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Cobbett, Wm., his tribute to the work

of the monasteries, 336, n. 1
Cobham, Tho., his bequest to the uni-

versity library at Oxford, 203, n. 2
Cocheris, M., his edition of Richard

of Bury's Philobiblon, 204, n. 2
Cock-fighting, a common amusement

among students, 373
Colet, John, his spirit as a founder

contrasted with that of bp. Fisher,
471; his small liking for Augus.
tine, 484; letter from Erasmus at

Cambridge to, 493
Collage, Tho., bequeaths a fund for

the encouragement of preaching at

the university in 1446, 439
Collège de Montaigu, account given

by Erasmus of the, 367
Colleges, of small importance in the

university of Bologna, 74; supposed
by Bulæus to be coeval with the uni.
versity at Paris, 76; foundation of,
at Cambridge, the commencement
of certain information respecting
the university, 216; almost in.
variable design of the founders of,
368; intended for the poorer class
of students, ib.; standard of ad.
mission at, 369; age of students
on admission at, ib.; discipline at,
ib.; becoming richer required to
increase the number of their fel.
lowships, 372; survey of, by Par.
ker, Redman, and May, ann, 1545,

424, n. 5
College life, sketch of, in the Middle

Ages, 366; asceticism & dominant

notion in, ib.
Cologne, university of, formed on

the model of Paris, 74
Commons, liberal allowance for, to

fellows at King's Hall, 254; allow.
ances for, at other colleges, ib. n.
2; allowance for, at Christ's Col-
lege, 460; long unfixed at Peter-
house, ib.; amount prescribed for,
at St. John's College, 461; at Jesus

College, ib. n. 1
Conringius, his conjecture with re-

spect to the origin of university

degrees, 77
Constance, council of, representatives

from both universities at, 276;

Emmanuel Chrysoloras at, 394
Constantinople, state of learning at,

in the eleventh century, 175 and
n. 1; in the 15th century, con-
trasted with Florence, 388; ac-
count given of its scholars by
Philelphus, 390; fall of, 400; state
of learning at, after capture in

1453, 401, n. 3; exiles from, their

character in Italy described, 402
Constantinople, Collége de, circum.

stances which gave rise to its foun.

dation, 126, n. 4
Copernican theory, partial anticipa-

tion of, in the treatise of Martianus,

26, note 1
Corpus Christi College, destruction

of the archives of, 137; founda-
tion of, 247; its peculiar origin,
ib.; motives of founders of, 249;
statutes of, borrowed from those
of Michaelhouse, ib, and note 5;
requirements with respect to
studies at, 250 ; not visited by
commission of archbp. Arundel,

258, n. 1
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, manu-

script of Argentine's proposed'act'
in the library of, 426 and n. 2;
foundation of, 521; statutes of, ib.;
duties imposed upon readers of

divinity at, 522
Cosin, master of Corpus, succeeds

Fisher as lady Margaret professor,

Councils of the fifteenth century, re-

presentatives from the universities

present at, 276
Counties, limitations in elections to

fellowships with respect to, 238—9
Consin, M. Vict., his dictum respect-

ing the origin of the scholastic phi.
losophy, 50; the passage quoted,
ib. n. 1; his opinion that Boethius
attached small importance to the
dispute respecting universals doubt.
ful, 51, n. 3; his account of the
controversy respecting universals
as treated by Boethius, 53; his
conjecture with respect to the
teaching of the schools of Charle-

magne, 54
Cranmer, Tho., fell. of Jesus, univer-

sity career of, 612; marriage of, ib.;
visit of, to Waltham, 613; sug.
gestion of, with respect to the
royal divorce, ib.; his treatise on

the question, 618
Credo ut intelligam, dictum of St.

