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century, that we may date the licentiousness of
* All the facts that relate to the towers of Rome, and in other free cities of Italy, may be found in the laborious and entertaining compilation of Muratori, Antiquitates Italia: medii AEvi, dissertat. xxvi. (tom. ii. p. 493–496, of the Latin, tom. i. p. 446, of the Italian work.).
demolish (as we have already seen) one hundred c H. A.P.
and forty of the towers of Rome; and in the last days of anarchy and discord, as late as the reign of Martin the Fifth, forty-four still stood in one of the thirteen or fourteen regions of the city. To this mischievous purpose, the remains of antiquity were most readily adapted. The temples and arches afforded a broad and solid basis for the new structures of brick and stone; and we can name the modern turrets that were raised on the triumphal monuments of Julius Caesar, Titus, and the Antonines". With some slight alterations, a theatre, an amphitheatre, a mausoleum, was transformed into a strong and spacious citadel. I need not repeat, that the mole of Adrian has assumed the title and form of the castle of St Angelo f; the Septizonium of Severus was capable of standing against a royal army i ; the sepulchre of Metalla has sunk under its outworks || ; the theatres of Pompey and
* As for instance, Templum Jani nunc dicitur, turris Centii Frangapanis; et sane Jano imposite turris lateritiae conspicua hodieque vestigia supersunt, (Montfaucon Diarium Italicum, p. 186.). The anonymous writer (p. 285.) enumerates,
arcus Titi, turris Cartularia; arcus Julii Caesaris et Senatorum, turres de Bratis; arcus Antonini, turris de Cosectis, &c.
+ Hadriani molem . . . . magna ex parte Romanorum injuria . . . . disturbavit: quod certe funditus evertissent, si eorum manibus pervia, absumptis grandibus saxis, reliqua moles exstitisset, (Poggius de Varietate Fortunae, p. 12.).
t Against the Emperor Henry IV. (Muratori, Annali d'Italia, tom. ix. p. 147.).
| I must copy an important passage of Montfaucon : Turrisingens rotunda . . . . Caeciliae Metellae . . . . sepulchrum erat, cujus muri tam solidi, ut spatium perquam minimum intus vacuum supersit: et Torre di Bove dicitur, a boum capitibus muro inscriptis. Huic sequiori avo, tempore intestinorum
cri Ap. Marcellus were occupied by the Savelli and Ursini
families; and the rough fortress has been gradually softened to the splendour and elegance of an Italian palace. Even the churches were encompassed with arms and bulwarks, and the military engines on the roof of St Peter's were the terror of the Vatican, and the scandal of the Christian world. Whatever is fortified will be attacked ; and whatever is attacked may be destroyed. Could the Romans have wrested from the Popes the castle of St Angelo, they had resolved, by a public decree, to annihilate that monument of servitude. Every building of defence was exposed to a siege; and in every siege the arts and engines of destruction were laboriously employed. After the death of Nicholas the Fourth, Rome, without a sovereign or a senate, was abandoned six months to the fury of civil war. “The houses,” says a cardinal and poet of the timest, “were crushed by the weight and
“velocity norum bellorum, ceu urbecula adjuncta fuit, cujus moenia et turres etiamnum visuntur ; ita ut sepulchrum Metellae quasi arx oppiduli fuerit. Ferventibus in urbe partibus, cum Ur
sini atque Columnenses mutuis cladibus perniciem inferrent
“velocity of enormous stones *; the walls were c H. A. P.
“perforated by the strokes of the battering-ram; o
“ the towers were involved in fire and smoke; “ and the assailants were stimulated by rapine and “revenge.” The work was consummated by the tyranny of the laws; and the factions of Italy alternately exercised a blind and thoughtless ven
geance on their adversaries, whose houses and
castles they razed to the ground f. In comparing
* Muratori (Dissertazione sopra le Antiquità Italiane, tom. i. p. 427–431.) finds, that stone bullets, of two or three hundred pounds weight, were not uncommon ; and they are sometimes computed at xii or xviii cantari of Genoa, each cantaro weighing 150 pounds. + The vith law of the Visconti prohibits this common and mischievous practice; and strictly enjoins, that the houses of banished citizens should be preserved pro communi utilitate Gualvaneus de la Flamma, in Muratori, Script. Rerum Italicarum, tom. xii. p. 104.1.). f Petrarch thus addresses his friend, who, with shame and
tears, had shewn him the moenia, lacerae specimen miserabile Romae,
tiplied by each other; since the houses and towers,
* The fourth part of the Verona Illustrata of the Marquis Maffei, professedly treats of amphitheatres, particularly those of Rome and Verona, of their dimensions, wooden galleries, &c. It is from magnitude that he derives the name of Colorreum, or Coliseum : since the same appellation was applied to the amphitheatre of Capua, without the aid of a colossal statue ; since rhat of Nero was erected in the court (in atrio) of his palace, and not in the Coliseum, (P. iv. p. 15–19. l. i. c. 4.).