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youth, and consequently are very unfit for the high situations in which they are in manhood often placed. There is some truth in this ; but when we legislate in India, let us take the good and leave the bad, when we borrow from English law : hitherto we have usually done just the contrary.
Three rules therefore are required:—
First. The quantity of land in the actual possession of each owner or cultivator having been ascertained, it should be declared that as long as he paid his rent, he should not be disturbed by anything, but a decree of a Civil court.
Second. To abolish the absurd anomaly between the law and practice, both of Hindoos and Mahometans, and to enact that every man shall be absolute bomá fide owner of the property of whatever nature which he may now possess or hereafter acquire, without reference to the means by which it was acquired—provided, of course, they were legal according to the existing law and practice—and that he may absolutely dispose of it by gift, sale, will, or any other legal mode.
Thirdly. That all real property of any person dying intestate, should pass to his eldest son or heir.
N. B. Entails should be absolutely prohibited,
I cannot see that this slight infringement of their customs implicated in the last rule, would be any hardship on the people, since every one has it in his power to avoid coming under that law. I would even go farther, and to prevent litigation, would enact that when a man divided his property to several parties, unless he had so specified and defined the share left to eath, so that there could be no mistake, the will should be null and void, and the real property should devolve to the eldest. There might also be a minor provision that on an eldest son succeeding to his father's landed property, by the latter's dying intestate, he should be required to give his brother and sisters who remained unmarried,” a small annuity in money for their lives; the amount of this to be reckoned in proportion to the rent
* This may surprize some of my readers; but in Mahometan families old maiden ladies are not uncommon; and I have known a Hindoo girl who was unmarried at twenty-six years of age, not because there was anything against her character; she was of low rank, so there could have been, one should suppose, no difficulty in procuring a husband.
of the estate. Should a house be left to two or more sharers, to prevent the evil consequences described in No. 43, it should be at once sold and the proceeds paid to the parties. I am informed by several English merchants who have lived among the people, that they have reason to believe that many of the younger sons, particularly among the Hindoos, would be pleased with such a law to prevent the ruin of the old families: and my own enquiries incline me to the same opinion.
The operation of it would be peculiarly beneficial among the Mahometan families of rank. The system of the British Government has been to exclude these from all official employment; by the division of the family property no one of the descendants has sufficient to keep up the appearance of his ancestors; and the consequences is, that having nothing to look forward to, they too often lose all self-respect, spend their lives in licentiousness and debauchery, and die in debt and in disgrace. The division of property is one great cause of this. All the sons of a nuwab, like French counts, are allowed, at least tacitly, to adopt the title, and each thinks himself too grand a personage to accept any inferior employment; but the eldest prohibited from adopting the title, their pride would be lessened, and they would be more willing to accept employments, especially since the very respectable situations of Deputy Collector, and Principal Suddur Ameen are now open to them, and might thus become respectable or valuable members of society.
But to conclude. To attempt to rescue the land tenures from the “indescribable confusion” to which they have been reduced by “settlements made in confessed ignorance,” by “revenue management conducted without judicial investigation,” and by “judicial decision without revenue knowldge.” To remedy the anomaly and absurdity which exists between the law and practice of both Hindoos and Mahometans,—and to create some private and defined property in land, are objects of paramount importance. The three suggestions contained in this paper, would, if carried into effect, do more to regenerate the Upper Provinces, and to attract skill -and capital to that part of the country, than any others that could be devised.
A FRIEND to INDIA. July 18, 1835.-Hurkaru.
“That each share of the Bank be in orcase l to 3,000 Company's rupees; the proprietors paying the difference betwren 2,500 Sa. Rs- and 3,000 Company's rupees, which will increase the capital stock by two lacks of Company's rupees.
“That the four hundred unsubscribed shares be withdrawn, and no further subscription be received. If the proprietors hereafter, from the nature of the Bank business, consider it expedient to increase its capital, let them have an increase on their own shares.”
The following amendments were then proposed by Mr. H. M. Parker:—
“That the value of Union Bank shares be fixed at Company's rupees 2,700–and that the sum requisite for making up this value be reserved out of the next dividend.”
By Mr. Fullarton:—
“That the sum of Sa. Re- 33-5-4 per share be reserved from the forthcoming dividend to be auded to the capi
TORS OF THE UNION BANK.
'al of the Bank, making the value of each share Sa Rs2,533-5-4 or Company's rupees 2,70 ; and that it be further in the option of each proprietor, by an additional subscription of Company's rupees 300 to increase the value of each share held by him, to Sa. Rs. 3,00, provided such subscription be tendered on or before the löth July, 1836.”
