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La France Littéraire; Barbier, Dictionnaire | des Ouvrages Anonymes et Pseudonymes (see indexes); Le Long, Bibliothèque Historique, iii. No. 38282.; Saxius, Onomast. v. 305.; Morhofius, Polyhist. Lit. i. 225.; Fabricius, Hist. Bibl. Fabr. iv. 194.) W. D. C. AMELOT, SEBASTIEN-MICHEL, born at Angers in 1741 of an ancient family, became bishop of Vannes in 1775. On the breaking out of the revolution he was one of the most determined of those ecclesiastics who refused to take the oaths to the constitution; and, after having been summoned to the bar of the Constituent Assembly, he emigrated into Switzerland, and afterwards crossed to England. He was one of the thirteen bishops who, in 1801, refused to obey the recommendation addressed to the French emigrant bishops by Pius VII., that they should promote the restoration of peace to the church by resigning their sees. In 1817, however, Amelot gave in, at the request of the king, his resignation, which he had declined to give to the head of the church. He died at Paris in 1829. (Biographie Universelle, Supplt.) W. S.

AMELOTTE or AMELOTE, DENYS, a French ecclesiastic of the seventeenth century, born A. D. 1606 at Saintes in Saintonge. He was ordained priest a. D. 1632, and some time afterwards took the degree of doctor of divinity. He formed an intimacy with the priests of the congregation of the Oratory, and subsequently became a member of that body. According to Niceron, he joined them in the year 1650; but if we may trust the accuracy of Le Long (Bibliothèque Françoise), he is styled priest of the Oratory in the titlepage to his Life of Condren, which was published several years before 1650.

Amelotte had been a pupil of Condren, who was second superior general of the priests of the Oratory in France, and had received from him such an account of the sentiments of Du Verger de Hauranne, abbot of St. Cyran, and others of the Jansenists, as gave him a great dislike to them; though his own views on the subject of predestination and grace were not far remote from theirs, for he was a follower of St. Thomas of Aquino. In his life of Condren he made some remarks on Du Verger de Hauranne, which gave great offence to the friends of that ecclesiastic. It has been stated that this caused the members of the society of Port Royal to attack Amelotte in a work entitled "Idée générale de l'E'sprit et du Livre du Père Amelotte," 4to. Paris, 1661, written by Nicole; but this work was designed as a reply to a publication of Amelotte's on the Jansenist controversy, entitled "Défense des Constitutions de Innocent X. et d'Alexandre VII.," &c., which appeared A. D. 1660. cole treated Amelotte very severely, in dulging in personal reflections; and in order to make these more effective, paid a visit to


Amelotte, under pretence of consulting him on some case of conscience, that he might observe the grimaces and other peculiarities of manner which characterised him. Another reply to Amelotte was published by Noël de la Lane. Amelotte retaliated the abuse of Nicole in the dedication of his translation of the New Testament, addressed to Perefixe, archbishop of Paris, in which he described the Jansenists as "blind rebels," and charged them with "rage, imposture, and calumny." His irritation had probably been increased by a report which the members of Port Royal had circulated throughout Paris, that he had surreptitiously obtained a manuscript copy of the version which they were preparing, and had used it in making or correcting his own. They even pointed out the channel by which the copy was obtained; and Father Simon, a friend of Amelotte, admits that the similarity of the two versions in several places gave countenance to the charge. Amelotte prevented them by his influence from obtaining a licence to publish their version at Paris. It was published at Mons, and is known as De Sacy's version. When the Jansenist disputes had been brought to a close, Arnauld, one of the most eminent of the society of Port Royal, applied to Amelotte to suppress his preface, which Amelotte agreed to do, if the "Idée, &c." of Nicole were suppressed also; but as Nicole was not willing to consent to this, though he promised that the work should not be reprinted, Amelotte allowed the preface to remain. It was however replaced by another, when a second edition of the version was published after Amelotte's death.

Amelotte was superior of the house of the congregation of the Oratory, Rue St. Honoré, Paris, and assistant to the superior general of the congregation. He was the theological adviser of the Chancellor Seguier, whom he had prevailed on to withhold his licence from the Port Royal New Testament. Amelotte, in the latter part of his life, was anxious to obtain the bishopric of Sarlat in Perigord, but did not succeed. He complained to his friends of this failure, which he ascribed to the neglect of persons of influence whom he had done much to oblige. He died at Paris, 7th October, 1678, aged seventytwo, according to Niceron. Le Long, in a note to his "Bibliothèque Historique de la France," places his death in 1675.

