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according acid activity Algae appear arise arrangement attached axis base bears become body branches buds bundles carbon causes cell walls changes closely colour completely connected consists contain continue curvature cytoplasm direction distinct distinguished divided division effected elongated embryo example exhibit existence external fertilisation flowers formation frequently fruit function further germination give rise green growing growth hand increase individual influence known lateral layer leaf leaves length less light living longitudinal male material means movements mycelium nature nuclei occur oospore organs origin period plants pollen portion position present produced protoplasm remain reproduction respiration resting result rhizoids roots rule seeds seen separated serve sexual sexual reproduction shoots shown side similar single soil species spermatozoids sporangia spores stem structure substances surface takes place termed thallus thickened tissue transverse trees upper usually vegetative whole wood young
Page 37 - Prœfoliation, relates to the way in which leaves are disposed in the bud (180). It comprises two things ; — 1st, the way in which each separate leaf is folded, coiled, or packed up in the bud ; and 2d, the arrangement of the leaves in the bud with respect to one another. The latter of course depends very much upon the phyllotaxy, ie the position and order of the leaves upon the stem. The same terms are used for it as for the arrangement of the leaves of the flower in the flower-bud : so we may...
Page 114 - TRACHEA (g), formed by cell fusion, and provided with all the different forms of thickenings by which they are distinguished as annular, spiral, reticulate, or pitted vessels. All vessels function as watercarriers. If they have small lumina and resemble...
Page 689 - Sc.D., FRS; Ascidians and Amphioxus, by WA Herdman, D.Sc, FRS; Fishes (Exclusive of the Systematic Account of Teleostei), by TW Bridge, Sc.D., FRS; Fishes (Systematic Account of Teleostei), by GA Boulenger, FRS VOL. VIII. Amphibia and Reptiles, by Hans Gadow, MA, FRS VOL.
Page 691 - Svo. 303. net. GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY OF NORTHERN NIGERIA. By JD FALCONER, D.Sc. With Notes by the late ARTHUR LONGBOTTOM, BA, and an Appendix by HENRY WOODS, MA Illustrated.
Page 93 - Equisetaceae, and many other 101 plants, the cell walls of the epidermis are silicified. In the Equisetaceae the impregnation with silica is so considerable that these plants are used for polishing. Heating, even to redness, does not destroy the structure of such silicified epidermal cells. Deposits of wax are also present in the cutinised layers of the epidermis, and consequently water will How off the epidermis without wetting it.
Page 355 - From the symbiosis entered into by a lichen fungus with an alga, a dual organism results with a distinctive thallus, of which the form (influenced by the mode of nutrition of the independently assimilating alga) differs greatly from that of other non-symbiotic Eumycetes." 7 As a purely imaginary construction one might, perhaps, picture an organism produced in this fashion which would not be "dual," as these authors express it, but monal, that is, an organism in the usual zoological and botanical...
Page 93 - Deposits of wax are also present in the cutinised layers of the epidermis, and consequently water will flow off the epidermis without wetting it. The wax is sometimes spread over the surface of the cuticle as a wax covering. This is the case in most fruits, where, as is so noticeable on plums, it forms the so-called bloom.
Page 267 - ... climbers, such as tendril- and rootclimbers. Unlike them, however, the stem-climbers accomplish their purpose, not by the help of lateral clinging organs, but by the capacity of their main stems to twine about a support. The first internodes of young stem-climbers, as developed from the subterranean organs which contain the reserve food material, as a rule stand erect. With further growth the free end curves energetically to one side and assumes a more or less oblique or horizontal position....
Page 440 - ... apparatus at rest, with connective enclosed within the upper lip ; 3, the same, when disturbed by the entrance of the proboscis of the bee in the direction of the arrow ; /, filament ; c, connective ; 8, the obstructing half of tin; anther.
Page 55 - ... sap of a number of deeply colored parts of plants in a crystalline or amorphous form. Blood-colored leaves, such as those of the copper beech, owe their characteristic appearance to the united presence of green chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The different colors of flowers are due to the varying color of the cell sap, to the different distribution of the cells containing the colored cell sap, and also to the combinations of dissolved coloring matter with the yellow, orange, and red chromoplasts...