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became satisfied that that was the best place whereat to draw oil‘ the waters of the lake. Immediately he struck the mountain with his scimitar, when the sundered rock gave passage to the waters, and the bottom of the lake became dry. He then descended from the mountain, and began to walk about the valley in all directions. As he approached Guhyéswari*, he beheld the water bubbling up violently from the spot, and betook himself with pious zeal to the task of stopping it. No sooner had be commenced than the ebullition of the water became less violent, when, leaving bare only the flower of the lotos, the root of which was the abode of Guhyéswari, he erected a protecting structure of stone and brick over the recumbent stalk, and called the structure, which rose into a considerable elevation as it neared the flower of the lotos, Satya Giri. This work completed, MANJU S111 began to look about him in search of a fit place of residence, and at length constructed for that purpose a small hill, to which he gave the name of MANJU Sm Parbata, (the western half of the little hill of Sambhli Nath,) and called the desiccated valley, Ne'pcil¢i—Ne' signifying the sender (to paradise), who is SWOYAMBHU; and ptila, cherished, implying that the protecting genius of the valley was SWOYAMBHU or ADI-II Bunnnn. Thus the valley got the name of N épala: and, since very many persons had came from Mount Sirsha [or China] with MANJU Sni, for the residence of DHABMAKAR R/aja and his suite, MANJU constructed a large place of abode, half way between Mount Swoyambhu and Guhyéswari, and named it after himself, Manja Pattana, and established therein DHABMAKAB. [of Maha China], as Raja, subjecting the whole of the inferior sort of people who came from Sirsha. Parbata to Dnnnmnxnvfs rule, and providing abodes for them in the city of Manja Pattana.
Thus was Népél peopled : the first inhabitants of which came all from Mount Sirsha [which is in Maha China], and thus the valley got the name of Népala, and its inhabitants that of Népali, [whose primitive language was Chinese] [This language in course of time came to be much altered by the immigration of people from Madhya désa, and by the necessary progress of corruption and change in a new country,
“ The site of the temple is near the centre of the valley, on the skirts of the lovely grove of Pasupati ; and above 2% or 3 miles east from mount Sambhu. The fable says, that the root of the lotos of Guhyéswari was at the former place, and the flower at the latter ; the recumbent stalk being extended throughout the interval between them. Swovnunnu or Anal Bnnmm is supposed to reside in the flower, in tbe form of flame ; PRAJANA PABAMITA or Guxrnswnm, in or at the root, in the form of water.
till a new language arose in Népél by the natural course of things. The primitive inhabitants of Népzil were all of one caste, or had no caste. But their descendants, in the course of time, became divided into many castes, according to the trades and professions which they followed; and of these, such as abandoned the world and shaved their heads, became Bhikshu, Sramana, Chailaka, and Arhana, and took up their abode in forests or in monasteries. The latter four orders are all ascetical; and in strictness absolutely excluded from all worldly commerce. But should any of them, still retaining the custom of tonsure, become worldly men, such are called Sravaka, &c. to a great extent of diverse names]. MANJU SR1, having by such deeds as these acquired the highest celebrity in
Népzil, ostensibly, and for the instruction of the people, relinquished his‘
mortal form, and became nirvdn; but, in truth, departed for Mount Sirsha with his two Dévis, and in due course arrived at Pancha Sirsha Parvata. Some time after the disappearance of MANJU SKI [in the Trita yrig] KARKUT SANDBUDDHA came to Népél, with some Bhikshukas, DanaMAPALA Raja, and a multitude of the common people, from Kshémzivati Iiagar, of Madhya désa. The beauty of the country delighted him, and he
remarked that in such a land the cultivator must be sure to reap as he
sowed. He paid his devotions to SWOYAMBHU, and then launched out in praise of the merits of MA NJU SR1 theNipé.lese patriarch. Afterwards, he performed pfija to Guhyéswari, and then ascended Sankhocha mountain (Siva P1'1ra) : the prospect of the valley from that mount filled him with fresh delight, and he again celebrated the excellence of the country. GUNADHVAJA, a Brahman, and ABHAYANDADA, a Kshetriya, and others of the four castes (chatur varana), respectful followers of KURKUT SAND, here solicited at his hands the favour of being made Bhikshukas, in order that they might remain in this happy land, and by the worship of SwoYAMBHU attain to high merit and honour. KURKUT cheerfully complied, and agreed to make a great many of the company Bhikshukas; and since