Amelotte was the author of several works, of which the following are the most important :-1. "Vie de Charles de Condren, second Supérieur Général de la Congregation de l'Oratoire de Jesus," 4to. Paris, 1643. This work came to a second edition, enlarged by the author, 8vo. Paris, 1657. "Vie de Sœur Marguerite du Saint Sacrement, Carmelite du Monastère de Beaune." 8vo. Paris, 1655. Amelotte wrote this at the request of the queen-mother, Anne of


Austria, to whom it was dedicated. It was published without his name, but is said on the title-page to be by a priest of the Oratory. 3. "Défense des Constitutions d'Innocent X. et d'Alexander VII., et des Decrets de l'Assemblée du Clergé, contre la Doctrine de Jansenius," &c. This work was to consist of three parts, but only the first part appeared (4to. Paris, 1660); it was accompanied by a treatise on the duty of subscribing the bulls of the popes and the decrees of the French bishops. This was the work which drew upon Amelotte the attack of Nicole. 4. "Le Nouveau Testament, traduit en François, avec des Notes sur les principales Difficultés," &c. 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1666, 1667, and 1670. This version, which is from the Clementine edition of the Vulgate, is described by Simon as worthy of being reprinted. Apparently the notes were regarded by him as constituting its chief value; for he admits that the text needed revision, as it was marked by several faults, some of them rather gross ones, especially as it regarded the criticism of the text. Amelotte was anxious to render the style of his version more polished than the style of those which had preceded it; and for this purpose submitted it to the revision of M. Courart, a Protestant, who, though ignorant of the learned languages, was eminent for his mastery of the French. The suspicion that the author availed himself of the version of the Port Royalists in making or correcting his own has been noticed. Amelotte's version was republished twice, if not three times, in the author's lifetime, but without the notes: it has been reprinted many times since. A second edition, with the notes, and with a new dedication to Harlay, successor of Perefixe in the archbishopric of Paris, was published A. D. 1688, in two vols. 4to. The other works of Amelotte are religious, and comprehend two lives of Jesus Christ; one in Latin, and one in French, harmonised from the four Gospels in the Latin version and in his own French version. "Le petit Office du Saint Enfant Jesus," enumerated by Niceron among the works of Amelotte, appears to have been written by Marguerite du Saint Sacrement, whose life Amelotte wrote, and was merely edited by him. (Le Long, Bibliothèque de la France, iv. 370. edition by Fevret de Fontette, Paris, 1775; Richard Simon, Bibliothèque Critique; Niceron, Mémoires, &c.) J. C. M. AMELUNGHI, GIRO'LAMO, a native of Pisa, nicknamed "the Hunchback" ("Il Gobbo di Pisa,") lived in the middle part of the sixteenth century. He is known as a poet in the burlesque style, and has been considered the inventor of that kind of poem styled by the Italians Eroicocomico, in which afterwards Tassoni in his "Secchia rapita," and Bracciolini in his "Scherno degli Dei," distinguished themselves. Amelunghi's poem is entitled "La Gigantea," in which the author describes in serio-comic strains, the war

of the giants against Jupiter and the other gods. It was first printed, according to Zeno and Haym, in 1547, and was reprinted in 1566, together with another poem of the same sort, entitled "La Nanea," or the war of the pygmies with the giants, the author of which is not known, though the poem bears the name of F. Aminta. Amelunghi, who in the title of his "Gigantea," concealed himself under the name of Forabosco, is said to have borrowed his poem almost entirely from one written by a certain Betto Arrighi, which does not seem to have ever been published. However this may be, the " Gigantea’ was applauded; and it went through more than one edition; and Amelunghi, who wrote other burlesque verses, some of which are found in various collections, enjoyed a sort of reputation in his lifetime. Professor Rosini, in his historical novel "Luisa Strozzi," introduces Amelunghi as a kind of buffoon, and ridicules his poetry. In the "Canti Carnascialeschi," Florence, 1559, is inserted a facetious canto by Amelunghi, entitled Gli Scolari, or the Students." (Mazzuchelli, Scrittori d'Italia; Crescimbeni, Istoria della volgar Poesia.)

