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bates, had stood forth the most strenuous and elo- c H A P. quent champion of the Greek church; and if the **apostate, the bastard, was reprobated by his country", he appears in ecclesiastical story a rare example of a patriot who was recommended to courtfavour by loud opposition and well-timed compliance. With the aid of his two spiritual coadjutors, the Emperor applied his arguments to the general situation and personal characters of the bishops, and each was successively moved by authority and example. Their revenues were in the hands of the Turks, their persons in those of the Latins; an Episcopal treasure, three robes and forty ducats, were soon exhausted f; the hopes of their return still depended on the ships of Venice, and the alms of Rome; and such was their indigence, that their arrears, the payment of a debt, would be accepted as a favour, and might operate as a bribe t. The danger and relief of Constantinople might excuse some prudent and pious dissimulation; and it was insinuated, that the obstinate heretics who should resist * See the polite altercation of Mark and Bessarion in Sy
repulus, (p. 257.), who never dissembles the vices of his own party, and fairly praises the virtues of the Latins.
# For the poverty of the Greek bishops, see a remarkable passage of Ducas, (c. 31.). One had possessed, for his whole property, three old gowns, &c. By teaching one-and-twenty years in his monastery, Bessarion himself had collected forty gold florins; but of these, the Archbishop had expended twenty-eight in his voyage from Peloponnesus, and the remainder at Constantinople, (Syropulus, p. 127.).
t Syropulus denies that the Greeks received any money before they had subscribed the act of union, (p. 283.); yet be relates some suspicious circumstances; and their bribery and corruption are positively affirmed by the historian Ducas.
resist the consent of the East and West, would be
, abandoned in a hostile land to the revenge or justice
of the Roman Pontiff". In the first private as-
exile and perpetual slavery, (Syropul. p. 196.) ; and they were strongly moved by the Emperor's threats, (p. 262.).
+ I had forgot another popular and orthodox protester; a favourite hound, who usually lay quiet on the foot-cloth of
the Emperor's throne; but who barked most furiously while
the act of union was reading, without being silenced by the soothing, or the lashes of the royal attendants, (Syropul. P. 265. 266.).
of the reader), that the IIoly Ghost proceeds from C o:
the Father and the Son, as from one principle and one substance; that he proceeds by the Son, being of the same nature and substance, and that he proceeds from the Father and the Son, by one spiration and production. It is less difficult to understand the articles of the preliminary treaty ; that the Pope should defray all the expences of the Greeks in their return home; that he should annually maintain two gallies and three hundred soldiers for the defence of Constantinople; that all the ships which transported pilgrims to Jerusalem should be obliged to touch at that port; that as often as they were required, the
Pope should furnish ten gallies for a year, or twenty-
six months; and that he should powerfully solicit the princes of Europe, if the Emperor had occasion for land-forces. , -
The same year, and almost the same day, were marked by the deposition of Eugenius at Basil; and at Florence, by his re-union of the Greeks and Latins. In the former synod, (which he styled indeed an assembly of daemons), the Pope was branded with the guilt of simony, perjury, tyranny, heresy,
and schism "; and declared to be incorrigible in
his vices, unworthy of any title, and incapable of
holding any ecclesiastical office. In the latter, he
was revered as the true and holy vicar of Christ, who, after a separation of six hundred years, had reconciled the Catholics of the East and West, in Oil C. * From the original Lives of the Popes, in Muratori's Collection, (tom. iii. p. ii. tom. xxv.), the manners of Eugenius IV. appear to have been decent, and even exemplary. His
situation, exposed to the world and to his cnemies, was a cstraint, and is a pledge.
Fugenius deposed at Basil, A. 1). 1438,
c H.A.P. one fold, and under one shepherd. The act of
union was subscribed by the Pope, the Emperor,
* Syropulus, rather than subscribe, would have assisted, as the least evil, at the ceremony of the union. He was compelled to do both ; and the great ecclesiarch poorly excuses his submission to the Emperor, (p. 290–292.).
+ None of these original acts of union can at present be produced. Of the ten MSS. that are preserved, (five at Rome, and the remainder at Florence, Bologna, Venice, Paris, and London), nine have been examined by an accurate critic, (M. de Brequigny), who condemns them for the variety and imperfections of the Greek signatures. Yet several of these may be esteemed as authentic copies, which were subscribed at Florence before (26th August 1439) the final separation of the Pope and Emperor, (Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions, tom. xliii. p. 287–31 1.).
culate, sounds"; and the more scrupulous Latins refused any public celebration of the Byzantine rite. Yet the Emperor and his clergy were not totally unmindful of national honour. The treaty
was ratified by their consent ; it was tacitly agreed, .
that no innovation should be attempted in their creed or ceremonies; they spared, and secretly respected, the generous firmness of Mark of Ephe
sus; and, on the decease of the patriarch, they re
fused to elect his successor, except in the cathedral
out success, the Bibliotheca Orientalis of Assemanus, a faithful slave of the Vatican. -
Their return to Constantinople, A. D. 14.404 Feb. 1.