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Being, 49, n. 2; on the evangelism
of the Mendicant orders, 90
Moerbecke, William of, his transla-
tion of Aristotle, 126; his transla-
tion of Aristotle attacked by Roger
Bacon, 155

Monasteries, origin of their founda-
tion in the west, 2; monastery of
Monte Cassino, 3, 5; of Malmes-
bury, 8; destruction of those of
the Benedictines by the Danes, 81;
superseded as centres of instruc-
tion by the universities, 207; the
patrons of learning begin to despair
of the, 301

Monasticism, its origin in the west,
2; feelings in which it took its
rise, 5; its heroic phase, 9; asceti-
cism the professed theory of, 337
Monks, contrasted with the secular

clergy, 86, n. 1; the garb of, dis-
continued, 87, n. 3
Monnier, counterstatement of, with
respect to the episcopal and monas-
tic schools, 69
Montacute, Simon, bp. of Ely, me-
diates between the Hospital of St.
John and Peterhouse, 229; resigns
to Peterhouse his right of present-
ing to fellowships, 230; gives the
college its earliest statutes, ib.
Montaigne, Collége de, student fare
at, 130

Montpellier, civil law taught at, be-
fore foundation of university, 38,
n. 1; university of, formed on the
model of Bologna, 74; founded in
the 13th century, 80
More, sir Tho., quoted in illustra-
tion of standard of living at the
universities, 371; endeavours to
persuade Wm. Latimer to teach
bp. Fisher Greek, 519; his interest
in the progress of learning at Ox-
ford, 524; his letter to the autho-
rities of Oxford on the conduct of
the Trojans,' 525; Utopia of, 558;
appointed high steward, 584; Tyn-
dale's 'Answer' to, quoted, 590;
saying of, respecting Tyndale's
New Testament, 600, n. 3; refer-
ence of, to Bilney's trial, 608, n. 3
Music, treatment of the science by
Martianus, 26; treatment of the
science of, by Boethius, 28

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Barnes in his capacity of vice-
chancellor, ib.


Natares, master of Clare, an enemy
to the Reformers, 577; summons

'Nation,' German, at Paris, when
first so called, 196, n. 2
'Nations' in the university of Paris, 78
Navarre, college of, in Paris, 127;
its large endowments, ib.; Jeanne
of, foundress of the college known
by her name, ib. ; the chief college
at Paris in the 14th and 15th cen-
turies, 128; injurious influences of
court patronage at, ib. n. 2
Neander, his criticism of the De
Causis, 114, n. 1

Nelson, late bp. of, his criticism on

Walter de Merton's design in found-
ing Merton College, 168
New College, Oxford, presence of
Wyclif's doctrines at, 271, n. 2;
an illustration of the feelings of
the patrons of learning with re-
-spect to the monasteries, 302; en-
dowed with lands purchased of
religious houses, ib.; statutes of,
ib.; these statutes a model for
subsequent foundations, 303
Nicholas 1, pope, accepts the forged

Decretals, 34

Nicholas de Lyra, his writings fre-
quently to be met with in the
Cambridge libraries of the 15th
century, 326; his long popularity
with theologians, ib.; not much
valued by Erasmus, 502; the divi-
nity lecturer at C. C. C., Oxford, en-
joined by bp. Fox to put aside, 523
Nicholson, Sygar, stationer to the

university, 626; character and ca-
reer of, ib.
Nicomachus, Arithmetic of Boethius
taken from, 28

Nix, bp. of Norwich, fell. of Trinity
Hall, declaration of, respecting Gon-
ville Hall, 564; founder of three
fellowships at Trin. Hall, ib. n. 2
Nominalism, the prevalent philoso-
phy of the ninth century, 55, n. 1;
new importance acquired by, from
its application to theology, ib.; its
tendency opposed to the doctrine
of the Trinity, 56; triumph of, in
the schools, 188; would not have
appeared with Occam but for the
Byzantine logic, ib.; doctrines of,
forbidden at Paris by Louis x1, 196
and n. 2; its adherents oppose the
corruptions of the Church, ib.; its
triumph according to Mansel in-
volved the abandonment of the
scholastic method, 197

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Oath, administered to regents of Ox-
ford, and Cambridge, not to teach
in any other English university,
135, n. 1; of submission, taken by
chancellors of the university, to
the bishops of Ely, 287, n. 2; im-
posed on masters and fellows of
colleges, 454, 455
Obbarius, his opinion of the religion

of Boethius quoted, 28, n. 2
Oblati, the term explained, 19, note 2
Occam, William of, his De Potestate
opposed to the papal claims found-
ed on the canon law, 36, 187;
'the demagogue of scholasticism,'
ib.; extends the scholastic en-
quiries to the province of nomi-
nalism, ib.; his chief service to
philosophy, 189; disclaims the ap-
plication of logic to theological
difficulties, 191; falls under the
papal censure, 195; his escape
from Avignon, ib.; styled by pope
John XXII the Doctor Invincibilis,
196; compared with Bradwardine,
205, n. 1; his attack on the politi-
cal power of the pope struck at the
study of the canon law, 259; his
De Potestate, 260