“I beg to propose an additional amendment, which is, that we reduce the shares to Company's rupees 2,500 each, paying the difference to such shareholders as like to receive the same, and allowing those who so prefer, to pay th; difference, and any surplus required to a fresh Sinate.
After considerable discussion of these amendments and the original propositions, it was moved by Mr. Cockerell and carried by a large majority :–
“That the proposals now laid before the meeting be circulated amongst the Proprietors, with a request that they give their vote for one or other of them at the General half yearly Meeting to be held on or about the 15th January next."
It was subsequently proposed by Mr. Dickens and carried nem con :
“That the capital of the Bank be extended by the creation of a new share to each of the present shareholders of 3120 Sa. RB- and such new shares be consolidated with the present shares, so as to make the total amount of each share, Company Rupees 3,00, and further that this proposition be circulated along with the others.”
It was then further proposed by Mr. Parker:
“That the four hundred shares which have not been taken by the public be cancelled ; and that the stock of the Union Bank shall consist of the six hundred shares already subscribed for, and that if the proprietors hereafter consider it expedient to increase the capital of the Bank, the increase be effected by further payments upon each of the said six hundred shares as above, at such rates as may be determined upon.”
These propositions were ordered by the Meeting to b circulated, with the others, to the Proprietors.
Mr. Cockenell, following up the above proposition of Mr. Parker, moved:–
“That the sale of the remaining shares be stopped until all the questions now pending, be decided.”
This motion was carried mem. con.
The thanks of the Meeting were then voted to the Chairman, and the Proprietors adjourned.—Bengal Hurkaru.
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTIC
ULTURAL SOCIETY OF INDIA.
At a General Meeting of this Society, held in the Town Hall, this-day, Wednesday, 9th December, 1835. Colonel Dunlop, V. P., in the chair. Thirteen Members present, among whom was His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief. The following gentlemen proposed last month, were elected by ballot:J. C. Wilson, Esq., D. B. Syers, Esq., and Captain W. Speirs. John Allan, Esq., and Baboo Mutty Loll Seal, were re-elected. New MEMBens Proposed. Captain A. Bogle, (Assam,) proposed by Mr. John Bell, seconded by Colonel Dunlop James Pontent, Esq., proposed by Mr. John Bell, seconded by Mr. Storm. The name of a native Member was ordered to be withdrawn for non-conformity to the rules of the Society.
The officiating Secretary had received from the press the greater number of copies of the Society's report upon experiments at Akra, which he had distributed to resident Members, and was only waiting a reply from Government, to enable him to forward others to Members in the Mofussil.
!'; proceedings of the last Meeting were read and conCol.
The following communications were read:— 1.—From His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief to
9.--Txtract of a note from I. C. Marshman, Esq., to the Officiating Secretary, dated 28th November.
“In reading the proof, I find that is very confidently stated that the expense of cleaning the cotton by the churkee far exceeds that of the expense incurred by the | use of the sawgin. When at Mirzapore I saw a very elaborate paper by Mr. Truscott, in which by the most minute calculation, it is clearly demonstrated that the churkee is the cheaper of the two. I will write to him immediately and endeavour to obtain a copy of it, and lay it before the Society. His paper is replete with the most important information and would throw a flood of light on the subject of cotton.”
10.--From W. C. Hurry, Esq., to the Officiating Secretary, asking the loan of the sawgin in the Society's room for Mr. Crane.
The Officiating Secretary, satisfied that the Society would have no objection, delivered the sawgin to Mr. Hurry's order, having previously read to Mr. Crane the extract above quoted, who has promised to lay the result of his personal observation before the Society.
ll.—From W. C. Crane, Esq., to the Officiating Secretary, dated 30th November, presenting the seed of the ground ratan, which was gathered in j, last. The Malays entertain very extravagant notions regarding the interval of its seeding, some not hesitating to declare that it only yields once in a thousand years. It is exceedingly graceful in appearance, and worthy the notice of the curious.
12.-The Officiating Secretary presented a yam of unusual dimensions, which he obtained from an Arab in
the Officiating Secretary, acknowledging election.
2.—Two letters from Ross D. Mangles, Esq., Secretary to the Government of Bengal, bearing date the 10th and 24th November, on the subject of the Society's bill for monthly allowance.
3.—From W. H. Oakes, Esq. Civil Auditor, on the saine.
4.—From C. K. Robison, Esq., dated 16th November, enclosing two letters to his address from W. Cracroft, Esq., of the Bengal Civil Service, dated Sydney, 11th August, advising the shipment of a small box of garden seeds for the Society, and directing the cost to be imputed to his arrears of subscription, and recommending J. Warren, of Market-street, East Sydney, as Seedsman.