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A. V.

AME'NDOLA, FERRA'NTE, an historical painter of Naples, where he was born in 1664. He was a scholar of the celebrated Solimena, in whose style he painted for some time, but he afterwards imitated that of Luca Giordano. Amendola painted many works at Naples, but his best are two altar-pieces in the church of the Madonna di Monte Virgine: one representing the wife of the Count Ruggiero carrying the image of the Virgin to the mount; the other, the consecration of the church: he painted also the cupola of the same church. Dominici says that Amendola's chief merit consisted in a practical facility in colouring, and that he completely failed in his attempt to imitate the masterly manner of Giordano, especially in the draperies. In the royal gallery of Munich there was in 1835, according to Dr. Nagler, in his Dictionary of Artists, a very clever picture of a quack doctor's shop by Amendola : but it is not in the catalogue of the royal gallery of 1833, nor is the name of Amendola in the catalogue of 1838 of the pictures in the Pinakothek, the new gallery. Amendola died at Naples in 1724. (Dominici, Vite di Pittori, &c. Napolitani.)

R. N. W. AMENO'PHIS or AMMENO'PHIS ('Auevŵpis), a name common to several of the early kings of Egypt. The earliest of the name is the third king of the eighteenth dynasty, and after this time the name occurs frequently. For instance, the eighth and sixteenth kings of the eighteenth dynasty; the third, seventh, and sixteenth of the nineteenth dynasty, bear the name Amenophis. The name has of late years acquired celebrity from the fact that it occurs not only in the

lists of the Egyptian kings in Manetho, but also on several of the ancient monuments of Egypt, and from the fact that we possess portraits of at least one king of this name. The second and third require a more particular notice.

AMENOPHIS II. (Amenoph or Amenothph) is usually considered to be the same as the Memnon, the son of Aurora, and king of the Ethiopians, who is so mysteriously introduced in the Greek stories about Troy, and whose statue was believed to emit sounds at the moment when the sun rose. He was a son of Tuthmosis III. In his reign Lower Egypt was again disturbed by the Shepherds (Hycsos), who had been obliged to quit the country by his father about the year B. C. 1530. Amenophis did not succeed in expelling them finally till after the lapse of thirteen years. When this was accomplished, he turned his thoughts towards the completion of the works which his father had left unfinished. He also made some additions to the great edifice of Karnak, and began the small temple at Amada in Nubia, which was completed by his son and successor Tuthmosis IV. He is said to have reigned thirty-one years. His tomb, which is still extant at Thebes, is in the best style of Egyptian art, both as to architecture and sculpture. His name occurs also on a temple near Apollinopolis Parva, on another at Eileithyias (El Kab), and on a third at Elephantine.

AMENOPHIS III., a son of Tuthmosis IV., and grandson of Amenophis II. According to Sir G. Wilkinson he reigned at first in common with his brother, who bore the same name. Both had been educated by their mother, who reigned during their minority, and afterwards both had equal authority. One of the brothers died, and the survivor is said to have destroyed nearly all the monuments on which the name of his brother was recorded. The two brothers during their common reign had commenced the temple at Luksor, and that on the Libyan side of the river with two sitting colossi was finished before the death of one of them. They had also built or repaired stations on the road to the emerald mines, and promoted the welfare of their country in many respects. The reign of Amenophis is calculated to fall about two hundred years before the Trojan war. Some believe that it was this king's statue at Thebes which was so celebrated for uttering musical sounds. This statue is still extant, and the legs are covered to the height of eight or nine feet with Greek and Latin inscriptions, which attest the vocal powers of this Memnon, or Phamenoth as he is called. One of these inscriptions, which consists of six Greek elegiac verses, records that Sabina, the wife of the Emperor Hadrian, heard the vocal sounds. Strabo also (Casaub. 806.) says that he visited the colossus in company with