Odo, bishop of Bayeux, regarded none
but Benedictines as true monks,


Odo, abbat of Clugni, hostile to

pagan learning, 18; pupil of Remy
of Auxerre, 69; sustains the tra-
dition of Alcuin's teaching, íb.;
acquires a reputation as having
read through Priscian, 104, n. 1
Olleris, M., his edition of the works
of Gerbert, 42; his view respecting
intercourse of Gerbert with the
Saracens, 43, n. 2
Ordinarie, fellows of Gonville Hall
required to lecture, for one year,
247; lecturing, meaning of the
phrase, Append. (E)
'Ordinary' lectures, meaning of the

phrase, 358 and Append. (E)
Oresme, Nicolas, master of the col-

lege of Navarre, 128; his remark-
able attainments, ib. n. 1
Origen, highly esteemed by Erasmus,

501; studied by some of the Cam-
bridge Reformers, 598, n. 4
Orleans, migration to, from Paris in

1228, 107

Orosius, a text-book during the
Middle Ages, 21; his 'Histories'
characterised by Ozanam, 22; pre-
pared at the request of Augustine,
ib.; description of the work, 23
Ottringham, master of Michaelhouse,

borrows a treatise by Petrarch, 433
Ouse, the river, its ancient and pre-
sent points of junction with the
Cam, 329, 330; its course as de-
scribed by Spenser, 330
Oxford, controversies in the schools
of, described by John of Salisbury,
56; university of, probable origin
of, 80; town of, burnt to the
ground in 1009, 82; early statutes
of, probably borrowed from those
of Paris, 83; teachers from Paris
at, ib.; students from Paris at, 107;
intercourse of, with university of
Paris, 134; monastic foundations
at, in the time of Walter de Mer-
ton, 165; intellectual activity of,
at the commencement of the 14th
century, 171; in the 14th century
compared with Paris, 196; takes
the lead in thought, in the 14th
century, 213; her claim to have
given the earliest teachers to Paris,
ib. n. 1; resistance offered by, to
archbp. Arundel, 259, n. 2; a
stronghold of Wyclifism, 271;
schools of, deserted in the year
1438, 297 and n. 2; want of schools
for exercises at, 299; divinity
schools at, first opened, 300; friends
of Erasmus at, 476; Erasmus's

account of, 490; state of feeling
at, with reference to the new learn-
ing, 523; changes at, 524; Greek
at, ib.; unfavorably contrasted by
More with Cambridge, 526; chair
of Greek founded at, ib.; outstrip-
ped, according to Croke, by Cam-
bridge, 534; eminent men of
learning who favored, ib.; styled
by Croke, colonia a Cantabrigia
deducta, 539; resigns its statutes
into Wolsey's hands, 549; contri-
butions of colleges of, to the royal
loan, 551, n. 1; Luther's writings
burnt at, 571; spread of the re-
formed doctrines at, by means of
the Cambridge colony, 604; un-
favorably compared with Cam-
bridge by Mr. Froude in connexion
with the question of the royal
divorce, 616; Cromwell's commis-
sioners at, 629
'Oxford fare,' not luxurious, 371


Pace, Rich., pleads the cause of the
Grecians at Oxford with Henry
VIII, 526; one of Wolsey's victims,
548; his character as described by
Erasmus, ib. n. 3
Pacomius, the monachism of, con-
trasted with that of the Benedic-
tines, 86