Anselm, 64
Croke, Rich., early career of, 527;

his continental fame, ib.; instruc-
tor in Greek to king Henry, 528;
begins to lecture on Greek at Cam.
bridge, ib.; formally appointed
Greek reader in 1519, ib.; his in-
augural oration, 529 ; his Latin
style modelled on Quintilian, ib.;
had received offers from Oxford to

become a professor there, 534;
his oration compared with that of
Melanchthon De Studiis Corrigen-
dis, 537; his second oration, 539;
elected public orator, ib.; ingrati-
tude of, to Fisher, 615; activity
of, in Italy, in gaining opinions

favorable to the divorce, ib.
Crome, Dr. Walter, an early bene-

factor to the university library,

Cromwell, Tho., elected chancellor of

the university, 629; and visitor, ib.;

commissioners of, at Oxford, ib.
Croucher, John, perhaps the founder

of the university library, 323
Crusades, the, early and later chroni.

clers of, compared, 43; the second,
its influence on Europe, 58; two-
fold utility of, 87; Guibert on the
object for which they were per-
mitted, 88; various influences of,
ib.; productive of increased in-
tercourse between Christians and
Saracens, 91; probably tended to
increase the suspicions of the
Church with respect to Saracenic

literature, 97
Cursory lectures, meaning of the
term, 358 and Append. (E)

D'Ailly, Pierre, bp. of Cambray, edu.

cated at the college of Navarre, 128
Damian, Peter, hostile to pagan

learning, 18
Damlet, Hugh, master of Pembroke,

opposed to Reginald Pecock, 295
Danes, first invasion of the, fatal to

learning in England, 9 and 81;
second invasion of, 81; losses in.

flicted by, 82
Daneus, observation of, that Aris.

totle is never named by Peter

Lombard, 94
Danish College at Paris, its founda-

tion attributed by Crevier to the

twelfth century, 126
Dante, tribute paid by, to memory

of Gratian, 36
D'Assailly, M., on the formation of

the university of Bologna, 73; the
universities of Bologna and Paris

compared by, 76, n. 1
D.C.L., former requirements for de-

gree of, 364
D.D. and B.D., requirements for de-

grees of, in the Middle Ages, 363;
the degree formerly genuine in
character, 365

De Burgh, Eliz., foundress of Clare

Hall, 250; death of a brother of,
enables her to undertake the de.

sign, ib. n. 1
De Causis, the, a Neo-Platonic trea.

tise, 114; attributed to Aristotle,
ib. n. 1; considered by Jourdain
to have been not less popular than
the Pseudo-Dionysius, ib.; the

work described by Neander, ib.
Decretals, the false, 34; criticised by

Milman, ib. n. 1
Degrees, origin of, conjecture of

Conringius respecting, 77; real
original significance of, 78; obli-
gations involved in proceeding to,
ib.; number of those who proceed.
ed to, in law or theology, smaller

than might be supposed, 363
De Hæretico Comburendo, statute of,

De Interpretatione of Aristotle, along

with the Categories the only por:
tion of his logic studied prior to

the 12th century, 29
Determine, to, meaning of the term

explained, 354; by proxy, ib.
Dialectics, include both logic and

metaphysics in Martianus, 25
Dice, playing at, forbidden to the

fellows of Peterhouse, 233
Diet of students in mediæval times,

Dionysius, the Pseudo-,Celestial Hier.

archy of, 41; translated by John
Scotus Erigena, 42; character
and influence of the treatise, ib.;
Abelard questions the story of his
apostleship in Gaul, 58; scholastic
acceptance of, as canonical, 109;
supplanted the Bible in the Middle
Ages, ib. n. 2; Grocyn in lec.
turing on, discovers its real charac-
ter, ib.; the work described by
Milman, ib.; Erasmus's account

of Grocyn's discovery, 513, n. 1
Dispensations from oaths, clause

against, in statutes of Christ's
College, 455; and in statutes of
St. John's, 456; question raised by
dean Peacock in connexion with,

ib.; their original purport, 457
Disputations in parvisiis, 299, n. 2;

why so termed, ib.
Divorce, the royal, 612; question

with reference to, as laid before
the universities, 613; what it
really involved, 614; fallacy of the
expedient, ib.; decision of Cam-
bridge on, 620; criticisms on, 622


