a
pupil and correspondent of Eras-
mus, 498; patronised by Wolsey, ib.;
letter of to Erasmus, 512; oration
of, on Wolsey's visit to Cambridge,
546; grossness of his flattery, ib.;
presides at the burning of Luther's
works at Cambridge, 571

Burbank, Wm., secretary to Wolsey,

Buridanus, his Quæstiones a good
illustration of the common mode
of lecturing, 359
Burley, Walter, defends the realistic
doctrines at Oxford, 197; his Ex-
positio super Artem Veterem, ib.;
his statement that the site of Ox-
ford was selected by philosophers
from Greece on account of its
healthiness, 339 and n. 2; his Logic
forbidden at Cambridge, 630
Bury, Richard of, tutor to Edward

III when prince of Wales, 200; his
important services to his pupil, ib.;
his subsequent career, 201; not a
man of profound acquirements,
ib.; his interview with Petrarch at
Avignon, ib.; he disappoints the
poet, 202; his knowledge of Greek,
ib.; his real merits, ib.; his mania
for books, ib. n. 2; his wisdom in
book collecting, 203; fate of his
library, ib.; his rules for the ma-
nagement of Durham College li-
brary, ib.; the rules almost iden-
tical with those of the Sorbonne,
204, n. 1; slight distinction be-
tween the two, ib.; his Philobiblon,
ib. n. 2; his account of the stu-
dents of his day, 206; on the de-
generacy of the Mendicants, ib.;
his declaration respecting the civi-
lians, 211; his indifference to the
canon law, ib.; his opinion of the
university of Paris in his day,
214; his testimony to the lethargy
that there prevailed, ib.
Bury St. Edmund's, contest at, be-
tween the monks and the Francis-
cans, 149

Busleiden, Jerome, founder of the
collegium trilingue at Louvain,
565; his family and character, ib.
Byzantine logic, the, influence of,
175; its presence in Duns Scotus,
180; important results that fol-
lowed upon the introduction of,
184; important results of, with
respect to nominalism, 188; in-
strumental in introducing the
theory of the Suppositio, ib.; its
rapid spread in the 15th century,416

of, 20; considers portion to have
been written by Hirtius, ib.
Caim's Castles, the residences of the
Mendicants, so called by Wyclif,

Caius Auberinus, a lecturer on Te-
rence at the university towards the
close of the 15th century, 434
Cam, the river, 329; route described
in its course, ib.; its present point
of junction with the Ouse, ib.;
meaning of name, ib. n. 1; formerly
held by the town corporation of
the crown, 373
Cambridge, the town of, totally de-
stroyed in A.D. 870, 81; and in
1009, 82; ancient appearance of,
332; its gradual growth, ib.; why
chosen as a site of an university,
333; aspect of in the 15th century,
Cambridge, university of, its earliest
known legal recognition, 1; legends
respecting early history of, 66;
scantiness of our information re-
specting the statutes of, before the
college era, ib.; modelled on the
university of Paris, 67; probable
origin of, 80; earliest legal recog-
nition of the, 84; students from
Paris settle in the, 107; presence
of students from Paris at, 133;
migration from the, to Northamp-
ton, 135; first recognised as a stu-
dium generale in 1318, 145; ad-
vantages resulting from this recog-
nition, 146; chancellor of, present
at council of Constance, 276; re-
garded as deteriorating in theology
in the fifteenth century, 315; ori-
ginally only a grammar school,
340; period when the arts course
was introduced at,342, fables re-
specting early history of, retailed by
Fisher, 450; tribute paid by Erasmus
to its fame, 507; progress of Greek
at, 511; declared by Erasmus in
1516 to be able to compare with
the most celebrated universities,
516; entire change at, 19, n.
2; favour shown by to the study
of Greek contrasted by More with
the conduct of Oxford, 526; had
always outstripped Oxford, 534;
Wolsey constituted sole reviser of
the statutes of, 549; abject flattery
of letter of, to the cardinal, 550;
contribution of colleges of to the
royal loan, 551, n. 1; royal visits to,
551; scholars from, invited by Wol-
sey to Oxford, 552; less forward to