the mountain top afforded no water for that ceremony, he by his divine‘
power caused a spring to issue from the rock, and with its waters gave to his followers the requisite Abhishéka or baptism. He called the river that originated with this spring Véingmatii ; and then related to his followers both the past and future history of the valley watered by the Vsingmati. Then, having left behind him at Népéd, Raja DHARMAPXL and some Bhikshus and common folks, who had come with him, and desired to stay, KURKUT SAND departed with the rest of them to his native city of Kshemzivati. These companions of KURKUT SAND, or KRAKUCCHAND, were the first natives of the plains of India (Madhya-désa) who remained in Népal. Many of them, addicting themselves to the
business of the world, became householders and the founders of several towns and villages in Népail; whilst others, who adopted the ascetical profession, dwelt in the forests and Vihars. When these Madhyadésiyas had became numerous in Népzil, they and their descendants were confounded with the former or northern colonists under the common appellation of Népfdi and Néwari ; being only separated and contradistinguished by the several trades and professions which they hereditarily practised. Thus, in the early ages. N épél had four classes of secular people, as Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra, and four ascetical classes, namely, Bhikshu, Sramana, Chailaka, and Arhanta, dwelling in forests and monasteries ; and all were Buddh-mrirgi.
Account of Dharmdkar Raja and Dharmapdl Raja.
DHARMAKAR, the before noted Chinese prince of Népéil, being disgusted with the world, abandoned his sovereign power, and placed Dharmapél, the Raja of Gour-dés, already mentioned, upon his throne. Dharmapdl governedhis subjects with perfect justice and clemency, and made piija at the Chaitya erected by DHARMAKAR, and regarded with equal favour his subjects that came from Mount Sirsha [or Maha China], and those who emigrated from Madhya-dés.
Account of Prachanda Deva.--PRACHANDA DEVA, a Raja of Gour-dés, (which is adjacent to Madhya-dés,) and of the Kshetriya tribe, was the wise man of his age and country. At length, being inspired with the ambition of becoming nirvan, he abandoned his princely sway; and taking with him a few sages, he began to wander over various countries, visiting all the shrines and pilgrimages, and in the course of his peregrinations arrived at Népéd. He was delighted with the beauty of the country, and having visited every tirtka, and pith, and devata, and having made puja to the Tri Raina, or triad, he went to the temple of SwoYAMBHU, and there performed his devotions. He then ascended MAN— JU sm Parvat, and offered his prayers to MANJU SM, and finished by be. coming a disciple of GUNAKAR Bnnrsnu, a follower of MANJU Sm, One day Pnncnnunn Dnva so delighted Gunsmm with the display of his ex. cellent qualities, that GU'NAKAR made him a Bhikshuka, and the said Raja PRACHANDA after becoming aBhikshu obtained thetitularappellation of SANTA snr. A great many Brahmans and others who accompanied Pancnnnnn to Népfil received the tonsure, and became Bhikshus at the same time with PRACHANDA, and took up their abode in the monasteries of Népél. Some others of those that came with PRACHANDA to Népal, preferring the pursuits of the world, continued to exercise them in Né
1 From Vach, speech.
pal, where they also remained and became Buddhists. A third portion of PRACHANDA’S companions returned to Gour-dés. After a time, SANTA SR1 represented to his Gfird GU'NAKAR his desire to protect the sacred flame of Swovsmano with a covering structure. GU'NAKAB was charmed with the proposition and proposer, and having purified him with 13 sprinklings of sacred water (tray/odas abhise’ka),gave himthe title of Dikshita Santikar Vajra Achzirya. [From these transactions is dated the arrival of the people of Gour-dés at N épal, and their becoming Buddhists]
Account of Kanaka Muni.—Once on a time, from Sfibhzivati-nagar of Madhya-dés, KANAKA MUNI BUDDHA, with many disciples, so1ne illustrious persons, and a countless multitude of common people, arrived at Népal, in the course of his religious peregrinations, and spent some months in the worship of SWOYAMBHU, and the Tri Ratna, and then departed with most of his attendants. A few remained at Népéil, became Buddh-mzirgi and worshippers of Sworsmnnu ; [and these too, like allthe preceding, soon lost their name and character as Madhyadésiyas, and were blended with the Népéli or Néwari race.