Doctor, origin of the degree of, 73;

its catholicity dependent on the

pleasure of the pope, 78
Doket, Andrew, first president of

Queens' College, his character,

Dominicans, the, institution of the

order of, 89; open two schools of
theology at Paris, 107; their dis-
comfiture at the condemnation of
the teaching of Aquinas, 122; their
house on the present site of Em-
manuel, 139; their rivalry with
the Franciscans described by Mat-
thew Paris, 148; establish them.
selves at Dunstable, 150; activity

of, at Paris, 262
Donatus, an authority in the Middle

Ages, 22
Dorbellus, a commentator on Petrus

Hispanus, 566, n. 3
Dress, extravagance of students in,

232; clerical, required to be worn
by the scholars of Peterhouse, 233;
a distinctive kind of, always worn
by the university student, 348;
often worn by those not entitled

to wear it, ib.
Drogo, sustains the tradition of Al-

cuin's teaching at Paris, 70; his

pupils, ib.
Dryden, John, resemblance in his

Religio Laici to Thomas Aquinas,
112, n. 2; his scholastic learning
underrated by Macaulay, ib.
Duns Scotus, his commentary on the

Sentences, 62; a teacher at Mer-
ton College, 169; difficulties that
preclude any account of his career,
172 ; his wondrous fecundity, 173,
n. 2; task imposed upon him by
the appearance of the Byzantine
logic, 178; Byzantine element in
the logic of, 180; exaggerated im-
portance ascribed to logic by, 183;
limited the application of logic to
theology, 184; compared with Ro.
ger Bacon, 185; long duration of
bis influence, 186; great edition of
his works, ib.; fate of his writings
at Oxford, 629; study of them

forbidden at Cambridge, 630
Dunstan, St., reviver of the Benedic.

tine order in England, 81
Durandus, his commentary on the

Sentences, 62
Durham College, Oxford, founded by

monks of Durham, 203
Durham, William of, his foundation

of University College, 160, n. 1

Eadgar, king, numerous monasteries

founded in England during the
reign of, 81; unfavorable to the

secular clergy, 161
Eadward the Confessor, prosperity

of the Benedictines under, 82
Edward 11, letter of, to pope John

XXII, respecting Paris and Oxford,
213, n. 1; maintained 32 king's
scholars at the university, 252;
properly to be regarded as the

founder of King's Hall, 253, n. 1
Edward in, commands the Oxford

students at Stamford to return to
the university, 135, n. 1; repre.
sented by Gray as the founder of
King's Hall, 253; builds a mansion
for the scholars of King's Hall,
ib.; confiscates the estates of the

alien priories, 304
Eginhard, letter to, from bishop

Lupus, 20
Egypt, called by Martianus, Asice

caput, 26
Elenchi Sophistici of Aristotle never

quoted prior to the 12th century,

Ely, origin of the name, 336 and

n. 3
Ely, archdeacons of, claims of juris.

diction in Cambridge asserted by,
225; nominated the master of glo.
mery, ib.
Ely, bishop of, exemption from his

jurisdiction first obtained by the
university, 146; this exemption
disputed by some bishops, ib. ; his
jurisdiction in the university alter-
nately asserted and unclaimed,
287; maintained by Arundel, ib.;
abolished by the Barnwell Process,
288; blow given to the authority
of, by the Barnwell Process, 290,

n. 2
Ely, scholars of, the fellows of Peter.

house originally so termed, 231
Empeon, minister of Henry vii, bigh-

steward of the university in 1506,

Emser, testimony of, to fame of

Richard Croke at Dresden, 528
End of the world, anticipations of,

45; influence of this idea upon the

age, 46

England, state of learning in, in 15th

century, 297, 298

English nation' in the university of

Paris, when first called the Ger-

man 'nation,' 79, n. 1
Epistola Cantabrigiensis, the, 586;

gloomy prognostications of, ib. n. 2
Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum, ap.