Caen, abbey of, lands taken from to
found King's College, 305
Cæsar, Commentaries of, Lupus of
Ferrières promises to send copy

espouse new doctrines than Oxford,
559; begins to take the lead in
connexion with the Reformation,
ib.; Luther's writings burnt at,
571; question of the royal divorce
referred to, 613; conduct of, in
relation to the question, compared
by Mr. Froude with that of Oxford,
616; letter to from King Henry,
617; decision of, on the question,
criticised, 621; royal injunctions
to, 630

Camerarius, testimony of, to fame of
Richard Croke at Leipsic, 527
Canon law, study of, founded on the
Decretum of Gratian, 36; simply
permitted at Merton College, 167;
permitted but not obligatory at
Gonville Hall, 240; how affected by
Occam's attack on the papal power,
259; four fellows allowed to study
at King's, 308; study of, simply
permitted at Queens' College, 317;
forbidden at St. Catherine's Hall,
318; and at Jesus College, 322;
admission of bachelors in, from
A.D. 1459 to A.D. 1499, 320; doctor
of, former requirements for degree
of, 364; lectures on and degrees in
prohibited, 630
Canterbury, destruction of the library
at, A.D. 1009, 82; both the monas-
teries at, professed the Benedictine
rule, ib.; mode of life at monas-
tery of St. Augustine at, described
by Giraldus Cambrensis, 87
Canterbury Hall, Oxford, efforts of
Simon Islip at, 266; expulsion of
seculars from, ib.
Cardinal College, Oxford, foundation
of, 551; its princely revenues, ib.;
scholars from Cambridge placed
on the foundation, 552; founded
on the site of St. Frideswide's
monastery, ib. n. 1; magnificence
of the design, 601 and n. 1
Cards, playing at, allowed to fellows
at Christmas time, 609; always for-
bidden to scholars, ib. n. 2
Carmelites, the, their house near
Queens' College, 139
Cassiodorus, treatise of, a text-book
during the Middle Ages, 21; his
account of the Arithmetic of Boe-
thius, 28, n. 1; escapes the fate
of Boethius under Theodoric, 29;
his Gothic History, 30; his Epi-
stles, ib.; his treatise De Artibus, ib.;
copy of, at the library at Bec, 100
Categories of Aristotle, the, along

with the De Interpretatione, the

only portion of his logic studied
prior to the 12th century, 29
Cavendish, Wolsey's biographer, edu-
cated at Cambridge, 545
Chalcidius, Latin translation of the
Timaus by, 41
Chalcondyles, successor to Argyro-
pulos at Florence, 429; his edition
of Homer, ib.; his Greek gram-
mar, 430
Champeaux, William of, opens a
school of logic in Paris, 77, n. 1
Chancellor of the cathedral at Paris,
his hostility to the university, 80
Chancellor, office of the, in the uni-
versity, 140; his election biennial,
ib.; elected by the regents, ib.;
duties attached to the office, 141;
his powers ecclesiastical in their
origin, ib.; originally not per-
mitted to delegate all his duties to
the vice-chancellor, ib. ; his powers
distinguished from those of the
regents, 142; first becomes vested
with spiritual jurisdiction in the
university, 146; his authority as-
serted by the Barnwell Process ex-
clusive of all ecclesiastical jurisdic-
tion, 289


Chancellors, two at the university of
Bologna, 73
Charlemagne, fosters learning in
conjunction with Alcuin, 9; effects
of his rule on the conception of
learning, 10; his Capitularies, 12;
his letter to Baugulfus, ib.; in-
vites Alcuin over from England,
13; twofold character of his work
in education, ib.; his mental acti-
vity, 14; questions in grammar
propounded by, to Alcuin, 15; his
views in relation to learning com-
pared with those of Alcuin, 17
Charters university, supposed loss
of, 81, n. 1

Chicheley, archbp., directs the con-
fiscation of the estates of the alien
priories, 305
Christchurch, monastery of, Canter-
bury, a mixed foundation, 100;
distinguished from that of St. Au-
gustine's, Canterbury, ib. n. 2;
contrast presented in catalogue of
library at, with that of a hundred
years later, 105; the monks of,
nearly driven from the city by the
Dominicans, 150
Christchurch, Oxford, see Cardinal

