Page images

Being, 49, n. 2; on the evangelism

of the Mendicant orders, 90
Moerbecke, William of, his transla-

tion of Aristotle, 126; his transla.
tion of Aristotle attacked by Roger

Bacon, 155
Monasteries, origin of their founda-

tion in the west, 2; monastery of
Monte Cassino, 3, 5; of Malmes-
bury, 8; destruction of those of
the Benedictines by the Danes, 81;
superseded as centres of instruc-
tion by the universities, 207; the
patrons of learning begin to despair

of the, 301
Monasticism, its origin in the west,

2; feelings in which it took its
rise, 5; its heroic phase, 9; asceti-

cism the professed theory of, 337
Monks, contrasted with the secular

clergy, 86, n. 1; the garb of, dis-

continued, 87, n. 3
Monnier, counterstatement of, with

respect to the episcopal and monas-

tic schools, 69
Montacute, Simon, bp. of Ely, me.

diates between the Hospital of St.
John and Peterhouse, 229; resigns
to Peterhouse his right of present-
ing to fellowships, 230; gives the

college its earliest statutes, ib.
Montaigne, Collége de, student fare
Montpellier, civil law taught at, be-

fore foundation of university, 38,
n. 1; university of, formed on the
model of Bologna, 74; founded in

the 13th century, 80
More, sir Tho., quoted in illustra-

tion of standard of living at the
universities, 371; endeavours to
persuade Wm. Latimer to teach
bp. Fisher Greek, 519; his interest
in the progress of learning at Ox-
ford, 524; his letter to the autho.
rities of Oxford on the conduct of
the . Trojans,' 525; Utopia of, 558;
appointed high steward, 584; Tyn-
dale's 'Answer' to, quoted, 590;
saying of, respecting Tyndale's
New Testament, 600, n. 3 ; refer-

ence of, to Bilney's trial, 608, n. 3
Music, treatment of the science by

Martianus, 26; treatment of the
science of, by Boethius, 28

Barnes in his capacity of vice-

chancellor, ib.
• Nation,' German, at Paris, when

first so called, 196, n. 2
• Nations’ in the university of Paris, 78
Navarre, college of, in Paris, 127;

its large endowments, ib.; Jeanne
of, foundress of the college known
by her name, ib. ; the chief college
at Paris in the 14th and 15th cen.
turies, 128; injurious influences of

court patronage at, ib. n. 2
Neander, his criticism of the De

Causis, 114, n. 1
Nelson, late bp. of, his criticism on

Walter de Merton's design in found.

ing Merton College, 168
New College, Oxford, presence of

Wyclif's doctrines at, 271, n. 2;
an illustration of the feelings of
the patrons of learning with re.
spect to the monasteries, 302; en-
dowed with lands purchased of
religious houses, ib.; statutes of,
ib.; these statutes & model for

subsequent foundations, 303
Nicholas 1, pope, accepts the forged

Decretals, 34
Nicholas de Lyra, his writings fre-

at, 130


quently to be met with in the
Cambridge libraries of the 15th
century, 326; his long popularity
with theologians, ib.; not much
valued by Erasmus, 502; the divi.
nity lecturer at C. C. C., Oxford, en-

joined by bp. Fox to put aside, 523
Nicholson, Sygar, stationer to the

university, 626; character and ca-

reer of, .
Nicomachus, Arithmetic of Boethius

taken from, 28
Nix, bp. of Norwich, fell. of Trinity

, declaration of, respecting Gon.
ville Hall, 564; founder of three

fellowships at Trin. Hall, ib. n. 2
Nominalism, the prevalent philoso-

phy of the ninth century, 55, n. 1;
new importance acquired by, from
its application to theology, ib.; its
tendency opposed to the doctrine
of the Trinity, 56; triumph of, in
the schools, 188; would not have
appeared with Occam but for the
Byzantine logic, ib.; doctrines of,
forbidden at Paris by Louis xi, 196
and n. 2; its adherents oppose the
corruptions of the Church, ib. ; its
triumph according to Mansel in.
volved the abandonment of the
scholastic method, 197

