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authors a little nearer to the reader's sympathy and interest, as well as aiding an ornamentation at once unique and tasteful.

It should be stated, further, that while prepared especially to be delivered at Andover, the majority of these lectures have also been read at Oberlin and Hartford; and that on Robert Browne, to the students of New College, St. John's Wood, London.

In most cases, except in those where the preciseness seemed needless, dates have been given in both old style and new. Only by line upon. line and precept upon precept, can even scholars become thoroughly accustomed to this simple solution of many chronological perplexities.

The pleasant duty remains of putting on record here my sincere thanks to the many who have befriended me in these labors. Had it not been for the appreciative cordiality of his Grace the Most Reverend Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and of the Rev. Canons James Raine of York, and Robert C. Jenkins of Hythe, I would almost surely have missed some of the most important objects of my search. I may also say much the same of Rev. Henry Allon, D. D., and of the Very Reverend Dean of Westminster. I desire to make special mention also of the courtesy of Mr. Bullen, formerly Superintendent of the Reading-Room of the British Museum, and now Superintendent of its department of printed books; of Dr. Coxe, librarian of the Bodleian; of Mr. W. Aldis Wright, now bursar and formerly librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Secretary of the Old Testament Revision Committee, and of Mr. Kershaw, librarian at Lambeth. I have also been largely indebted to the Rev. Thomas Hunter, librarian of the Dr. Williams Library, Grafton St., Gower St., London, not only for the loan of the extremely rare Brief Discouerie of Henry Barrowe, but for unstinted aid in various ways. I must name also Mr. F. Ellis Tucker, and Mr. S. J. Aldrich of the British Museum staff, and Mr. W. Burden of the Bodleian, as having done me important service. Here should be added, as well, my thankful acknowledgments to Messrs. Frederick Muller, F. A. v. Scheltema, the Rev. W. Macfarlane of the English Reformed Church, and Prof. J. G. de Hoop Scheffer of the Mennonite Institution, in Amsterdam; to M. le Baron W. J. C. Rammelman Elsevier, and Mr. C. A. Emeis of Leyden, Holland; and to the Rev. B. H. Carp of Middelberg, Zeland. While, on this side of the ocean, I gratefully enumerate as among those who have been my help

ers Dr. S. A. Greene of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Dr. S. F. Haven of the American Antiquarian Society, Prof. Justin Winsor and Mr. C. S. Bowen of Cambridge, Prof. Smyth and the Rev. W. L. Ropes of Andover, Dr. R. A. Guild of Brown University, Dr. W. H. Moore of the Lenox Library, New York; and especially-as among those who have kindly expended much time and pains to make my work worthier - Dr. Langworthy and Miss M. E. Stone of the Congregational Library, Boston; my learned kinsman Prof. Franklin B. Dexter of Yale College, and Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, LL. D., of Hartford, Conn.

It is a relief to lay down a pen which has been kept busy - often far into the night—either in furnishing copy to the printer, or in correcting his proofs, now during every hour of the past three years which could be honorably disengaged from other duties. I do so daring to hope that the Master may recognize the desire which prompted the work as one to do Him service; whether His children be able to find such service done, therein and thereby, or not. While, in any event, I may close with the honest words of the author of the second Book of the Maccabees: "If I haue done well, and as the story required, it is the thing that I desired: but if I haue spoken slenderly and barely, it is that I could."

Henry Martyn Dexter?

Greystones, New Bedford, Mass.

1 November, 1879.


1. WILLIAM BRADFORD-To whose History what we know of the beginnings of the Plymouth movement is mainly due. From his marriage application (9 November, 1613) at Amsterdam [Puiboeken, s. d.]. He was then twenty-four years old; making this much his youngest known autograph



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NATHANIEL MORTON-Secretary of the Plymouth Colony from 1645 to his death in 1685, and the author of New Englands Memorial. From one of his letters in my possession WILLIAM TYNDALE-Whose translation of the New Testament was the great force of the English Reformation. From his letter (A. D. 1435) preserved in the archives at Brabant; the only known specimen of his handwriting