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Ælius Gallus, and heard the sounds. explanation of this phenomenon is suggested by Wilkinson, "Topography of Thebes," p. 37. One inscription states that the statue was overthrown by Cambyses. It consists of gritstone, and, although in a sitting attitude, it is about sixty feet high. There are several statues of this king now in the British Museum, viz. No. 21., a sitting figure; Nos. 37. 57. and 88., sitting figures with tigers' heads. Rosellini, in his plates, has given a portrait of Amenophis III. from a painting in his tomb at Thebes, but it does not resemble the statue of Amenophis in the British Museum. He was the founder of the palace at Karnak, and he is said to have built more in Ethiopia than any other of the Egyptian kings. The colossal bust in the British Museum commonly called the Memnon is the bust of Rameses the Great. (Georg. Syncellus, p. 130, &c. ed. Dindorf; Sir G. Wilkinson, Materia Hieroglyphica, part ii. ; S. Sharpe, The early History of Egypt, p. 64, &c.; Egyptian Antiquities, in Library of Entertaining Knowledge, i. 258, &c. For the general chronology of the kings of Egypt the reader may also consult Die Alte Egyptische Zeitrechnung, von R. Rask.) L. S.


AMENTA, NICCOLO', born at Naples in 1659, studied law, and afterwards practised as an advocate; he also applied himself to literature, and wrote several comedies in prose, which were much esteemed; besides Capitoli, Rime, and other small poems, and several philological works on the Italian language:- 1. “ Della Lingua nobile d'Italia e del modo di leggiadramente scrivere in essa non che di perfettamente parlare, Parti II." Naples, 1723. 2. "Il Torto, e'l Diritto del non si può, esaminato da Ferrante Longobardi, colle osservazioni di Niccolò Amenta Avvocato Napoletano." Naples, 1717 and 1728. This work consists of Amenta's observations and strictures upon a celebrated treatise on language, by the Jesuit Daniele Bartoli, entitled "Il Torto e'l Diritto del non si può," published at Rome in 1668, under the fictitious name of Ferrante Longobardi. 3. A letter in defence of Muratori's work" Della Perfetta Poesia Italiana," against several critics. 4. "De' rapporti di Parnaso Parte Prima." Naples, 1710. This work is an imitation of Boccalini's " Ragguagli di Parnaso," with this difference, however, that Boccalini introduces political discussions in his work, while Amenta, more true to his title, confines himself to literary disquisitions and criticism. 5. Vita di Lionardo Napoletano," inserted in vol. ii. of the Vite degli Arcadi illustri," Rome, 1710, and reprinted at Venice the same year, with additions. 6. "Vita di Monsignor Scipione Pasquale Cosentino," at the head of the edition of Cosentino's works, edited by Amenta, Venice, 1701-1703. Amenta was considered one of the most correct and elegant

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Italian writers of his age. He died in 1719. (Mazzuchelli, Scrittori d'Italia.) A. V. AMENTAS ('Aμhvτns), an ancient Greek surgeon of whose life and date nothing is known, except that he must have lived in or before the second century after Christ, as he is mentioned by Galen (De Fasciis, cap. lviii. Ixi. lxxxix., tom. xii. p. 486, 487, 493. ed. Chart.) as the inventor of some ingenious bandages, one for a fracture of the ossa nasi, another for straightening a nose inclined to either side, and a third for a broken rib, &c. One fragment of the works of a surgeon named Amyntas (of which name Amentas may very possibly be a corruption) is inserted by Oribasius in his great work, "Collecta Medicinalia," lib. xlviii. cap. 30., in the fourth volume of Angelo Mai's collection of “ Classici Auctores e Vaticanis Codicibus," Rome, 8vo. p. 99.; and some others are to be found in the manuscript collection of Greek surgical authors by Nicetas. (Fabricius, Bibliotheca Græca, tom. xii. p. 778. ed. vet.) Sprengel suggests (Hist. de la Méd. tom. i. p. 467.) that he is probably the same person (mentioned in the scholiast to Theocritus, Idyll. xvii. v. 128.) who entered into a conspiracy against Ptolemy Philadelphus with Chrysippus of Rhodes and Arsinoë, the daughter of Lysimachus, and who was put to death upon the discovery of the plot, about B. C. 264.