Natares, master of Clare, an enemy

to the Reformers, 577; summons

Non-regents, gradually admitted to

share in university legislation, 142;

the term explained, 361
Norfolk, county of, many of the Cam.

bridge Reformers natives of, 563
Normans, intluence of the, in Eng-

land prior to the Conquest, 67
Northampton, migrations to, from

Oxford and Cambridge, 135
Norwold, Hugh, bp.of Ely, his services

to the Hospital of St. John the

Evangelist, 223
Notation, Arabic system of, intro.

duced by Gerbert, 43
Nova Ars, the, its introduction greatly

increased the attention given to

logic, 343
Novum Instrumentum of Erasmus,

508; why so called, ib. n. 2; de-
fects and errors in, 510; its great
merit, 511; its patrons, ib.; dedi.
cated to Leo x, 512 ; sarcastic allu-
sions in, ib. ; name changed to
Novum Testamentum, 523

Oath, administered to regents of Ox-

ford, and Cambridge, not to teach
in any other English university,
135, n. 1; of submission, taken by
chancellors of the university, to
the bishops of Ely, 287, n. 2; im-
posed on masters and fellows of
colleges, 454, 455
Obbarius, his opinion of the religion

of Boethius quoted, 28, n. 2
Ovlati, the term explained, 19, note 2
Occam, William of, his De Potestate

opposed to the papal claims found.
ed on the canon law, 36, 187;
'the demagogue of scholasticism,
ib.; extends the scholastic en-
quiries to the province of nomi-
nalism, ib.; his chief service to
philosophy, 189; disclaims the ap-
plication of logic to theological
difficulties, 191; falls under the
papal censure, 195; his escape
from Avignon, ib.; styled by pope
John xxii the Doctor Invincibilis,
196; compared with Bradwardine,
205, n. 1; his attack on the politi-
cal power of the pope struck at the
study of the canon law, 259; his

De Potestate, 260
Odo, bishop of Bayeux, regarded none

but Benedictines as true monks,

Odo, abbat of Clugni, hostile to

pagan learning, 18; pupil of Remy
of Auxerre, 69; sustains the tra-
dition of Alcuin's teaching, ib.;
acquires a reputation as having

read through Priscian, 104, n. 1
Olleris, M., his edition of the works

of Gerbert, 42; his view respecting
intercourse of Gerbert with the

Saracens, 43, n. 2
Ordinarie, fellows of Gonville Hall

required to lecture, for one year,
247; lecturing, meaning of the
phrase, Append. (E)
'Ordinary' lectures, meaning of the

phrase, 358 and Append. (E)
Oresme, Nicolas, master of the col.

lege of Navarre, 128; his remark-

able attainments, ib. n. 1
Origen, highly esteemed by Erasmus,

501 ; studied by some of the Cam.

bridge Reformers, 598, n. 4
Orleans, migration to, from Paris in

1228, 107
Orosius, a text-book during the

Middle Ages, 21; his "Histories'
characterised by Ozanam, 22; pre-
pared at the request of Augustine,