5.—From Messrs. Willis and Earle to the Officiating Secretary, dated 17th November, intimating their ineffectual endeavours to procure for the Society a supply of cotton seed from North America direct, and returning the sum which had been placed in their hands by the Society in 1833.
6.—From Grant Thorburn, of Hallet's Cove, Long Island, New York, to the address of Dr. N. Avallich, dated lst June, 1835, acknowledging receipt of Doctor Wallich's letter of the 26th iMecember, 1834, with a bill of exchange for £60-12-9, and a box of seed from the Calcutta Botanic Garden-intimating that every care would be taken to execute the order for vegetable and cotton seed, to meet the cost of which the bill was sent, but nothing is said as to when the seeds may be expected.
7:-From Mr. J. W. Miasters, presenting in the name of Dr. Wallich the 3d Annual Report of the Royal Horticultural Society of Cornwall.
the Bazar, the produce of Malacca, also the stems and heads of large species of grain produced in his garden from New Holland seed received through C. K. Robison, Esq. in June last.
13.—From Colonel Dunlop, dated 1st December, presenting some seeds from Cashmere, received through Captain Wade, Political Agent in Loodiana. Sir H. Fane expressed a wish to send part to England, but on examination pronounced the different kinds of grain to be very inferior. The Honorable Mr. Melville proposed notwitlistanding to forward some.
14.—From John Palmer, Esq., to the Officiating Sr. cretary, dated 26th November, politely promising to procure for the Society, through the medium of an Ameri: can friend, a supply of cotton seed, and submitting som interesting remarks on experiments made in cotton from seeds sent by him to parties at Jellasore and Cuttack.
15.-From Mir. J. W. Masters, dated 30th November, with a copy of a letter from Sir Robert Colquhoun, to the address of Dr. Wallich, on the subject of the Society's petition to Parliament touching the equalization on W. and E. India sugars.
Sir Robert had been peculiarly unfortunate in his mission. Mr. W. Whitnore was out ot town, and not a member of the present Parliament: but Sir Robert i. forwarding the letters of Sir E. Ryan and Dr. Walli, a to his address had solicited from that gentleman le benefit of his influence in behalf of the petition.
Earl Fitzwilliam was also absent, but Sir Robert Colquhoun had forwarded Dr. Wallich's letter and the per
.7. –From C. K. Robison, Esq., dated 7th December, sealing a plan of his continuous still. Mr. Robison's toriuer explanatory letter on this subject was read, and the Secretary was directed to lay Mr. Robison's plan and paper on the table for the perusal of any Alember who might wish to study it.
18.-A further supply of Indian corn was presented by
the Officiating Secretary in the name of Mr J. J. Diawell for distribution. The thanks of the meeting were offered for the various contributions. John Bell, Officiating Secretary. Calcutta, Town-Hall, Wednesday, Dec. 9, 1835. [Hurkaru.
MEDICAL AND PHYSICAL SOCIETY.
Proceedings of a Meeting of the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta, held at the Asiatic Society's apartments, December 5, 1835.
Donald Stewart, Esq., M. D., Assistant-Surgeon on the Bombay Establishinent, Dr. Hughes, Surgeon on the Ala iras Establishment, Dr. Cantor, of Calcutta, and William Brydon, Esq., Assistant-Surgeon on this Establishment, proposed at last Meeting, were elected Members of the Society.
Dr. Macreery and Mr Assistant-Surgeon Burt, of H. Al 's 9th Regiment, by Dr. Demster aud Mr. Hutchinson, and J. Bowron, Esq., Assistant-Surgeon on this Establishment, and Dr. Ban, practitioner in Calcutta, uy Mr. Hutchinson and Dr. Cameron.