W. A. G. AMERBACH, BASIL, a son of Boniface Amerbach, was born at Basil in 1534, studied jurisprudence at that city and at Bologna, and on his return to Switzerland in 1562, succeeded his father in the professorship at the university of Basil, of which, like his father, he was five times rector, and to which, at his death in 1591, he left a sum for the purpose of founding a new class called the "classis Amerbachiana." He published nothing, but left several of his manuscripts to the university library. He was married, and had one son, named Bonifaciolus, by whose death the male line of the Amerbachs was extinguished. His sister, Faustina, who was first married to Ulric Iselin, a distinguished professor of jurisprudence at Basil, was the ancestress of the wide-spread and powerful family of the Iselins of that city, and, after her first husband's death, became the fourth wife of the famous printer, Herbst, or, as he is more generally called, Oporinus. (Iselische Historische Lexikon, i. 353.) T. W. AMERBACH, BONIFACE, the third and youngest son of Johann Amerbach, the printer of Basil, was born in that city in the year 1495, and received an excellent education, partly from John Conon, a native of Nürnberg, who had travelled in Italy, and whom Johann Amerbach retained as a private tutor for his sons. By his skill in Hebrew, which is highly spoken of by Erasmus, who

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at the same time acknowledges himself no proficient in that language, he was enabled to be of much service in the correction of the edition of the works of St. Jerome, which his two brothers and himself corrected in obedience to the dying wishes of their father. His connection with this work brought him into intimacy with Erasmus, who esteemed him highly. In 1513 he took his degrees as master of arts and philosophy at the university of Basil, and then removed to Freiburg to study law under Ulric Zasius, whom he was the means of introducing to the friendship of Erasmus, as may be seen in the correspondence between those two scholars, which abounds in compliments to Amerbach, as well as very fulsome ones to each other. He afterwards travelled in Italy and France, and took his degree of doctor of laws at Avignon, but finally returned to his native town, from which no subsequent offers, though he had several of an attractive kind from Italy, could tempt him. He taught civil law at the university of Basil from 1525 onwards for about twenty years, and died there in 1562, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. He was in easy circumstances, both from the family property, which centred in him owing to the death of his elder brothers, and from that brought him by his wife; and this enabled him to act a generous part, when, by Erasmus's will in 1536, he was appointed executor in conjunction with Froben and Episcopius, the two eminent printers of Basil, and also residuary legatee. Finding that Erasmus had neglected to mention in his will some poor scholars who had reason to expect a remembrance, he supplied the want himself, and also furnished the funds necessary for the carrying out of some perpetual charities, with the condition that the donations should be always made in Erasmus's name, which they are to this day. Instead of receiving anything under the will, Amerbach was thus a considerable loser. Amerbach is said by Melchior Adam to have remained attached, during all his life, to the Catholic religion; while a statement is made in the Basil Historical Lexicon, which was published by some of his descendants, to the effect that he conformed, after a slight hesitation, to the changes introduced by the Reformers in Basil.

Amerbach wrote very little. Gesner, in the Appendix to his "Bibliotheca," published in 1555, mentions him as the author of a letter on the city of Basil, inserted in Sebastian Munster's "Cosmography," which occupies little more than one folio page, and adds that he had written dissertations, repì èmieikelas kal τοῦ ἐπιεικοῦs, and περὶ τοῦ ἑκουσίου καὶ ἀκουσίου "on moderation" and "on voluntary and involuntary action," (probably legal dissertations in the Latin language, though with a Greek title,) which, Gesner adds, "he will some time publish, God willing." The same notice was repeated without alteration in the edition of

Gesner published in 1583, one-and-twenty | motive could deter from the endeavour of years after Amerbach's death. Erasmus, in one of his letters, speaks of his Latin style as nearly equal to that of Politian. (Pantaleon, Prosopographia, Basil, 1565-6, ii. 264, &c.; Boissardus, Bibliotheca sive Thesaurus Virtutis et Gloria, xi. 80, 81. (with a portrait); Melchior Adamus, Vitæ Germanorum Jurisconsultorum, p. 152. (The lives by Boissard and Adam are taken almost entirely from Pantaleon); Erasmus, Opera Omnia, edit. of Le Clerc, iii. 1249, 1289, &c.; Gesner, Appendix, Bibliothecæ, edit. of 1555, p. 19., Bibliotheca, edit. of 1583, p. 123. ; Iselische Historische Lexikon, i. 353.) T. W.

making all Augustine common to all. This man was not led by the love of gain, but by a sincere piety, the spirit of which breathes in all his prefaces, and a desire to revive the original fathers of the church, whom he grieved to see become almost obsolete." Unfortunately Amerbach was unable to procure good manuscripts for his edition, and its critical value is therefore, after all his exertions, very small. The type in which it was printed was novel, and is still known among foreign printers by the name of the St. Augustine.