ib.; description of the work, 23
Ottringham, master of Michaelhouse,

borrows a treatise by Petrarch, 433
Ouse, the river, its ancient and pre-

sent points of junction with the
Cam, 329, 330 ; its course as de-

scribed by Spenser, 330
Oxford, controversies in the schools

of, described by John of Salisbury,
56; university of, probable origin
of, 80; town of, burnt to the
ground in 1009, 82; early statutes
of, probably borrowed from those
of Paris, 83; teachers from Paris
at, ib.; students from Paris at, 107;
intercourse of, with university of
Paris, 134; monastic foundations
at, in the time of Walter de Mer-
ton, 165; intellectual activity of,
at the commencement of the 14th
century, 171; in the 14th century
compared with Paris, 196; takes
the lead in thought, in the 14th
century, 213; her claim to have
given the earliest teachers to Paris,
ib. n. 1; resistance offered by, to
archbp. Arundel, 259, n. 2; a
stronghold of Wyclifism, 271 ;
schools of, deserted in the year
1438, 297 and n. 2; want of schools
for exercises at, 299; divinity
schools at, first opened, 300; friends
of Erasmus at, 476; Erasmus's
account of, 490; state of feeling
at, with reference to the new learn-
ing, 523; changes at, 524; Greek
at, ib.; unfavorably contrasted by
More with Cambridge, 526; chair
of Greek founded at, ib.; outstrip-
ped, according to Croke, by Cam-
bridge, 534; eminent men of
learning who favored, ib.; styled
by Croke, colonia a Cantabrigia
deducta, 539; resigns its statutes
into Wolsey's hands, 549; contri-
butions of colleges of, to the royal
loan, 551, n. 1; Luther's writings
burnt at, 571; spread of the re-
formed doctrines at, by means of
the Cambridge colony, 604; un-
favorably compared with Cam.
bridge by Mr. Froude in connexion
with the question of the royal
divorce, 616; Cromwell's commis-

sioners at, 629
"Oxford fare,' not luxurious, 371

Pace, Rich., pleads the cause of the

Grecians at Oxford with Henry
VIII, 526; one of Wolsey's victims,
548; his character as described by

Erasmus, ib. n. 3
Pacomius, the monachism of, con-

trasted with that of the Benedic.

tines, 86
Padua, university of, its foundation

the result of a migration from

Bologna, 80
Paget, Wm., a convert of Bilney,

563; lectured on Melanchthon's

Rhetoric at Trinity Hall, ib.
Pain Peverell, changes the canons of

St. Giles to Augustinian canons,
163, n. 1; removes them to Barn-

well, ib.
Pandects, see Civil law
Pantalion, Anchier, his student life

at Paris, 130
Paris, Matthew, his account of the

riot in Paris in 1228, 107; his
description of the conduct of the
Mendicants, 147; manuscript of
his llistoria Major used, ib. n.
1; his testimony to the character
of Grosseteste, 153; his comment
on the nomination of Adam de
Marisco to the see of Ely, 224;
his account of a wonderful trans-

formation in the fen country, 334
Paris, university of, requirements of,

with respect to civil and canon

law, 38, n. 1; in the 12th century,
58; the model for Oxford and
Cambridge, 67; supplies important
presumptive evidence with respect
to their early organisation, 68;
chief school of arts and theology
in the 12th century, 71 ; first
known application of the term
university'to, ib.; compared with
that of Bologna, 75; theological
character of its early teaching, ib.;
its early discipline, 76 ; students
not permitted to vote at, ib. n. 2;
commencement of its first cele-
brity, 77; 'nations' in, 78; its
hostility to the papal power, 79;
its secular associations explained
by M. V. Le Clerc, ib.; conflict of,
with the citizens, in 1228, 106;
colleges of, ib.; sixteen founded
in the 13th century, ib. n. 4; sup-
pression of the small colleges at,
129; medieval education would -
have been regarded as defective
unless completed at, ib.; number,
of students at, towards the close
of the 16th century, 130; its in-
fluence in the thirteenth century,
132; students from, at Oxford and
Cambridge, 133; whether a lay or
clerical body always a disputed
question, 166, n.1-; nominalistic doc-
trines forbidden at, 196; transfer-
ence of leadership of thought from,
to Oxford, 213; indebted for its
first professors to the Oxford Fran.
ciscans, ib. n. 1; regains its influ."
ence in the 15th century, 276; cessa-
tion of its intercourse with Oxford
and Cambridge, 280; ceases to be
the supreme oracle of Europe, ib.;
causes of decline of, ib.; efforts
made by the popes to diminish her
prestige, 282; subsequent relations
of, to the English universities, 342;
assistance to be derived from its
statutes in studying the antiquities
of Oxford and Cambridge, 343; ma-
thematical studies at, in 15th cen-
tury, 352; reputation of, at com-
mencement of 16th cent., 474 ;
ceases to be European in its ele-

ments, ib. n. 2
Parker, Matthew, fell. of Corpus,

attended meetings at the White

Horse, 573
Parker, Rich., error in his History of

Cambridge with respect to the date
of the burning of Luther's books,
571, n. 5

Parva Logicalia, studied at Leipsic
and Prague, 282, n. 2; a part of the
Summul of Petrus Hispanus, 350;
why so called, ib. n. 4; not studied
in More's Utopia, 351, n. 1
Paschasius, Radbertus, his lament

over the prospects of learning after
the time of Charlemagne, 19; sig-
nificance of the doctrine respect-
ing the real presence maintained by,


