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refrigeration. No register of the fall of rain, so far as I know, has been kept, but it may be said that more falls than on the plains near the D1’1n, and less than on the mountains above it. According to Mr. SHORE, the average of three years was 112 rainy days in 365. The climate is decidedly damp, and remarkably so in contrast with the plains. This is a necessary consequence, from its situation between the Himalayan mountains and the Sewédik Hills, and from the great quantity of jungle with which it is still covered. In the hot winds, on entering the Dfm, after leaving the parched and withered aridity of the plains, the eye is filled with a refreshing vista of luxuriant verdure. Parasitical orchideae or air plants, which require a combination of great moisture and _heat to thrive in, cover the trees in the greatest profusion : while at Seharanpur, they are kept with difliculty alive, under a constant supply of artificially afforded moisture. Very rarely, perhaps once or twice in the memory of man, snow falls in the Dun. Mr. Snonn records an event of this kind as havingoccurred in Feb. 1814.
From what has been mentioned above, it appears to me that there is a great similarity between the climate of the tea districts of China, and that of the lower heights, or the outer ridges of the Himalayas, in the parallel of 29°30’. The chief difference is perhaps more moisture in this country. How extensive a range of temperature may be had will be seen by collating in a tabular form, the temperature of four places
already given, as below : Annual mean heat. Summer heat. Winter heat
By varying the altitude the temperature could be graduated to any point that might be desirable, and as temperature is the mean condition, I am-of opinion that tea might successfully be cultivated in this part of India. It is an experiment which can be conducted properly only by a Government. On an extensive scale, the risk would be too great for private speculation, and on a small one, the advantage too inconsiderable. There remains now to consider what situation is best adapted for atrial. Besides fitness of climate, there are other circumstances tobetaken into account as affecting a favorable experiment :—such as abundance and cost of labor, facility of communication, and distance from the plains.
Three stations in the mountains within the Company’s territories might be thought of, Almora, Subéthu, and Masuri. The hills about Almora, although favorable enough in climate, are separated from the plains by a broad belt of Terai, which is only passable at certain sea
—sons of the year : and it is so unhealthy as to be unsafe at all times to pass through. The population in the neighbouring hills is scanty, and a. great portion of the Teréii is uninhabited- Were the tea cultivated, be
sides a permanent establishment, at the season of gathering, a number of additional hands would be required, which could only be advantageously provided where labour was plentiful and cheap. On these accounts, I am inclined to think, that Almora would not be an elegible
district to make a trial in.
Of Subaithu I cannot speak from personal observation, but I imagine it would be a good situation. It is immediately over the plains. There is some level ground about it; there is no Terai jungle in front of it, and the country at the foot of the mountain is inhabited. The valley of Pinj6r, in the neighbourhood, is populous. The climate is like that of corresponding heights on the hills north of the D1’1n.
I am inclined to think the best ground would be near Masfiri on the hills north of the D1'm. The district lies between the J umna and Ganges, which are navigable till within a few marches from the foot of the hills. The communication with the plains is open almost all months of the year, and the valley of the Dun is inhabited. There might be had here within a short distance a great variety of situations in respect of soil, climate, and exposure. I imagine that the best position would be a tract on the southern face of the outermost ridge, situated from 3000 to 6000 feet above the sea, or where the hot winds cease, up to the limit of winter snow. On the northern slope, it should be at a lower level, and perhaps here the finer sorts of tea might be produced. The valley of the D1'1n has a gravelly or sandy soil, which appears closely to resemble what is described as best for the tea cultivation in China, and the climate is such that it is probable that the inferiorldnds of tea, such as are grown in the province of Canton, forming perhaps a large proportion of the article exported to Europe, if not superior teas, might be produced in it. In some places, as at Nahu, the rocks and soil of the Sewélik hill formation rise upon the Himalayas to the height of 3000 feet, and in situations of this sort all the most favorable conditions of soil and climate are combined.
I shall conclude by stating compendiously the opinions in this letter:
1. That the tea plant may be successfully cultivated in India.
2. That this can be expected no where in the plains from 30° N, down to Calcutta.
. 3. That in the Himélaya mountains, near the parallel of 30° N. notwithstanding some circumstances of soil and moisture of climate, the tea plant may be cultivated with greatprospect of success ; that a climate here may be found similar in respect of temperature to the tea countries in China ; that in the direction and great slope of the hills, the absence of table-land or elevated valleys, and the contracted figure of the existing valleys, are the chief difficulties in the way of cultivation, which ‘may prevent tea from being produced in great quantity on any one spot.
4. That the most favourable ground for a trial is a tract on the outer ridges, extending from 3000 feet above the sea, or the point where the hot winds cease, up to the limit of winter snow.
5. That in the valley called the Déhra Dun, if not the better, the inferior sorts of tea might be produced.
IV.—On the Efiiorescence of Khriri Ntin, or Sulphate of Soda, as found native in the soil qf Tirhu't and Sarun, in the province of Behar. By Mr. J . Stephenson, Supt. H. C. Saltpetre Factories, &c.