4. THOMAS CARTWRIGHT-From the Harleian MSS., No. 7851

5. ROBERT BROWNE- From the parish records of Achurch-cum-Thorpe

6. EDWARD GLOVER-From the Lansdowne MSS., lxxv: D, 50


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7. JOHN PENRY-From the Lansdowne MSS., cix: 36

8. MARTIN MAR-PRELATE-I hope I may be acquitted of trifling in filling his place with the only name we surely know of him-Stat Nominis Umbra—in the style of his time

9. HENRY BARROWE-From the Harleian MSS., No. 65:65

10. THOMAS EGERTON-The judge who condemned these martyrs. From the Harleian MSS.,

No. 6848:14

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FRANCIS JOHNSON-From the Harleian MSS., No. 6849:145

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12. HENRY AINSWORTH-From his marriage application (29 March, 1607), at Amsterdam [Puiboeken, s. d.]; the only known specimen of his handwriting

13. JOHN SMYTH-From his MSS. in the Library of the Mennonite Institution, Amsterdam

14. JOHN MURTON- From his signature in the church-list in the same collection

15. JOHN ROBINSON —I cannot vouch for the genuineness of this, but it is from the title-page of a book in the Library of the British Museum believed by the experts of that institution to have belonged to him

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16. WILLIAM BREWSTER-From the title-page of a book in my possession once belonging to him; being a much younger autograph than those at Plymouth and New Haven

17. JOHN COTTON-From the fly-leaf of a book in my possession once belonging to him 18. JOHN DAVENPORT- From one of his letters

19. JOHN WISE-From a letter in the collection in the State Library of Massachusetts NATHANAEL EMMONS-From one of his letters


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RICHARD MATHER-Who went to his death-bed from the moderator's chair of probably the most important Council in the early history of New England (13 April, 1669). From the Collections of the Dorchester Antiquarian Society

22. LEONARD BACON- Who was moderator of the two most important Councils (at Brooklyn in 1874 and 1876) of the present generation

23. BENJAMIN HANBURY-The earliest editor and restorer of the Congregational literature of our fathers. From the fly-leaf of a book in my possession once belonging to him

24. JOHN STOUGHTON—The gifted and faithful historian of English Congregationalism

25. COTTON MATHER-The earliest historian of American Congregationalism. From his Journal (29 November, 1692)

26. GEORGE PUNCHARD-The latest historian of American Congregationalism

27. THOMAS PRINCE-The earliest Congregational Bibliographer on this side of the sea


Object of these Lectures

Proper background of any just picture of Modern Congregationalism

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England in A. D. 1500.

Number and kinds of beggars

Low state of Education at that time

Complaint of Erasmus

Child supposed to be born in A. D. 1500, and its imagined life taken to illustrate

the state of Papal England

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Baptism, except in danger of sudden death, only twice a year

Form used in baptism.

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Churching of the mother, and its form

The wayside cross

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Completive rite of confirmation then required, on penalty, to be administered

also in infancy

Manner of rite of Confirmation

Abundant crosses, and the sign of the cross

Bell-ringing to drive away evil spirits.

Why yew trees were planted round the Parish Church

Orientation of the building, and why.

The Parvise, and the great Rood

The images, and the altar, with its candles

The furniture of a church which was required by law

The bells in the tower, and their inscriptions
Ringing-praying to the patron saints

The Sunday service

The mass

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The elevation of the host, and the sounding of the bells
Genuflections and gyrations, but no preaching, or next to none

No Bibles and no books, and no right to have any
The lad, solicitous as to duty, goes to his mother
She sends him to the priest-who scolds him
He seeks elsewhere for light- and finds a little.
The strange things he sees thereafter
Exorcism, the Pax, Church-ales, and Glutton-masses
Many other things which he cannot comprehend
Four great thoughts oppress him:

(1) The perpetual interferences of the church with common life
Fasting on one quarter of the week days of the year.

Nearly one half the year festival time

Restrictions on marriage

Restrictions on burial.

(2) Low quality of all prescriptions for salvation

Four sorts of obedience enjoined


Bad men could thus obey and remain bad still
The relic business, and "such beble-bables"

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The heavy tax of the Mortuary.

Sick men could not make their wills save in presence of the priest

Erasmus's bitter taunt: "tot vultures ad unum cadaver!"

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