Peacock, dean, his observations on
discrepancies in the different Sta-
tuta Antiqua, 110, n. 1; question
raised by, with reference to dis-
pensation oaths, 456; inaccuracy
in his statement with respect to
Christ's College, ib. n. 3
Pecock, Reginald, an eclectic, 290;
mistaken by Foxe for a Lollard,
ib.; really an Ultramontanist, ib.;
his belief in logic, 291; asserts the
rights of reason against dogma,
ib.; repudiated the absolute autho-
rity of both the fathers and the
schoolmen, 292; advocated sub-
mission to the temporal authority of
the pope, ib.; denied the right of
individuals to interpret Scripture,
293; disliked much preaching, 294;
his eccentric defence of the bishops,
ib.; offended both parties, 295; at-
tacks the doctrines of the Church,
ib.; his enemies at Cambridge, ib.;
his character by prof. Babington,
ib. n. 2; possibly a political suf-
ferer, 296; his doctrines forbidden
at the university, ib. and n. 4
Pembroke College, foundation of,
236; earliest statutes of, no longer
extant, 237; outline of the revised
statutes of, ib. n. 2; leading fea-
tures of these statutes, 238; scho-
lars, in the modern sense, first
so named at, ib.; grammar first in-
cluded in the college course at, ib.;
limitations of fellowships to differ-
ent counties at, ib.; preference to
be given to natives of France at, 239;
its reputation in the 15th century,
314; early catalogue of the library
of, 324; Fox, bp. of Winchester,
master of, 465
Pensioners, first admitted by statute,

at Christ's College, 459; evils re-
sulting from indiscriminate admis-
sion of, 624

Percival, Mr. E. F., his edition of
the foundation statutes of Merton
College, 159, n. 4; his assertion

respecting Roger Bacon, ib.; quoted,
on Walter de Merton's design in
the foundation of Merton College,
164, n. 1

Persius, lectures on, by Gerbert at
Rheims, 44; nine copies of, in
library of Christchurch, Canter-
bury, 104

Peter of Blois, account attributed to
him of the university of Cam-
bridge, spurious, 66
Peterhouse, foundation of, 228; be-
comes possessed of the site of the
friary De Pænitentia Jesu, 229;
final arrangement between, and the
brethren of St.John the Evangelist,
ib.; prosperity of the society, ib.;
patronised by Fordham, bp. of Ely,
ib.; early statutes of, given by Simon
Montacute, 230; early statutes of,
copied from those of Merton Col-
lege, Oxford, ib.; character of
the foundation, 231; sizars at, ib.;
all meals at, to be taken in com-
mon, 232; the clerical dress and
tonsure incumbent on the scholars
of, ib.; non-monastic character of,
233; fellowships at, to be vacated
by those succeeding to benefices of
a certain value, 234; its code com-
pared by dean Peacock with those
of later foundations, ib. n. 1;
allowance for fellows' commons
at, in 1510, 254, n. 2; cardinal
Beaufort a pensioner at, 310; cata-
logue of the library of, ann. 1418,
324; illustration afforded by the
original catalogue of the library of,
370, n. 1; evils resulting from ex-
travagant living at, 460; Hornby
master of, 465

Petition of Parliament against ap-
pointment of ecclesiastics to offices
of state, 267

Petrarch, notice of the infidelity of
his day by, 124 and n. 2; com-
pares the residence at Avignon to
the Babylonish captivity, 195; his
interview with Richard of Bury at
Avignon, 201; his reproach of the
university of Paris, as chiefly en-
nobled by Italian genius, 214; scene
in the early youth of, 379; his esti-
mate of the learning of the uni-
versities in his day, 382; his in-
fluence, ib.; change in the modern
estimate of his genius explained,
383; his Latin style, ib.; his ser-
vices to the study of Cicero, 384,
385, n. 1; his knowledge of Greek,