Account of Kdshyapa Buddha.—Once on a time, in Mrigadaba-vana, near -Benares, Kisuvsrs BUDDHA was born. He visited Népiil in pilgrimage, and made his devotions to Sambhu-nath. [Most of the people who came with him staid in Népeil, and soon became confounded w1th the aborigines]
Account of Sdlcya Sinha Buddha.-—Some time after KAsHYAPA’s visit, in the beginning of Kali yuga,] on the shores of Ganga Sagara, in the sthan of KAPILAMUNI, and city of Kapila-vasta, and reign of SADH6DANA Raja, of the Szikya vansa, was born (as the son of that Raja) SaunaTHA SIDDHA, who afterwards became a Buddha with the name of SAKYA SINHA. SAKYA, with 1350 Bhikshukas, and the Raja of Benares, several counsellors of state, and a crowd of peasantry of that kin-gdom, set out on the pilgrimage to Népal. Having paid his devotions to the selfexistent, in the form of flame, he went to the Chaitya on Pdchhagra Hill, and repeated to his disciples the past history of Népal, as well as its whole future history, with many praises of MANJU SR1 Bonrn sxrws: he then observed, “In all the world are 24 Piths, and of all these that of Népiil is the best.” Having so said, he departed. His companions, who were of the Chatur varana, or four castes, [Brahman, Kshetriya, Vaisya, and S1'1dra,] and belonged to the four orders, [Bhikshu, and Sramana, and Chailaka,and Arhanta,] being much pleased with Népail-dés, continued to dwell in it ; [and in course of time were blended with the aboriginal Népédis, and became divided into several castes, according to the avocations which they hereditarily pursued.] Some time after the date of the above transaction, Raja GUNAKAMA DEVA, prince of Cathmand1'1, a principal city of Nepal, became the disciple of the above-mentioned Sfmtikar Vajra Acharya. GU'N KXM Dnvn, with the aid derived from the divine merits of Seintikar, brought the Nag RajaKAnxu'mxA out of the lake or tank of Adhair, and conveyed him to S:'mtip1’1r with much ceremony and many religious rites. The cause of this act was that for many previous years there had been adeficiency of rain, whereby the people had been grievously distressed with famine; and its consequence was, an ample supply of rain, and the return of the usual fertility of the earth and plenty of food.
Subsequently, SRI NARENDRA Deva became Raja of Bhagat-pattan, (or Bhatgaon) ; he was the disciple of BANDUDATTA AcHXRYA, and brought ARYAVALOKITESWARA (Padma Peini) from Putalakaparvat (in Assam) to the city of Lalita pattan in Nepal. The reason of inviting this divinity to Népél was a drought of 12 years’ duration, and of the greatest severity. The measure was attended with like happy results, as in the case of conveying the NAG Raja with so much honour to Santipur.
[The classification will be given in an ensuing number.] ___________________.__._____—-—-45--‘1— IV.—Further Account of the Remains of an ancient Town, discmiered at
Behat, near Sehdrunpur. By P. T. Cautley, Art. Supt. Doab Canal.
[In a letter to the Secretary, read at the Meeting of the 30th April.]
With more coins and other articles that have been found in our Herculaneum, I have now the pleasure of sending a sketch of the country in the neighbourhood of Behat, which will be more descriptive of the ancient town, with the size and extent of the mountain torrents in its vicinity, than any explanation that I could give in writing : the total absence moreover of any tradition of its having existed, and the little information to be gained from natives on subjects of this nature, unless coming under their immediate observation, places me in dependence solely on the few notes that I have by me, which I fear are hardly worthy of the notice of the Society.
Tradition, but even that of the vaguest description, carries us back to the reign of SHAH Jun AN, as well as to that of MUHAMMED SHAH andhis successors atthe dissolution of the empire. SHAH J EHAN built apalace or hunting seat at thefoot of the lowerrange of hills onabranch of the J umna river, about l4miles north of Behat: thisplace which consists of arnain quadrangle of 800 feet square, with numerous buildings and minor courts attached, is now in perfect ruin,the superstructure only remaining in afewplaces, and that entangled and held together by arms and roots of the Bur