Amerbach was desirous of publishing a collection of the works of St. Jerome, and had his three sons, Bruno, Basil, and Boniface, all youths of great abilities, carefully instructed in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, in order that they might be fit to correct the press, a circumstance which calls forth from Maittaire a burst of admiration, and an indignant exclamation at the degeneracy of the printers of his own time, rather more than a hundred years ago. All three became not only excellent scholars, for

AMERBACH, ELIAS NICHOLAS, an eminent musician of the sixteenth century, was organist of St. Thomas's church in Leipzig in the year 1571. He says that he completed his education in a foreign country, probably in Flanders, which at that time abounded with accomplished musicians. His memory has been principally preserved by his "Tablature for the Organ," a work which also contains several motets, galliards, passomezzi, &c. The preface furnishes an explanation of the tablature, and contains direc-which we have the testimony of Erasmus, but tions for playing on the organ. In addition to his own compositions, Amerbach has inserted in this work others by Baptista, Heinz, Scandel, Orlando di Lasso, and Vento. Little more is known of him; but his musical attainments seem to have been thought highly of by his contemporary countrymen. In the Poemata of Gregorius Bersmann the following passage occurs:

"Hoc satis est: satis est Eliæ dicere nomen : Quod superest, ipsum nempe loquetur opus.' (Gerber, Lexicon der Tonkünstler.)

E. T. AMERBACH, JOHANN, an early printer of great repute for the typographical correctness of his editions. He was born at Reutlingen in Swabia, studied at Paris under Jean de Lapierre or Lapidanus, the prior of the Sorbonne, who had the honour of first inviting printers to that city, and took the degree of master of arts. Amerbach carried on the trade, or rather in his case the profession, of printing, at Basil, from 1481 till 1515, in which year he died. His chief publications were the works of St. Ambrose, issued in 1492, and those of St. Augustine, in 1506, the latter the first edition of the collected works of that author, and a conspicuous undertaking.."The magnitude of the expense deterred the printers," says Erasmus, in a prefatory epistle to an edition of Augustine of the date of 1529. "The first who ventured on this great undertaking was John Amerbach, a man of singular piety, amply endowed with wealth, but still more with the stores of intellect, whom neither the immense expense of the work, the difficulty of procuring copies from all quarters, the fatigue of collating them, the necessary attention to other affairs, nor any other

so enthusiastic in favour of Jerome, that they spared neither their wealth nor their health for his sake. The good old man, at his decease in 1515, recommended the edition to their care, with an injunction to apply what property he left towards it. The edition was issued in the course of the ten years from 1516 to 1526, from the press of Froben, whom Amerbach had first invited to Basil. (Letter on Basil by Boniface Amerbach in Munsterus, Cosmographia Universalis, lib. vi. ; Erasmus, Opera Omnia, edition of Le Clerc, iii. 1249, &c.; Maittaire, Annales Typographici, tomi i. pars i. 37–42., where all the original authorities are referred to.) T. W.

AMERGIN or AMERGHIN (Latinized AMERGINUS), surnamed Glungeal, "the white-kneed," one of the leaders in the Milesian expedition, which occupies so prominent a place in the ancient history of Ireland, and is said by O'Halloran (the substance of whose narrative we give) to have occurred A. M. 2735 or B. c. 1266. O'Flaherty places it in A. M. 2934 or B. c. 1016. Amergin was the son of Golamh or Gollamh, surnamed Milo Spainneach, or the "Spanish hero," Latinized Milesius, by his second wife Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, in which country Amergin was born. He was made archpriest of the Milesians while they were in Spain some time after A. M. 2706. On the first landing of the Milesians in Kerry, Amergin was despatched to the three Danaan (supposed to be Damnonian) princes, who then ruled Ireland, requiring them to submit to the invaders; but on their remonstrating against the unfairness of so sudden an invasion, it was agreed that the Milesians should withdraw to their ships

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