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supplies the materials of subsistence, of manufac- c H A P.
tures, and of foreign trade. But the greater part of the Campagna of Rome is reduced to a dreary
and desolate wilderness; the overgrown estates of
the princes and the clergy are, cultivated by the lazy hands of indigent and hopeless vassals; and the scanty harvests are confined or exported for the benefit of a monopoly. A second and more artificial cause of the growth of a metropolis, is the residence of a monarch, the expence of a luxurious court, and the tributes of dependent provinces. Those provinces and tributes had been lost in the fall of the empire; and, if some streams of the silver of Peru, and the gold of Brazil, have been attracted by the Vatican ; thes revenues of the cardinals, the fees of office, the oblations of pilgrims and clients, and the remnant of ecclesiastical taxes, afford a poor and precarious supply, which maintains, however, the idleness of the court and city. The population of Rome, far below the measure of the great capitals of Europe, does not exceed one hundred and seventy thousand inhabitants”; and within the spacious inclosure of the walls, the largest portion of the seven hills is overspread with vineyards and ruins. The beauty and splendour of the modern city may be ascribed to the abuses of the government, to the influence of superstition. Each reign (the exceptions are rare) - has
* In the year 1729, the inhabitants of Rome (without in.
cluding eight or ten thousand Jews) amounted to 138,568 souls, (Labat Voyages en Espagne et in Italie, tom. iii. p. 217, 218.) In 1742 they had increased to 146,08o3 and in 1765, I left them, without the Jews, 161,899. I am ignorant
whether they have since continued in a progressive state.
has been marked by the rapid elevation of a new family, enriched by the childless pontiff at the expence of the church and country. The palaces of these fortunate nephews are the most costly monuments of elegance and servitude; the perfect arts of architecture, painting, and sculpture, have been prostituted in their service, and their galleries and gardens are decorated with the most precious works of antiquity, which taste or vanity has prompted them to collect. The ecclesiastical revenues were more decently employed by the popes themselves in the pomp of the Catholic worship; but it is superfluous to enumerate their pious foundations of altars, chapels, and churches, since these lesser stars are eclipsed by the sun of the Vatican, by the dome of St Peter, the most glorious structure that ever has been applied to the use of religion. The fame of Julius the Second, Leo the Tenth, and Sixtus the Fifth, is accompanied by the superior merit of Bramante and Fontana, of Raphael and Michael-Angelo; and the same munificence which had been displayed in palaces and temples, was directed with equal zeal to re
vive and emulate the labours of antiquity. Pros
trate obelisks were raised from the ground, and erected in the most conspicuous places; of the eleven aqueducts of the Caesars and Consuls, three were restored ; the artificial rivers were conducted over a long series of old, or of new arches, to discharge into marble basins a flood of salubrious and refreshing waters; and, the spectator, impatient to ascend the steps of St Peter's, is detained by a column of Egyptian granite, which
rises between two lofty and perpetual fountains, c H. A. P.
to the height of one hundred and twenty feet. The map, the description, the monuments of ancient Rome, have been elucidated by the dili
gence of the antiquarian and the student"; and the footsteps of heroes, the relics, not of superstition, but of empire, are devoutly visited by a new race of pilgrims from the remote, and once savage, countries of the North.
Of these pilgrims, and of every reader, the attention will be excited by an history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire; the greatest, perhaps, and most awful scene, in the history of mankind. The various causes and progressive effects are connected with many of the events In OSt
* The Pere Montfaucon distributes his own observations into twenty days, he should have styled them weeks, or months, of his visits to the different parts of the city, (Diarium Italicum, c. 8—20. p. 1 oA—3ol.). That learned Benedictine reviews the topographers of ancient Rome; the first efforts of Blondus, Fulvius, Martianus, and Faunus, the superior labours of Pyrrhus Ligorius, had his learning been equal to his labours; the writings of Onuphrius Panvinus, qui omnes obscuravit, and the recent but imperfect books of Donatus and Nardini. Yet Montfaucon still sighs for a more complete plan and description of the old city, which must be attained by the three following methods: 1. The measurement of the space and intervals of the ruins. 2. The study of inscriptions, and the places where they were found. 3. The investigation of all the acts, charters, diaries of the middle ages, which name any spot or building of Rome. The laborious work, such as Montfaucon desired, must be promoted by princely or public munificence; but the great modern plan of Nolli (A.D. 1748) would furnish a solid and accurate basis for the ancient topography of Rome.
most interesting in human annals; the artful policy of the Caesars, who long maintained the name and
image of a free republic; the disorder of military
despotism ; the rise, establishment, and sects of
N. B. The Roman Numerals refer to the Volume, and the Figures
BAN, the Saracen, heroism of his widow, ix. 393.
* Allalmaki, Caliph of the Saracens, refuses tribute to the Emperor of
Constantinople, and establishes a national mint, x. 7.
*-i-. the Saracen, his treaty with Theodemir, the Gothic prince