pearance of, 558
Erasmus, example set by, of ridi-

culing the method of the schoolmen,
109; account given by, of the Col.
lège de Montaigu, 367; his descrip.
tion of the Scotists at Paris, 421;
his testimony to Fisher's views
with respect to the pulpit oratory
of the time, 440; perhaps visited
Cambridge in the train of Hen, vii
in 1506,452 and n.1; admitted B.D.
and D.D. in 1505, 453 and n. 1;
his intimacy with Fisher at this
time, ib.; epitaph on Margaret of
Richmond by, 463, n. 1; refuses
to undertake the instruction of
Stanley, afterwards bp. of Ely, 467;
letter from bp. Fisher to, 470, n.
2; second visit of, to Cambridge,
472; his object on this occasion,
473; circumstances that led to his
choice of Cambridge, ib.; reasons
why he gave it the preference to
Oxford, 477; his testimony to the
scholarship of Oxford, 480; his obli.
gations to Linacre, ib.; extent of
his debt to Oxford, 481; his prefer-
ence of Jerome to Augustine, 483
and 501; character of, 487; his
weak points as noted by Luther and
Tyndale, 488 and n. 3; contradic-
tory character of his criticisms on
places and men, 489; his personal
appearance, the portrait of, ib.,
490; criticism of Lavater on first
lecture of, at Cambridge, 491; Cam.
bridge letters of, 492; their uncer.
tain chronology, ib.; his account of
his first experiences of Cambridge,
493; he is appointed lady Mar-
garet professor, ib.; failure of bis
expectations as a teacher of Greek,
ib.; letters of, to Ammonius and
Colet, ib.; his labours at Cam-
bridge, 494; forewarned by Colet
he avoided collision with the con.
servative party, 495; protected by
Fisher, 496; his admiration for
Fisher's character, ib.; influence
he exerted over Fisher, 497; his
influence over other members of
the university, 498; bis Cambridge
friends, ib.; his views contrasted
with those prevalent in the uni-

versity, 501; his estimate of the
fathers, ib.; and of the mediæval
theologians, 502; his Cambridge
experiences of a trying character,
503; his description of the towns-
men, 504, n. 1; his want of eco-
nomy, 504; his last Cambridge
letter, 505; his deliberate testi.
mony favorable to Cambridge, 507;
his Novum Instrumentum, 508; this
strictly Cambridge work, 509; its
defects and merits, 510; his reply
to a letter from Bullock, 513; his
third visit to England, 518; en-
deavours to persuade Wm. Latimer
to teach bp. Fisher Greek, 519;
leaves England for Louvain, 520;
his Novum Test., 523; befriends
Croke, 527; congratulates Croke
on his appointment as Greek reader
at Cambridge, 535, n. 2; his influ-
ence in promoting the Reformation
in England, 556; his assertion re-
specting the progress of the new
learning, 558; letter of, to Vives, re.
specting publication of his works,
585; letter to, from Fisher, respect.
ing the De Ratione Concionandi,
ib.; thinks the end of the world
is at hand, 586; advocates a trans-
lation of the Scriptures into the
vernacular, 587; writes De Libero
Arbitrio against Luther, 588; de-
nies all sympathy with Luther, ib.;

death of, 631
Erfurt, university of, styled novorum

omnium portus, 417
Eric of Auxerre, sustains the tradition

of Alcuin's teaching, 69
Erigena, John Scotus, an exception

to the philosophical character of
his age, 40; his De Divisione Na.
turæ, 41; his affinities to Platon.
ism, ib. ; his philosophy derived
from Augustine, ib.; translates the

Pseudo-Dionysius, 42
Eton College, foundation of, by Henry

VI, 305

Euclid, translation of four books of,

by Boethius, 28; definition in, re.
stored by collation of a Greek

MS., 533
Eugenius mi, pope, raises Gratian

to the bishopric of Chiusi, 36; lec.
tures on the canon law instituted

by, 72
Eugenius iv, pope, confirms the

Barnwell Process, 290
Eusebius, story from the Preparatio

Evangelica of, 485

Eustachius, fifth bp. of Ely, his

benefactions to the Hospital of St.

