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century, that we may date the licentiousness of
private war, which violated with impunity the laws
of the Code and the Gospel, without respecting the
majesty of the absent sovereign, or the presence and
person of the vicar of Christ. In a dark period of
five hundred years, Rome was perpetually afflicted
by the sanguinary quarrels of the nobles and the
people, the Guelphs and Ghibelines, the Colonna
and Ursini; and if much has escaped the know-
Hedge, and much is unworthy of the notice of
history, I have exposed in the two preceding chap-
ters, the causes and effects of the public disorders.
At such a time, when every quarrel was decided by
the sword, and none could trust their lives or pro-
perties to the impotence of law; the powerful
citizens were armed for safety or offence, against
the domestic enemies, whom they feared or hated.
Except Venice alone, the same dangers and designs
were common to all the free republics of Italy;
and the nobles usurped the prerogative of fortifying
their houses, and erecting strong towers" that were
capable of resisting a sudden attack. The cities
were filled with these hostile edifices; and the
example of Lucca, which contained three hundred
towers; her law, which confined their height to the
measure of fourscore feet, may be extended, with
suitable latitude, to the more opulent and populous
states. The first step of the senator Brancaleone
in the establishment of peace and justice, was to
demolish

* All the facts that relate to the towers of Rome, and in other free cities of Italy, may be found in the laborious and entertaining compilation of Muratori, Antiquitates Italia: medii AEvi, dissertat. xxvi. (tom. ii. p. 493–496, of the Latin, tom. i. p. 446, of the Italian work.).

demolish (as we have already seen) one hundred c H. A.P.

and forty of the towers of Rome; and in the last days of anarchy and discord, as late as the reign of Martin the Fifth, forty-four still stood in one of the thirteen or fourteen regions of the city. To this mischievous purpose, the remains of antiquity were most readily adapted. The temples and arches afforded a broad and solid basis for the new structures of brick and stone; and we can name the modern turrets that were raised on the triumphal monuments of Julius Caesar, Titus, and the Antonines". With some slight alterations, a theatre, an amphitheatre, a mausoleum, was transformed into a strong and spacious citadel. I need not repeat, that the mole of Adrian has assumed the title and form of the castle of St Angelo f; the Septizonium of Severus was capable of standing against a royal army i ; the sepulchre of Metalla has sunk under its outworks || ; the theatres of Pompey and

- Marcellus

* As for instance, Templum Jani nunc dicitur, turris Centii Frangapanis; et sane Jano imposite turris lateritiae conspicua hodieque vestigia supersunt, (Montfaucon Diarium Italicum, p. 186.). The anonymous writer (p. 285.) enumerates,

arcus Titi, turris Cartularia; arcus Julii Caesaris et Senatorum, turres de Bratis; arcus Antonini, turris de Cosectis, &c.

+ Hadriani molem . . . . magna ex parte Romanorum injuria . . . . disturbavit: quod certe funditus evertissent, si eorum manibus pervia, absumptis grandibus saxis, reliqua moles exstitisset, (Poggius de Varietate Fortunae, p. 12.).

t Against the Emperor Henry IV. (Muratori, Annali d'Italia, tom. ix. p. 147.).

| I must copy an important passage of Montfaucon : Turrisingens rotunda . . . . Caeciliae Metellae . . . . sepulchrum erat, cujus muri tam solidi, ut spatium perquam minimum intus vacuum supersit: et Torre di Bove dicitur, a boum capitibus muro inscriptis. Huic sequiori avo, tempore intestinorum

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cri Ap. Marcellus were occupied by the Savelli and Ursini

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families; and the rough fortress has been gradually softened to the splendour and elegance of an Italian palace. Even the churches were encompassed with arms and bulwarks, and the military engines on the roof of St Peter's were the terror of the Vatican, and the scandal of the Christian world. Whatever is fortified will be attacked ; and whatever is attacked may be destroyed. Could the Romans have wrested from the Popes the castle of St Angelo, they had resolved, by a public decree, to annihilate that monument of servitude. Every building of defence was exposed to a siege; and in every siege the arts and engines of destruction were laboriously employed. After the death of Nicholas the Fourth, Rome, without a sovereign or a senate, was abandoned six months to the fury of civil war. “The houses,” says a cardinal and poet of the timest, “were crushed by the weight and