Read a letter from Mr. Bell of Almorah descriptive of two cases of tumor successfully extirpated by him. The subject of Mr. Bell's first case was a zemindar, who was admitted into hospital with a fungoid tumor on the back part o his scull, about an inch in height and three in circumference, of soft and spongy texture, intimately connected with the pericranium ; the surface was a mass of ulceration of a livid color, which bled on the slightest irritation ; discharge thin and fetid, pain sewere ; it had annoyed him for many years, and had resisted the efforts of many native practitioners to destroy it by escharotics. Mr. Bell removed the diseased mass at once. It bled profusely. In the subsequent dressings of the wound, it was touched with the polassac calee, and in a short time the sore was completely healed. Mr. Bell upon this remarks on the value of using escharotics, in destroying the surface of wounds made by the reInoval of tumors of a doubtfull character. The second case was a female who had a large sarcomatous tumor on the great trochanter and front part of the right thigh : the swelling was firm and hard throughou, and from its strong attachment not in the least pendulous. It commenced five years ago, and having attained the size of an orange remained stationary without pain till within the last six or seven months when it rapidly encreased, causing great uneasiness by its weight, and the dragging of the surrounding parts. Ulceration had taken place on the top, with a trifling and very offensive discharge accompanied by great constitutional irritability. With the assistance of Mr. Darby, Mr. Bell removed the tuinor, little blood was lost during the operation and but one artery required to be tied ; in a short time the wound healed, and the woman returned home. On examining the mass, it was found to consist of a gristly substance strougly resembling cartilage in some parts, in the centre there was a small cavity containing serum : whence Mr. Bell thinks the term fiu.o-cartilage might be more properly applied to these swellings than sarcoma.
Read a letter from Dr. Benza, Surgeon to the Hon’ble the Governor of Madras, descriptive of a post mortem examination of a tiger.
The subject of the case was a full-grown male, which died in the Government Park at Madras. The animal for some days before his death had refused his food and appeared very ill, his breathing was deep and quick, he was hot and severish, and his belly tense and painful. In this state he remained for several days, never attempting to change his position, passing no foeces, and scarcely any urine. The body was examined twelve hours after death. I he abdomea coutained about five pints of very offensive thin yellow fluid. I he abduinitial and viceral peritoneum were highly inflained. I he illum for auwul
three inches of its lower third was swollen, and converted into a hard tumor, having six perforations through its coats; the widest (more than three lines in diameter,) was closed by a portion of bone, and sharp pointed speculae were seen projecting through the other foramina: the colon and illum were much contracted. Within the swolen part of intestine were many loose pieces of bone, and a round ball formed of several angular bits of bone agglutinated and bound together by a kind of net-work of hair and wool. This ball adhered slightly to the intestine by means of an adventitious tissue which was highly injected. Dr. Benza remarks on the singular anomaly of fin ling undigested bone so low down in the intestine of an animal possessed of such digestive power as the tiger, and accounts for it by supposing, that these pieces of bone became entangled in the stomach with the wool and hair of the sheep, which formed the ordinary food of the animal ; these latter substances being more indigestible than the bones, covering then with a sort of felt coat protected them from the action of the gastric juice, and thus the whole ball passed down unchanged into the intestines. At length this ball being deprived of the greater portion of its wooiy covering, the spiculae became exposed and protruded against the intestine, greatly irritating it, thereby causing a thickening and constriction, by which these pieces of bone were held in one position, until they produced ulceration. Dr. Benza's account was accompanied by a preparation of the perforated intestine. ph Es ENTE d fort the Li Bin A RY. A small work in Sanskrit and Nagree, entitled Chikit Sharnava, or the River of Medicine, by the Rajah Kalikrishna, a corresponding Member of the Society.
canic crater from whence this island has been formed. The ridge called Diana's Peak forms one edge of this erater inclining gradually towards the sea, whence it is concluded that the remaining ridge necessary to complete the crater is buried beneath the ocean. The volcanic matter and lava appear to have flowed from this immense crater in every direction, and to have formed the ravines and vallies and intersecting ridges of the island. The edge of the crater from Diana's Peak round to the opposite side is well defined. There is no appearance of any other crater in the island. In cutting away the lava at Sadddle Hill, many feet below the surface, small bones have been found incrusted with stalactite. The author accounts for the existence of these bones by supposing that the animals may have crept into crevices in the rock, and there died ; for if a bed of lava in the liquid state had flowed over them they would probably have been consumed, and could not have been incrusted with stalactite. The volcanic fire, Mir. Bloxam says, must have ceased at some very remote period, and there is little probability of its ever breaking out again, as the island is small, and the combustible matter appears to be entirely consumed.
The minerals of the island belong to the family in which silex predominatos, to the calcareous and to the argillaceous families, to the mineral ore containing iron, and lastly to lava. Silex in the shape of quartz is rarely found, chalcedony and jasper and opal in small quantities. Pitchstone more frequently and obsidian or pumice stone very sparingly and very light. Of the calcareous earths gypsum is found in several varieties; calcareous spar and stalactites of carbonate of lime are not unfreuent. The argillac ous minerals are hornblende in the orm of crystals embedded in lava. The clays of the island exist in the form of different volcanic masses in a state of decomposition, vary in color according to the quantities of iron contained ; pieces of iron ore are found very rich in the metal. The forms of lava met with are rincipally close or bassaltic, and honey comb or porous. The highly divided state of the siliceous matter of the soil renders the island almost impermeable to rain and moisture, and in this way entirely prevents vegetation in many places.