The first time I had an opportunity of observing the efllorescence of this salt, took place in the month of January, 1831, between the villages of Mow and Jandaha, in Tirhzit. I was travelling between the first place and Singhea, a distance of 40 miles. It being night time, and my bearers having stopped to refresh themselves, I looked around and was surprised to find the ground covered white in all directions. Being then a stranger to this part of the country, and the weather very cold, I thought the white appearance might be caused by frost rind*, or a. shower of snow ; but on further examination, I found it to be an efllorescence of saline matter, coveringthe earth to the depth (in some places) of a quarter of an inch. In a few minutes, I collected a suflicient quantity for future examination, and I subsequently subjected the same to analysis. The result I found as follows:
Examination by tests.
Nitrate of silver, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precipitate not very copious. The two last precipitates being carefully washed, dried, and weighed,
Sulphate of soda, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Several other samples, which I tried, varied in the quantity of insoluble earthy matter, but very little in the composition of the saline contents. Of course the insoluble matter will vary according to the care taken in collecting the article at the surface of the ground, the upper
part of which is the purest. I l I have during a three-years’ residence had many opportunitles of
observing (in my frequent journeys in Tirhu't and Sarun) the efliores‘ ‘circumstance of no unusual appearance in Behar during the cold season.
cence of this salt, which is in almost inexhaustible abundancé during the dry season of this country. The natives collect and manufacture it into a salt called by them khrirz’ min (bitter salt,) which is given to cattle as a medicine, and used in the process of tanning, or rather dressing and preparing the hides to be tanned. It forms a considerable native article of commerce in these districts, and as the process of making‘ it diifers somewhat from that of saltpetre, I shall on a future occasion attempt a description of the native manufacture. An examination of the water from about 20 wells at different distances from each other, on the road between Singhea and Mow, (about 20 coss,) produced the following amount of saline matter, contained in a standard English gallon:
Sulphate of soda, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.4 grains
Total of saline mater in solution, . . . . 50.2 per gallon,
The above samples of water forming an average from 20 wells was taken in the month of April, 1833, and forming a line of considerable distance east and west through the south part of Tirhu't. This result is a tolerable approximation tothe contents of the saline nature of the soil.
A sample of the water of the river Gandak, taken from the stream
opposite Singkea, this present month, gave me nearly 2 grains of mu-_
riate of soda in 16 oz. or a pint measure. The tests did not indicate any other kind of saline matter in solution. It is worthy of remark, that the water of the river Sdn at this time is perfectly pure, at least I could not detect any saline matter in solution by various re-agents. It ought in con. sequence to be used in preference to any other at this season by every
one, even at a distance, who can afford the expense of carriage. I have‘
ventured an opinion, that the tumours or swellings of the throats of the natives dwelling on this side of the Ganges are caused by the saline nature of the water they are under the necessity of using at this season of the year. Be this as it may, the hint may not altogether be uninter_ esting to the medical gentlemen of these districts, and who may here. after establish as a fact what I have merely hinted as a crude opinion.
In conclusion, I have to remark that the above efliorescence of sulphate of soda may hereafter, when European skill and capital becomes more abundant in these productive districts, be converted into a valuable article of commerce; for it is manufactured in England and France at a great cost from the muriate of soda, by sulphuric acid, and was valued in the London market in the year 1830, at from £8 to 10 the ton. It is almost unnecessary to add, that there is a suflicient quantity of this article in Tirhu't and Saran to supply the whole of India with Glauber salts to be used in cooling wines, and water, or along with other salts used for the purpose.
V.-Meteorological'Reyister for 1833, kept at Bamoora, by J. McRitchie, Esq.
I .41 6 days obser. I vatiomfine and ' dry; the outside, 7 A. 111.42. Sometimes cloudy, generally dry. Strong westerly Winds; very hot; eddies. Occasionally variable winds; showers two and three, with thunder and lightning. 4.197‘ 21;: Winds variable after 21st; very Se“ hot and close. 9.359 7 days’ ohsei-_ vations-_-awful‘ ly hot till 10th ; rains set in with I slight showers. July, ..~~ 86.2 90. -34' .33 7.171 s. w. 11.470 Heavy showers , I I first, lighter ’ .39 I
I M. two shocks; I rn. very heavy Sept. ....... 85.7
Some heavy showers, light towards the end of the month.
Generally hot, cloudy wea. ther; partial showers.
Cloudy, with a good deal of
I rainy weather
‘ May 21st, rain
1833. 77.5 sac 29.57 29.59 43.633 wy- 54.151 occ. fe1l3.285.in.
I 7:3,? Var. in Bar. .26 I I Oct. 7th, rain fell 3.895. 1832. 76,9 82.1 -59 .57 w.N. w. Oct Var.inBar..480 oi: Oct. 31st, rain IVEIY
fell 4460. 1831. 76,1 82.2 -60 “"' Var. in Bar.700. Nora.-—We have omitted the columns of rain for 1830, 1831, and 1832, which will
pgsfcsungz already printed in the Journal—(see volume I. page 154, and vol. 11. page . -— n. ‘ ‘