“velocity norum bellorum, ceu urbecula adjuncta fuit, cujus moenia et turres etiamnum visuntur ; ita ut sepulchrum Metellae quasi arx oppiduli fuerit. Ferventibus in urbe partibus, cum Ur

sini atque Columnenses mutuis cladibus perniciem inferrent
civitati, in utriusve partis ditionem cederet magni momenti
erat, (p. 142.).
* See the testimonies of Donatus, Nardini, and Montfau-
con. In the Savelli palace, the remains of the theatre of
Marcellus are still great and conspicuous.
+ James, Cardinal of St George, ad velum aureum, in his
metrical Life of Pope Celestin V. (Muratori, Script. Ital.
tom. i. p. iii. p. 621. l. i. c. 1. ver, 132, &c.).
Hoc dixisse sat est, Roman caruisse Senatu
Mensibus exactis heu sex; belloque vocatum (vocator)
In scelus, in socios fraternaque vulnera partes:
Tormentis jecisse viros immania saxa ;
Perfodisse domus trabibus, fecisse ruinas
Ignibus; incensas turres, obscurataque fumo
Lumina vicino, quo sit spoliata supellex.

“velocity of enormous stones *; the walls were c H. A. P.

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“perforated by the strokes of the battering-ram; o

“ the towers were involved in fire and smoke; and the assailants were stimulated by rapine and “revenge.” The work was consummated by the tyranny of the laws; and the factions of Italy alternately exercised a blind and thoughtless ven

geance on their adversaries, whose houses and

castles they razed to the ground f. In comparing
the days of foreign, with the ages of domestic, hos-
tility, we must pronounce, that the latter have
been far more ruinous to the city; and our opinion
is confirmed by the evidence of Petrarch. “Be-.
“hold,” says the laureat, “the relics of Rome,
“the image of her pristine greatness! neither
“ time, nor the Barbarian, can boast the merit of
“this stupendous destruction: it was perpetrated
“by her own citizens, by the most illustrious of .
“her sons; and your ancestors (he writes to a
“noble Annibaldi) have done with the battering-
“ram, what the Punic hero could not accomplish
“with the sword f.” The influence of the two last
principles of decay must, in some degree, be mul-
Vol. XII. E e tiplied

* Muratori (Dissertazione sopra le Antiquità Italiane, tom. i. p. 427–431.) finds, that stone bullets, of two or three hundred pounds weight, were not uncommon ; and they are sometimes computed at xii or xviii cantari of Genoa, each cantaro weighing 150 pounds. + The vith law of the Visconti prohibits this common and mischievous practice; and strictly enjoins, that the houses of banished citizens should be preserved pro communi utilitate Gualvaneus de la Flamma, in Muratori, Script. Rerum Italicarum, tom. xii. p. 104.1.). f Petrarch thus addresses his friend, who, with shame and

tears, had shewn him the moenia, lacerae specimen miserabile Romae,

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tiplied by each other; since the houses and towers,
which were subverted by civil war, required a new
and perpetual supply from the monuments of anti-
quity.
These general observations may be separately
applied to the amphitheatre of Titus, which has
obtained the name of the ColisEUM ", either
from its magnitude, or from Nero's colossal statue:
an edifice, had it been left to time and nature,
which might, perhaps, have claimed an eternal du-
ration. The curious antiquaries, who have com-
puted the numbers and seats, are disposed to be-
lieve, that above the upper row of stone steps,
the amphitheatre was encircled and elevated with
several stages of wooden galleries, which were
repeatedly consumed by fire, and restored by the
emperors. Whatever was precious, or portable,
or profane, the statues of gods and heroes, and
the costly ornaments of sculpture, which were cast
in brass, or overspread with leaves of silver and
gold,
Roma, and declared his own intention of restoring them, (Car.
mina Latina, 1. ii. epist. Paulo Annibalensi, xii. p. 97, 98 ):
Nec te parva manet servatis fama ruinis
Quanta quod integra fuit olim gloria Romae
Reliquiae testantur adhuc; quas longior aetas
Frangere non valuit; non vis aut ira cruenti
Hostis, ab egregiis franguntur civibus, heu! heu !
Quod isle nequivit (Hannibal)
Perficit hic aries. –

* The fourth part of the Verona Illustrata of the Marquis Maffei, professedly treats of amphitheatres, particularly those of Rome and Verona, of their dimensions, wooden galleries, &c. It is from magnitude that he derives the name of Colorreum, or Coliseum : since the same appellation was applied to the amphitheatre of Capua, without the aid of a colossal statue ; since rhat of Nero was erected in the court (in atrio) of his palace, and not in the Coliseum, (P. iv. p. 15–19. l. i. c. 4.).

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