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the passages of his rival, the unfortunate Conradin; c H.A. P. and a powerful avenger, who reigned in the Capi- *::tol, alarmed the fears and jealousy of the Popes. The absolute term of his life was superseded by a renewal every third year; and the enmity of Nicholas the Third obliged the Sicilian King to abdicate the government of Rome. In his bull, a perpetual law, the imperious Pontiff asserts the truth, validity, and use of the donation of Constantine, not less essential to the peace of the city than to the independence of the church; establishes the annual election of the senator; and formally disqualifies all emperors, kings, princes, and persons of an eminent and conspicuous rank". This prohi- Pope bitory clause was repealed in his own behalf by *.*.*. Martin the Fourth, who humbly solicited the suf. 128. frage of the Romans. In the presence, and by the authority of the people, two electors conferred, not on the Pope, but on the noble and faithful Martin, , the dignity of senator, and the supreme administration of the republic f, to hold during his natural life, and to exercise at pleasure by himself or his deputies, About fifty years afterwards, the same title The Em. was granted to the Emperor Lewis of Bavaria; F.of and the liberty of Rome was acknowledged by her o, Vol. XII. U two 1328.
* The high-sounding bull of Nicholas III. which founds his temporal sovereignty on the donation of Constantine, is still extant; and as it has been inserted by Boniface VIII. in the Sexte of the Decretals, it must be received by the Catholics, or at least by the Papists, as a sacred and perpetual law. + I am indebted to Fleury (Hist. Eccles, tom. xviii. p. 306.) for an extract of this Roman act, which he has taken from the Ecclesiastical Annals of Odericus Raynaldus, A. D. 1281, No. 14, 15.
C. H. A. P. LXIX. *--Addresses of Rome to the Emperors.
two sovereigns, who accepted a municipal office in
the government of their own metropolis.
rad III. A. D. 1144.
* These letters and speeches are preserved by Otho, Bishop of Frisingen, (Fabric. Bibliot. Lat. med. et infim. tom. v. p. 186, 187.), perhaps the noblest of historians; he was son of Leopold, Marquis of Austria; his mother, Agnes, was daughter of the Emperor Henry IV. and he was half-brother and uncle to Conrad III. and Frederic I. He has left, in seven books, a Chronicle of the Times; in two, the Gesta Frederici I. the last of which is inserted in the 7th volume of Muratori's historians.
turn from the Holy Land.
* We desire (said the ignorant Romans) to restore the em
pire in eum statum, quo fuit tempore Constantin et Justiniani,
free and florid oration: “Incline your ear to the “ queen of cities; approach with a peaceful and “friendly mind the precincts of Rome, which “has cast away the yoke of the clergy, and is “impatient to crown her legitimate Emperor. “ Under your auspicious influence, may the pri“mitive times be restored. Assert the prero“gatives of the eternal city, and reduce under “her monarchy, the insolence of the world. “You are not ignorant, that, in former ages, “by the wisdom of the senate, by the valour and “ discipline of the equestrian order, she extended “ her victorious arms to the East and West, “beyond the Alps, and over the islands of the “ ocean. By our sins, in the absence of our “princes, the noble institution of the senate has “sunk in oblivion; and, with our prudence, our “strength has likewise decreased. We have re“vived the senate, and the equestrian order; the “ counsels of the one, the arms of the other, will “be devoted to your person and the service of
“the empire. Do you not hear the language of
“the Roman matron : You were a guest, I have “adopted you as a citizen ; a Transalpine stranger, “I have elected you for my sovereign "; and “given you myself, and all that is mine. Your “first and most sacred duty is, to swear and “subscribe, that you will shed your blood for “ the republic; that you will maintain in peace “ and justice the laws of the city and the charters “ of your predecessors; and that you will reward
* Hospes eras, civen feci. Advena suisti ex Transalpinis Partibus; principem constitui.
“with five thousand pounds of silver the faithful c 11 A P.
“senators who shall proclaim your titles in the “Capitol. With the name, assume the character, “ of Augustus.” The flowers of Latin rhetoric were not yet exhausted ; but Frederic, impatient of their vanity, interrupted the orators in the high tone of royalty and conquest. “Famous, indeed, “ have been the fortitude and wisdom of the ancient “Romans; but your speech is not seasoned with “ wisdom, and I could wish that fortitude were “conspicuous in your actions. Like all sublunary “things, Rome has felt the vicissitudes of time and “fortune. Your noblest families were transla“ted to the East, to the royal city of Constantine; “ and the remains of your strength and freedom “have long since been exhausted by the Greeks “ and Franks. Are you desirous of beholding the “ancient glory of Rome, the gravity of the senate, “the spirit of the knights, the discipline of the “camp, the valour of the legions 2 you will find “ them in the German republic. It is not empire, “naked and alone, the ornaments and virtues of “empire have likewise migrated beyond the Alps “to a more deserving people *; they will be em“ployed in your defence, but they claim your “obedience. You pretend that myself or my “predecessors have been invited by the Romans; “you mistake the word; they were not invited, “they were implored. From its foreign and - U 3 “ domestic * Non cessit nobis nudum imperium, virtute sua amictum venit, ornamenta sua secum traxit. Penes nos sunt consules tui, &c. Cicero or Livy would not have rejected these
images, the eloquence of a barbarian born and educated in the Hercynian forest.