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write that in the Days of King Henry the Fifth, the Sun ftood ftill three Hours, 'till the Earl of : Ormond in Ireland overcame Amor Afhur

others with their terrible Armies..

and ·

Q. What Liquor fooneft extinguisheth Fire ? A. Vinegar, for the exceeding piercing Coldness. and Eagerness it hath.

Q. Who invented Paper and Parchment?

A. Paper was first found out in Egypt, and made of thin Flakes of fedgy Weeds growing on the Banks of Nilus, called Papyra, from whence it took its Name. By means of this Invention, Books › being easier to be transcribed and preferved, Ptolomeus Philadelphus got together the most learned: Men and Manufcripts out of all Nations, in order to procure the most authentick Tranflation of the Old Teftament into Greek, which was done accordingly by feventy two Interpreters, and is the fame we call the Greek Septuagint Bible, and made his excellent Library at Alexandria; and underftanding that the King of Pergamos, by the Benefit of this Egyptian Paper, ftrove to exceed him in that kind of Magnificence, he prohibited the Carriage of it out of Egypt. Hereupon the King. of Pergamos invented Parchment, the Materials. whereof being Sheep-fkins, the Convenience whereof

was the Cause why, that in fhort Time the Egyptian Paper was quite worn out: In place whereof fucceeded our Paper made of Rags, the Author of which Invention our Progenitors have not committed to Memory, and more is the Pity, that he who invented Paper, could not have his Memory preferved by Paper.

Q. Who invented Printing?

A. He who first taught it in Europe, was one John Guttemburgh, a German, about the Year of our Lord 1440, at Harlem it was faid to be firft practifed, and at Mentz perfected. Marcus Tullius Cicero de Officiis was the firft Book that ever was printed,. which.

which Copy is to this Day preferved in the publick Library of Frankfort, tho' many are of Opinion that the Chinese had it long before us, who print not as we ufe from the Left to the Right, nor as the Jews, from the Right to the Left; but from the Top of the Leaf downward to the Bottom. Whoever invented it, no question but it is a most noble and profitable Art, we having that done in one Day by one Man, that without it many could not do in a Year by, Writing, to the very great Improvement of Knowledge in all Arts and Sciences, making the prefent Age acquainted with all the Wifdom and Experience of former Ages and Places, and hath been a principal Inftrument in the andeceiving and inftructing Mankind in the difcovering of Truth.

Who invented Letters ?

A. Cornelius Tacitus afcribeth it to the Egyptians, his Words are these: Primi per formas animalium Egypti, &c. The Egyptians first of all exprefs'd the Conceptions of the Mind by the Shapes of Beafts, and the most antient Monuments of Man's Memory are seen graven in Stones, and they fay they were the first Inventers of Letters: Then the Phænicians, because they were ftrong at Sea, brought them into Greece, and Lucan alfo attributes this to the Phænicians; but notwithstanding this of Tacitus and Lucan, no queftion but the Jews were kill'd herein before either of them; and that there was Writing before the Flood, which St. Jude doth fomewhat infinuate of the Writing of Enoch; and Jofephus and others write that he érected two Pillars, the one of Brick, and the other of Stone, whereon he wrote of the twofold Deltruction of the World, by Water and Fire, which by Tradition was preserved to the Days of the Apofties?

Q. Who invented Guns?

A. That fatal Inftrument, the Gun, was firft


found out by one Bartholdus Swart, a Francifcan Fryar, and a great Alchymift, who being one time very ftudious to find out fome Experiments in his Art, was tempering together Brimstone, dry'd Earth, and certain other Ingredients in a Mortar, which he covered with a Stone. The Night growing on, he took a Tinder-Box to light him a Candle, when ftriking Fire, a Spark by Chance flew into the Mortar, and catching hold of the Brimstone and Salt-petre, with great Violence blew up the Stone. The Fryar, gueffing which of his Ingredients it was that produced this Effect, made an Iron Pipe, and cramm'd it with Sulphur and Stones, and putting Fire to it, he faw with what Fury and Noife it discharged it felf. Then longing to put his Invention in Execution, he communicated the fame to the Venetians, who, being often vanquished by the Genoese, and almost driven to a Neceffity of yielding to them, by help of thefe Guns gave their Enemies a notable overthrow. This was about the Year of our Lord 1330. Which not long after put to filence all the Engines and Devices wherewith the Antients were wont to make their Batteries; of which we may fay, as a learned Poet formerly faid of the Sword,

Of murdering Guns who might first author be,
Sure a steel Heart, and bloody Mind had he,
Mankind's Deftruction fo to bring about,
And Death with Horror by near Ways find out.