The climate is extremely variable between the valley
of James' Town which is 600 feet above the sea and Plantation House which is 1684, there is difference of from 8° to 10° of the thermometer. Fires are necessary in the country during the months of July, August and September, but in James' Town they would be very disagreeable at any period of the year. The hardy trees of Europe and of the higher latitudes of Africa cannot be reared in the vallies, but flourish on the hills in singular association with many tropical plants. The island is frequently overshadowed by a fog, which protects it from the rays of the sun for days together; this unlike other fogs is perfectly dry. The cumulus and cirro-cumulus are the most frequent forms of clouds. Thunder is very rarely heard at St. Helena, but lightning is common in dry weather.
maximum 82° minium 71°. The variations of the Barometer are extremely small. The quanity of rain which fell in 1826 at Plantation House was 40 inches, at Longwood, 39 inches, at James' Town 8 inches fi. Few opportunities occur at St. Helena of observing the fall of dew very accurately ; owing to the light showers and mist with which the island is constantly overshadowed.
The prevailing winds are from the South and S. E., from the West less frequently, and from the North very seldom. The population of St. Helena in December 1834 was 4977, being 21 13 whites, and 2864 colored people. The average number of deaths annually appear to be about 80. The total number of admissions into Iłospital of the troops on the island, during the last 4 years, were 1930, the strength of the Garrison being about 800. The total number of sick of all classes admitted into the General Hospital during the same period including the troops was 2669, of whom 2009 recovered and 60 died.—The fatal cases were principally pulmonary, pepatic and bowel affections. The prevailing mortality assimilates closely to that of Great Britain, especially in the frequency of pulmonary affections. These diseases are most fatal to the former classes. The diet of those people consists chiefly of rice and fish and a good deal of saited meat, and they are much given to the use of spirits and tobacco. Scrophula is a disease well known in St. Helena, Dr. MacRitchie states that blood letting is highly necessary in the inflammatory and mixed fevers of the island, but that people of color do not bear up so well against the effects of that remedy as Europeans; rheumatism, gout and nephritic affections, erysipelas, urticaria, and varicella, are frequent, but confluent small pox is unknown. Measles were very mortal in 1807, since which it has disappeared from the island. Tetanus and trismus are almost always fatal, mental ailments are not uncommon, elephantiasis and lepra frequently attack the people of color, puerperal convulsions were very fatal in 1821 as well as croup, and that dangerous modification to sore throat described by Dr. J. Hamilton, Junr., in the 2d edition of his work on female complaints.
The subject of Mr. Reid's case was a Hindoo, 30 years of age, who came to the Colingah Dispensary on the 26th of May, with a dislocation of the right shoulder joint; the head of the os humeri was distinctly felt in the axilla. The man stated the accident to have occurred a month and four days before ; but Mr. Reid doubts whether it was not of longer standing, as the limb had already acquired some degree of mobility in its new position, and the arm could be nearly approximated to the side. An attempt was at first made by Mr. Bramley by placing the heel in the axilla, and extending by manual force, but in vain. The patient was then placed in a chair and the shoulder having been fixed by a proper bandage, extention was made by, four strong men by means of a folded towel with no better result; the pullies were therefore applied and two grs. of tartar emetic in solution administered ; the extension was kept up for eight minutes, when the tape gave way. Mr. Reid however unwilling to abandon the object in view, gave two more grs. of tatar emetic, and again commenced gradual extension ; at the expiration of 22 minutes he was agreeably surprised to find that the head of the bone had slipped in its natural socket, and in a few days the
man was perfectly well.
Jas. Hutchison, Secretary to the Society. Hurkaru.]
EXAMINATION AT THE PARENTAL ACADEMIC INSTITUTION.
The thirteenth Annual Fxamination of the Pupils at this Institution was held on Thursday the 10th December. The room though spacious was crowded to excess on this
time allotted for this work not permitting a wider range of subjects to be embraced. - The first class was examined in mathematics, natural
interesting occasion by visitors, many of whom were un- philosophy, moral philosophy, political economy, history
able to find seats. - - - - - at 10 o'clock precisely with the examination of the junior
classes. The following statement exhibits the studies in ...scripture history, India.
which the boys were principally questioned, the limited
The business of the day commenced of India and book keeping.
The second in Latin history of
hilosophy, mathema: 2ngland and history of