Padua, university of, its foundation
the result of a migration from
Bologna, 80

law, 38, n. 1; in the 12th century,
58; the model for Oxford and
Cambridge, 67; supplies important
presumptive evidence with respect
to their early organisation, 68;
chief school of arts and theology
in the 12th century, 71; first
known application of the term
'university' to, ih.; compared with
that of Bologna, 75; theological
character of its early teaching, ib.;
its early discipline, 76; students
not permitted to vote at, ib. n. 2;
commencement of its first cele-
brity, 77; nations' in, 78; its
hostility to the papal power, 79;
its secular associations explained
by M. V. Le Clerc, ib.; conflict of,
with the citizens, in 1228, 106;
colleges of, ib.; sixteen founded
in the 13th century, ib. n. 4; sup-
pression of the small colleges at,
129; mediæval education would-
have been regarded as defective
unless completed at, ib.; number_
of students at, towards the close
of the 16th century, 130; its in-
fluence in the thirteenth century,
132; students from, at Oxford and
Cambridge, 133; whether a lay or
clerical body always a disputed
question, 166, n.1-; nominalistic doc-
trines forbidden at, 196; transfer-
ence of leadership of thought from,
to Oxford, 213; indebted for its
first professors to the Oxford Fran-
ciscans, ib. n. 1; regains its influ
ence in the 15th century, 276; cessa-
tion of its intercourse with Oxford
and Cambridge, 280; ceases to be
the supreme oracle of Europe, ib.;
causes of decline of, ib.; efforts
made by the popes to diminish her
prestige, 282; subsequent relations
of, to the English universities, 342;
assistance to be derived from its
statutes in studying the antiquities
of Oxford and Cambridge,343; ma-
thematical studies at, in 15th cen-
tury, 352; reputation of, at com-
mencement of 16th cent., 474;
ceases to be European in its ele-
ments, ib. n. 2
Parker, Matthew, fell. of Corpus,
attended meetings at the White
Horse, 573

Parker, Rich., error in his History of
Cambridge with respect to the date
of the burning of Luther's books,
571, n. 5

Paget, Wm., a convert of Bilney,
563; lectured on Melanchthon's
Rhetoric at Trinity Hall, ib.
Pain Peverell, changes the canons of
St. Giles to Augustinian canons,
163, n. 1; removes them to Barn-
well, ib.

Pandects, see Civil law
Pantalion, Anchier, his student life
at Paris, 130

Paris, Matthew, his account of the
riot in Paris in 1228, 107; his
description of the conduct of the
Mendicants, 147; manuscript of
his Historia Major used, ib. n.
1; his testimony to the character
of Grosseteste, 153; his comment
on the nomination of Adam de
Marisco to the see of Ely, 224;
his account of a wonderful trans-
formation in the fen country, 334
Paris, university of, requirements of,
with respect to civil and canon

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Parva Logicalia, studied at Leipsic
and Prague, 282, n. 2; a part of the
Summul of Petrus Hispanus, 350;
why so called, ib. n. 4; not studied
in More's Utopia, 351, n. 1
Paschasius, Radbertus, his lament

over the prospects of learning after
the time of Charlemagne, 19; sig-
nificance of the doctrine respect-
ing the real presence maintained by,


Peacock, dean, his observations on
discrepancies in the different Sta-
tuta Antiqua, 110, n. 1; question
raised by, with reference to dis-
pensation oaths, 456; inaccuracy
in his statement with respect to
Christ's College, ib. n. 3
Pecock, Reginald, an eclectic, 290;
mistaken by Foxe for a Lollard,
ib.; really an Ultramontanist, ib.;
his belief in logic, 291; asserts the
rights of reason against dogma,
ib.; repudiated the absolute autho-
rity of both the fathers and the
schoolmen, 292; advocated sub-
mission to the temporal authority of
the pope, ib.; denied the right of
individuals to interpret Scripture,
293; disliked much preaching, 294;
his eccentric defence of the bishops,
ib.; offended both parties, 295; at-
tacks the doctrines of the Church,
ib.; his enemies at Cambridge, ib.;
his character by prof. Babington,
ib. n. 2; possibly a political suf-
ferer, 296; his doctrines forbidden
at the university, ib. and n. 4
Pembroke College, foundation of,
236; earliest statutes of, no longer
extant, 237; outline of the revised
statutes of, ib. n. 2; leading fea-
tures of these statutes, 238; scho-
lars, in the modern sense, first
so named at, ib.; grammar first in-
cluded in the college course at, ib.;
limitations of fellowships to differ-
ent counties at, ib.; preference to
be given to natives of France at, 239;
its reputation in the 15th century,
314; early catalogue of the library
of, 324; Fox, bp. of Winchester,
master of, 465
Pensioners, first admitted by statute,

at Christ's College, 459; evils re-
sulting from indiscriminate admis-
sion of, 624

Percival, Mr. E. F., his edition of
the foundation statutes of Merton
College, 159, n. 4; his assertion

respecting Roger Bacon, ib.; quoted,
on Walter de Merton's design in
the foundation of Merton College,
164, n. 1

Persius, lectures on, by Gerbert at
Rheims, 44; nine copies of, in
library of Christchurch, Canter-
bury, 104