Q. Who Refined Sugar first?

A. The Boiling and Baking of Sugar, as it is now used, is not above two hundred Years old, and the Refining of it more new than that. It was first found out by a Venetian, who is faid to have got one hundred thousand Crowns by this Inven tion, before which our Ancestors made ufe of rough Sugars, as they came from the Cane; but most commonly

commonly contented themselves with Honey. By this Art now improv'd, have many London Citizens got Eftates, and furnish'd Employments for Multitudes of Families maintain'd thereby. Q. Who invented Glass?

A. The Inhabitants of Sidon are faid to be the first Makers of Glass, the Materials of the Work being brought thither from the Sands of the River not far from Ptolemais, and only made fufible in that City. About the Year 1648 one Racket brought the Mystery of making Glass into England, which they have fo far improved, that they equal, if not outdo, the Venetians themselves, in this Art of Glass Work: And Dr. White, about the Year 1670, fet up the making of fine Stone Ware in England, wherein now they out-do the Dutch and Germans. Q. Who invented Clocks, Watches, and other Time-Tellers?

A. Water-Glaffes were the firft Inftruments that were invented for the Measuring of Time, these were invented by Ctefibus of Alexandria, which diftinguifhed the Hours by the Fall or Dropping of the Water. Then Clepfamedia invented the Sand Hour-Glafs. The Philofopher Anaximenes was the first that took account of Shadows, from whence came the Sun-Dial; but finding these Things uncertain, they came to the Ufe of Wheels, Springs, and Weights, which they call'd Horologues, and the first that I find to have contrived an Engine of this kind, was Boetius, a worthy Roman. They came at last to make Wheel-Work for the Pocket called Watches, whereby they might have an Account of Time at all Hours. The Germans have been eminent heretofore for this Work; but now the English do far furpass them, they having of late brought the Pendulum Regulator to a great Exactness.

Q. Of what Antiquity is the Office of ChurchWardens?

A. It is faid by fome Hiftorians that Dionyfius,


in the Year of our Lord 267, divided, both in Rome and other Places, Churches, Church-Yards, and Parishes to Curates, and Dioceses to Bishops, and this was about 87 Years after Britain had received the Christian Faith; for though Historians do not all agree at what Time the Chriftian Faith was firft brought into England, yet it is thought by the most of them, to be in the Reign of King Lucius, in the Year of our Lord 180; but how long after it was before these Officers called ChurchWardens were appointed, cannot certainly be known; but Mr. Lambert and other Authors agree, they are very antient Officers; and by the antient Canon Law they were, and are still, to take care, fee to, and preferve the Goods of the Church, viz. the Church Books, Communion Cups, and other decent Ornaments and Furniture of the Church, which they shall find there at their coming to their Office.

Q. Of what Antiquity is the Office of Overfeers of the Poor?

A. This Office of Overfeers of the Poor is a Name and Office of great Excellency and Antiquity, and may befeem the best, and not the meaneft, Men in a Parish; for as God himself hath · a fpecial refpect unto the Mileries of the Poor, fo they be like God who provide for the Neceffities of the Poor. Now it is certain that the Antiquity of this Office is above feventeen hundred Years standing, as teftifieth the Holy Writ; for we find St. Stephen, the Proto-Martyr, a Man full of Faith and of the Holy Ghoft, and Nicholas, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas and Nicholas, a Profelyte of Antioch, all these were chofen to this Office. Q. What is the best present Cordial to sweeten the future Pill of Death?

A. Preparation and Dedication of our felves to God: To which purpose faith Seneca, "Do that which must be done, whilft thou art ftrong;


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