John the Evangelist, 223
Eutychius, the martyr, appearance

of, to the bishop of Terentina, 7
Exhibition, earliest university, found-

ed by Wm. of Kilkenny, 223
Expenses of students when keeping

acts,' limited by the authorities,


'Father,' the, in academic cere-

monies, 356
Fathers, the, very imperfectly repre.

sented in the mediæval Cambridge

libraries, 326
Fawne, Dr., lady Margaret professor,

a friend of Erasmus at Cambridge,

Fees paid by students to the lecturers

appointed by the university, 359
Fellows of colleges, allowances made

to, for commons, 370; required to
be in residence, 372; required to
go out in pairs, 374 and n. 4;
Cranmer's election as a, when a
widower, 612, n. 3 (for standard of
requirements at election of, see

moted to the bishopric of Roches.
ter, 442; his influence with the
lady Margaret on behalf of Cam.
bridge, ib.; resigns his mastership
at Michaelhouse, 446; elected presi.
dent of Queens', ib.; delivers the
address of the university on the
royal visit in 1506, 449; obtains
the consent of king Henry to the
endowment of St. John's College,
462; preaches funeral sermon for
the countess of Richmond, 463; the
task of carrying out her designs at
Cambridge devolves upon, 465;
presides at the opening of St. John's
College, 470; gives statutes to the
college identical with those of
Christ's, ib.; letter from, to Eras-
mus, ib. n. 2; character of statutes
given by, to the two colleges, 471;
obtains for Erasmus the privilege
of residence at Queens' Coll., 472 ;
Erasmus's admiration of his cha.
racter, 496 ; allows Erasmus a
pension, 504; supports Erasmus
in his design of the Novum Instru-
mentum, 511; his approval referred
to by Erasmus, 515; aspires to a
knowledge of Greek, 519; Croke
announces himself a delegate of,
at Cambridge, 530; resigns the
chancellorship of the university,
541; is re-elected for life, 542; ab.
sent from the university on the
occasion of Wolsey's visit, 543 ;
why so, ib.; his relations to the
cardinal, ib.; he attacks the pride
and luxury of the superior clergy
at the conference, 544; his cha-
racter contrasted with that of
Wolsey, ib.; affixes a copy of Leo's
indulgences to the gates of the
common schools, 556; excommuni.
cates Peter de Valence, 557; pre-
sides at the burning of Luther's
works at Paul's Cross, 571 ; his
observation on the occasion, ib. ;
his treatise against Luther, 572;
inclined to leniency to Barnes at
his trial, 579; writes to Erasmus
urging the publication of his De
Ratione Concionandi, 585; in-
gratitude of Croke to, 615; later
statutes of, for St. John's College,

623; death of, 628
Fishing, a favorite amusement with

students in former days, 373; com.
plaints of the corporation with
respect to, 374
Fleming, William, a translator of

under different colleges)
Fen country, the, 329; extent of in.

undations of former times, 331;
changes in, resulting from monas-
tio occupation, 335; description of,

in the Liber Eliensis, 336
Ferrara, university of, founded in

the 13th century, 80
Fiddes, Dr., criticism of, on letter

of the university to Wolsey, 549
Fires at the universities, losses oc-

casioned by, 136
Fires, absence of arrangements for,

in college rooms, 369
Fisher, John, bp. of Rochester, his

parentage and early education,
422; entered at Michaelhouse, ib.;
elected fellow, ib.; elected master,
424; his views and character at
this period, ib.; his account of the
tone of the university at beginning
of 15th century, 427; goes as
proctor to the royal court, 434; is
introduced to the king's mother,
ib.; appointed her confessor, 435;
is elected vice-chancellor, ib. ; and
lady Margaret professor, 437; aims

à revival of popular preaching,
440; his claims to rank as a reform-
er, 441; elected chancellor, ib.; pro-

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