Peter of Blois, account attributed to
him of the university of Cam-
bridge, spurious, 66
Peterhouse, foundation of, 228; be-
comes possessed of the site of the
friary De Pænitentia Jesu, 229;
final arrangement between, and the
brethren of St.John the Evangelist,
ib.; prosperity of the society, ib.;
patronised by Fordham, bp. of Ely,
ib.; early statutes of, given by Simon
Montacute, 230; early statutes of,
copied from those of Merton Col-
lege, Oxford, ib.; character of
the foundation, 231; sizars at, ib.;
all meals at, to be taken in com-
mon, 232; the clerical dress and
tonsure incumbent on the scholars
of, ib.; non-monastic character of,
233; fellowships at, to be vacated
by those succeeding to benefices of
a certain value, 234; its code com-
pared by dean Peacock with those
of later foundations, ib. n. 1;
allowance for fellows' commons
at, in 1510, 254, n. 2; cardinal
Beaufort a pensioner at, 310; cata-
logue of the library of, ann. 1418,
324; illustration afforded by the
original catalogue of the library of,
370, n. 1; evils resulting from ex-
travagant living at, 460; Hornby
master of, 465

Petition of Parliament against ap-
pointment of ecclesiastics to offices
of state, 267

Petrarch, notice of the infidelity of
his day by, 124 and n. 2; com-
pares the residence at Avignon to
the Babylonish captivity, 195; his
interview with Richard of Bury at
Avignon, 201; his reproach of the
university of Paris, as chiefly en-
nobled by Italian genius, 214; scene
in the early youth of, 379; his esti-
mate of the learning of the uni-
versities in his day, 382; his in-
fluence, ib.; change in the modern
estimate of his genius explained,
383; his Latin style, ib.; his ser-
vices to the study of Cicero, 384,
385, n. 1; his knowledge of Greek,

385; his instinctive appreciation
of Plato, 386; he initiates the
struggle against Aristotle, ib.; his
position compared with that of
Aquinas, ib.; rejected the ethical
system of Aristotle, 387; succes-
sors of, ib.; his prophecy of the fate
that awaited the schoolmen, 432;
copy of his Letters in the original
catalogue of the library of Peter-
house, 433

Petrus Hispanus, 176; not the ear-
liest translator of Psellus, ib.; nu-
merous editions of his Summulæ,
theory enunciated by the trea-
tise, 180; its extensive use in the
Middle Ages, 350

Philelphus, his statement respecting
Greek learning at Constantinople
in the fifteenth century, 175, n. 1;
account given by, of Constantinople
in the year 1441, 390

Philip Augustus, decline of the epis-
copal and monastic schools com-
mences with his reign, 68

Philip the Fair, of France, his strug-
gle with Boniface VIII, 194
Picot, sheriff, though a Norman,
founds secular canons at St. Giles,
163, n. 1

Pike, regarded as a delicacy in for-
mer days, 374, n. 2

Pisa, council of, representatives
from both the universities present
at, 276

Pisa, university of, founded in the
13th century, 80
Plague, the Great, 241; its effects on
the universities, ib.
Plague, the, often followed upon the
visits of illustrious personages,
542, n. 2

his quarrel with the Fratres Ob-
servantia, 337; exposes the ficti-
tious character of the Decretals,

Plato, Timæus of, translated into
Latin by Chalcidius, 41; his theory
of Universals described by Por-
phyry as translated by Boethius,
52; Timæus of, probably meant in
catalogues of libraries at Bec and
at Christchurch, Canterbury, 104;
Dialogues of, brought by Wm. Gray
to England, 397
Pledges allowed to be given by stu-
dents, 144, n. 1
Plessis-Sorbonne, Collége de, founda- '
tion of, 129

Poggio Bracciolini, visits England in
the 15th century, 297; nature of
his impressions, 298; his descrip-
tion of the spirit in which the civil
law was studied in Italy, 319, n. 2;

Politian, professor of both Greek and
Latin at Florence, 429; his Miscel-
lanea, ib.; the classical lecturer at
C. C. C., Oxford, ordered to lecture
on the work, 521, n. 2
Polydore Vergil, not the sole author
of the statement that ascribed the
death of Stafford to Wolsey's re-
sentment, 548, n. 2

Pope, the, reason why his sanction
was originally sought at the found-
ation of a university, 78; at
Avignon, opposed by the English
Franciscans, 193; oaths imposed
in early college statutes against
dispensations from the, with re-
spect to fellowship oath, 458
Porphyry, Isagoge of, lectures on, by
Gerbert at Rheims, 44; scholastic
philosophy owes its origin to a
sentence in, 50; the passage quo-
ted, ib.; the passage known to the
Middle Ages in two translations,
51; influence it was calculated to
exercise on philosophy, 53
Prævaricator, the, in academic exer-
cises, 356

Pragmatic Sanction, the, secures to
France independence of Rome,

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