Christ's College, foundation of, 446;
endowments of given by Margaret

of Richmond, 447; original sta-
tutes of, 453; qualifications of
fellows at, 455; oath taken by fel-
lows of, ib.; power reserved by sta-
tutes of, of making alterations,
456, n. 3; error of dean Peacock
on this point, ib.; clause in oath
administered to master of, 458;
requirements for fellows at, 459;
admission of pensioners at, ib.;
appointment of lecturer on Latin
literature at, ib.; lectures to be given
in long vacation at, 460; allowance
to fellows for commons at, ib.
Chrodegang, bp. of Metz, founder of

secular colleges in Lorraine, 160
Chrysoloras, Emmanuel, his charac-
ter, 391; he acquires the Latin
tongue, 392; his eminence as a
teacher of Greek, ib.; his Greek
Grammar, ib. and n. 2; his visit
to Rome, 393; his death at Con-
stance, 395; his funeral oration by
Julianus, 396
Chrysostom, St., disparagingly spoken
of by Erasmus, 501

Chubbes, Wm., author of a treatise
on logic, 425; an adviser of bp.
Alcock in the foundation of Jesus
College, 426

Cicero, Lupus of Ferrières asks for
the loan of the Rhetoric of, 20;
Topica of, expounded by Gerbert
at Rheims, 44; studied as a model
under Bernard of Chartres, 57;
styled by Niebuhr a θεὸς ἄγνωστος
in the Middle Ages, 96; numerous
treatises of, in the library at Bec,
in Normandy, in thirteenth cen-
tury, 104; Petrarch's model, 354;
orations of, known in the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries, 384, n. 2
Cistercian branch of the Benedictine

order, 85; testimony of Hugo, the
papal legate, to the motives of the
institution of the order, ib. n. 3;
order of the, satirised by Walter
Map, 86
Citramontani, a division of the stu-
dents at the university of Bologna,

the study of, often united with that
of the canon law in England, ib.;
studied by Lanfranc at Bologna,
47; why discouraged at Paris, 75;
periods during which the study
was encouraged or prohibited in
the university of Paris, ib. n. 2;
none of the volumes of the, found
in the library at Christchurch, 104;
studied at the Collége de Bayeux
in Paris, 128; conditions under
which the study of, was permitted
at Merton College, 167; absorbing
attention to, in the 14th century,
208; its tendency to confound dis-
tinctions between laity and clergy,
209; inaccuracy of Blackstone's
account of the study, ib.; Reginald
Pecock on the evils resulting from
the study, ib.; importance of the
code, shewn by William of No-
garet, 211; the Avignonese popes
distinguished by their knowledge
of, ib.; study of, looked upon by
theartists and theologians at
Paris as a trade, 255, n. 1; evi-
dent desire of founders to check
the excessive attention paid, in
the 18th century, to the, 319;
spirit in which it was studied in
Italy entirely mercenary, ib.; ad-
missions of bachelors to degrees
in, from A.D. 1459 to 1499, 320;
the study of, especially attacked
by the Humanists, 418

Civil law, study of, revived by Irne-
rius at Bologna, 36; extended by
Accursius, 37; at first regarded with
hostility by the Romish Church,
ib.; forbidden to the religious or-
ders, 38; banished from the uni-
versity of Paris, ib.; its relation to
the canon law explained by Savigny,
ib. n. 3; its general prevalence at
the close of the 12th century, 39;

Clare College, foundation of, 250;
designed to repair the losses occa-
sioned by the pestilence, 251; libe-
rality of sentiment in the early
statutes of, ib.; conditions to be
observed in the election of fellows
at, 252; sizars at, ib.; its reputa
tion in the 15th century, 314
Clement VII, pope, his opinion of the
theologians, 212

Clergy, the, their participation in
secular pursuits in the thirteenth
and fourteenth centuries, 165
Clerk, probably synonymous with
scholar, 84

Clerk, John, bp. of Bath and Wells,
harshness of, towards Barnes at his
trial, 579

Clerke (or Clark), John, one of the
Cambridge Reformers, 604, and n. 1
Cluniac branch of the Benedictine
order, 85

Cnut, king, converts the canonry at

Bury St. Edmund's into a Bene-
dictine monastery, 149; favored
the creation of secular colleges, 160

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