385; his instinctive appreciation
of Plato, 386; he initiates the
struggle against Aristotle, ib.; his
position compared with that of
Aquinas, ib.; rejected the ethical
system of Aristotle, 387; succes.
sors of, ib.; his prophecy of the fate
that awaited the schoolmen, 432;
copy of his Letters in the original
catalogue of the library of Peter-

house, 433
Petrus Hispanus, 176; not the ear-

liest translator of Psellus, ib.; nu-
merous editions of his Summulce,
178; theory enunciated by the trea-
tise, 180; its extensive use in the

Middle Ages, 350
Philelphus, his statement respecting

Greek learning at Constantinople
in the fifteenth century, 175, n. 1;
account given by, of Constantinople
in the year 1441, 390
Philip Augustus, decline of the epis-

copal and monastic schools com-
mences with his reign, 68
Philip the Fair, of France, his strug-

gle with Boniface viii, 194
Picot, sheriff, though a Norman,

founds secular canons at St. Giles,

163, n. 1
Pike, regarded as a delicacy in for-

mer days, 374, n. 2
Pisa, council of, representatives

from both the universities present
at, 276
Pisa, university of, founded in the

13th century, 80
Plague, the Great, 241; its effects on

the universities, ib.
Plague, the, often followed upon the

visit's of illustrious personages,

542, n. 2
Plato, Timous of, translated into

Latin by Chalcidius, 41; his theory
of Universals described by Por-
phyry as translated by Boethius,
52; Timæus of, probably meant in
catalogues of libraries at Bec and
at Christchurch, Canterbury, 104;
Dialogues of, brought by Wm. Gray
to England, 397
Pledges allowed to be given by stu-

dents, 144, n. 1
Plessis-Sorbonne, Collége de, founda-'

tion of, 129
Poggio Bracciolini, visits England in

the 15th century, 297; nature of
his impressions, 298; his descrip-
tion of the spirit in which the civil
law was studied in Italy, 319, n. 2;

his quarrel with the Fratres Ob.
serrantie, 337; exposes the ficti-
tious character of the Decretals,

Politian, professor of both Greek and

Latin at Florence, 429; his Miscel-
lanea, ib.; the classical lecturer at
C. C. C., Oxford, ordered to lecture

on the work, 521, n. 2
Polydore Vergil, not the sole author

of the statement that ascribed the
death of Stafford to Wolsey's re-

sentment, 518, n. 2
Pope, the, reason why his sanction

was originally sought at the found-
ation of a university, 78; at
Avignon, opposed by the English
Franciscans, 193; oaths imposeil
in early college statutes against
dispensations from the, with re-

spect to fellowship oath, 458
Porphyry, Isagoge of, lectures on, by

Gerbert at Rheims, 44; scholastic
philosophy owes its origin to a
sentence in, 50; the passage quo-
ted, ib.; the passage known to the
Middle Ages in two translations,
51; influence it was calculated to

exercise on philosophy, 53
Prævaricator, the, in academic exer-

cises, 356
Pragmatic Sanction, the, secures to

France independence of Rome,

Prague, university of, formed on the

model of Paris, 74 ; division into
nations at, 79, n. 2; founded in
connexion with the university of
Oxford, 215; its prescribed course
of study adopted by the university
of Leipsic, 282, n. 2; losses sus-
tained by Paris in consequence of
the creation of, 331; less distracted
by the nominalistic controversies,

Prantl, Carl, on the results of en-

couragement given by the emperor
Frederic to the new Aristotle, 98,
n. 1; his condemnation of the
scholastic Aristotle, 124; the au-
thor's obligations to his Geschichte
der Logik, 175; his observations
on the extensive influence of the
Byzantine logic, 179; his estimate

of Occam's philosophy quoted, 189
Preaching, neglect of, in the 15th

century, 437
Prichard, Jas. C., on distinction be-

tween use of the false Decretals by
Hincmar and Nicholas, 34, n. 1

« PreviousContinue »