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many of the citizens, or even of the monks, were

to able and willing to bear arms for their country.

The lists were intrusted to Phranza"; and, after a dilgent addition, he informed his master, with grief and surprise, that the national defence was reduced to four thousand nine hundred and seventy Romans. Between Constantine and his faithful minister, this comfortless secret was preserved; and a sufficient proportion of shields, cross-bows, and muskets, was distributed from the arsenal to the city-bands. They derived some accession from a body of two thousand strangers, under the command of John Justiniani, a noble Genoese ; a liberal donative was advanced to these auxiliaries; and a princely recompence, the isle of Lemnos, was promised to the valour and victory of their chief. A strong chain was drawn across the mouth of the harbour; it was supported by some Greek and Italian vessels of war and merchandise; and the ships of every Christian nation, that successively arrived from Candia and the Black Sea, were detained for the public service. Against the powers of the Ottoman empire, a city of the extent of thirteen, perhaps of sixteen miles, was defended by a scanty garrison of seven or eight thousand soldiers. Europe and Asia were open to the besiegers; but the strength and provisions of the


* Ego, eidem (Imp.) tabellas extribui non absque dolore et moestitia, mansitaue apud nos duos aliis occultus numerus, (Phranza, l. iii. c. 8.). With some indulgence for national prejudices, we cannot desire a more authentic witness, not only of public facts, but of private counsels.

Greeks must sustain a daily decrease; nor could
they indulge the expectation of any foreign succour

or supply.
The primitive Romans would have drawn their
swords in the resolution of death or conquest. The
primitive Christians might have embraced each
other, and awaited in patience and charity the stroke
of martyrdom. But the Greeks of Constantinople
were animated only by the spirit of religion, and
that spirit was productive only of animosity and dis-
cord. Before his death, the Emperor John Palaeo-
logus had renounced the unpopular measure of an
union with the Latins; nor was the idea revived,
till the distress of his brother Constantine imposed
a last trial of flattery and dissimulation *. With
the demand of temporal aid, his ambassadors were
instructed to mingle the assurance of spiritual obe-
dience: his neglect of the church was excused by
the urgent cares of the state; and his orthodox
wishes solicited the presence of a Roman legate.
The Vatican had been too often deluded; yet the
signs of repentance could not decently be overlook-
ed; a legate was more easily granted than an army;
and about six months before the final destruction,
the Cardinal Isidore of Russia appeared in that
character with a retinue of priests and soldiers.
The Emperor saluted him as a friend and father;
respectfully listened to his public and private

* In Spondanus, the narrative of the union is not only fartial, but imperfect. The Bishop of Pamiers died in 1642, and the history of Ducas, which represents these scenes (c. 39. 37.) with such truth and spirit, was not printed till the year


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sermons; and with the most obsequious of the
clergy and laymen subscribed the act of union, as
it had been ratified in the council of Florence. On
the twelfth of December, the two nations, in the
church of St Sophia, joined in the communion of
sacrifice and prayer; and the names of the two
pontiffs were solemnly commemorated; the names
of Nicholas the Fifth, the vicar of Christ, and of
the patriarch Gregory, who had been driven into
exile by a rebellious people.
But the dress and language of the Latin priest
who officiated at the altar, were an object of scan-
dal; and it was observed with horror, that he con-
secrated a cake or wafer of unleavened bread, and
poured cold water into the cup of the sacrament.
A national historian acknowledges with a blush, that
none of his countrymen, not the Emperor himself,
were sincere in this occasional conformity". Their
hasty and unconditional submission was palliated by
a promise of future revisal; but the best or the
worst of their excuses was the confession of their
own perjury. When they were pressed by the re-

proaches of their honest brethren, “Have patience,”

they whispered, “have patience till God shall have “delivered the city from the great dragon who “seeks to devour us. You shall then perceive “whether we are truly reconciled with the Azy“mites.” But patience is not the attribute of


* Phranza, one of the conforming Greeks, acknowledges that the measure was adopted only propter spem auxilii; he affirms with pleasure, that those who refused to perform their devotions in St Sophia, extra culpam et in pace essent, (l. iii. c. 2C.).

zeal; nor can the arts of a court be adapted to the freedom and violence of popular enthusiasm. From the dome of St Sophia, the inhabitants of either sex, and of every degree, rushed in crowds to the cell of the monk Gennadius", to consult the oracle of the church. The holy man was invisible; entranced, as it should seem, in deep meditation, or divine rapture; but he had exposed on the door of his cell a speaking tablet; and they successively withdrew, after reading these tremendous words: “O “miserable Romans ! why will ye abandon the “truth? and why, instead of confiding in God, “will ye put your trust in the Italians ? In losing “your faith, you will lose your city. Have mercy “ on me, O Lord! I protest in thy presence, that I “am innocent of the crime. O miserable Romans! “consider, pause, and repent. At the same mo“ment that you renounce the religion of your fa“thers, by embracing impiety, you submit to a fo“reign servitude.” According to the advice of Gennadius, the religious virgins, as pure as angels, and as proud as daemons, rejected the act of union, and abjured all communion with the present and future associates of the Latins; and their example was applauded and imitated by the greatest part of


* His primitive and secular name was George Scholarius, which he changed for that of Gennadius, either when he be. came a monk or a patriarch. His defence, at Florence, of the same union which he so furiously attacked at Constantinople, has tempted Leo Allatius (Diatrib. de Georgiis, in Fabric. Bibliot. Graec. tom. x. p. 760–786.) to divide him into two imen; but Renaudot (p. 343–383.) has restored the identity of his person, and the duplicity of his character.

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c H.A.P. of the clergy and people. From the monastery,

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the devout Greeks dispersed themselves in the taverns; drank confusion to the slaves of the Pope;

emptied their glasses in honour of the image of the

holy Virgin; and besought her to defend against Mahomet the city which she had formerly saved from Chosroes and the Chagan. In the double intoxication of zeal and wine, they valiantly exclaiméd, “What occasion have we for succour, or “union, or Latins 2 far from us be the worship of “ the Azymites.” During the winter that preceded the Turkish conquest, the nation was distracted by this epidemical frenzy; and the season of Lent, the approach of Easter, instead of breathing charity

and love, served only to fortify the obstinacy and

influence of the zealots. The confessors scrutinized and alarmed the conscience of their votaries, and a rigorous penance was imposed on those who had received the communion from a priest who had given an express or tacit consent to the union. His service at the altar propagated the infection to the mute and simple spectators of the ceremony; they forfeited, by the impure spectacle, the virtue of their sacerdotal character; nor was it lawful, even in danger of sudden death, to invoke the assistance of their prayers or absolution. No sooner had the church of St Sophia been polluted by the La

tin sacrifice, than it was deserted as a Jewish

synagogue, or an heathen temple, by the clergy and people; and a vast and gloomy silence prevailed in that venerable dome, which had so often smoked with a cloud of incense, blazed with in

- numerable

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