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(Ficus Indica) and other jungle trees; at Raipiir, Nyashahr, Fyzabad, and other places between Behat and this palace are remains of the same period in mosques, tombs, &c. and the forests in the neighbourhood contain marks of a more extended cultivation, and of a country more thickly inhabited than it is at present; it may be fairly presumed that all the Musulman buildings now in existence here are dependent on a period posterior to the middle of the 17th century. Behat itself contains a mosque and tomb near it, with only one brick house orenclosure, but a number of pukka wells, and is said to have been a large town at the period alluded to; but the ruins and tombs pointed out as the remains of this era are south of the present town, and in quite a different direction to the antiquities that have been now discovered.
To a person at all acquainted with the strange revolutions that take place on the surface, in the proximity of these mountain torrents provincially termed rows, the mere change of the river's course, or an extensive deposit of sand on a wide surface, thereby laying waste large tracts of cultivable soil, would not be at all surprising: such changes are in constant progress, and things of annual occurrence ! The course of theNogaon row, as shewn in the map, has been so altered within the last half century, agreeably to the information of a respectable zemindar, or landholder who resides at Behat, that the features of the country are perfectly changed since his childhood : he mentions ( a circumstance borne out by my excavations) that in his recollection, "all the country between the two rivers through which the present canal runs, and on which the Belka falls are now constructed, was a low clay soil (dhaka), with rice cultivation; that this tract now is raised five hat’hs by a deposit of sand, caused by one very severe rainy season, in which the present town of Behat was in jeopardy ;” this exactly corresponds with the canal excavations, the superficial 5 to 7 feet of which was sand, reposing on a reddish sandy clay, the section at the point where the ancient town is buried shews the same deposit of 4% feet with the same sub-stratum of clay! The Behat khala or ravine opening out into the Muskura river is said to have been much enlarged by the ancient canal, when great mischief was done to the neighbourhood ; referring to the last attempt at making use of this line as a canal by the Rohilla Zasrrna KHAN, who has the credit of having carried water to the town of J elalabad and his fortified camp Gousgurh. I take the liberty of referring you to the strange tortuous outline of this ravine, of which the map gives a faithful representation, (Pl. xvii.) as near this ravine lies the old
Town at a depth of 17 feet from the surface, with a super deposit of 12% feet of a reddish sandy clay.
The fall or difference in level between the bed of the Nogaon and that of the Muskura river, at the point where the khala joins it, was previous to the present canal works being constructed about 21 feet, on a line with all its tortuosities not exceedingthreemiles! Nowitwould be supposed that had the canal formerly passed over this line, without masonry or other works to protect it from erosion, the wear and tearof such a rapid would in a very short space of time have connected the Nogaon with the Muskura, and thrown all the waters of the former down the latter’s channel. It is perfectly evident, that this did not take place, for such an event must, when once established, have remained; a point which almost ensures one of two surmises ;-—either that the ancient canal never was opened, or kept open for any length of time; or that works _were constructed in this neighbourhood. These works might have been at the spot where these antiquities have been found: such was my idea on the discoveries being laid open, and such was the impression under which I visited the spot after it had been pointed out to me, and I must confess that the reasons were so strong in favor of this being the mere ruin of old canal works, that I was considerably biassed in favor of the supposition, that at this spot had been the descent or fall by which the difference of level had been accomplished. On examination however, this idea was completely annulled, for the distinct stratum of black soil, filled with bits of pot and bone so exactly corresponding with the sites of ancient villages now existing on the surface, and this stratum extending for a continuance, placed the matter in a far different light, completely laying aside the , possibility of this either having been the remains of a canal work, or with reference to the coins, &c. the probability of its being a mere deposit caused by transportation. There is not.a doubt on my mind of this being a town submerged, the reasons and causes of which may be ascribed not only to the proximity of rows, but to the effects of winds; in short the filling in of a hollow. But when this happened, or what were the features of the country’s surface at the period previous to this taking place, may well remain an enigma ; for looking around us at the present day, we find the position of towns and villages invariably fixed either on the highest spots or on the slopes of valleys! Now, was this town at the period of its existence high or even partially so, with reference to the surrounding country, to what date can we possibly look to its existence P And how picture to ourselves the face of the neighbouring country? There is no doubt however that this town is of great antiquity, and to those conversant in these matters, and I cannot refer myself to one more so than yourself, a door may be opened, from the great number of coins that have been found, to fix the probable date, when this town was inhabited.
The level of the country does not exhibit any distinct basin or hollow; but, taking a line from the Nogaon river at the dam over the site to the Muskura, one continuous slope will be found, with indentations at each of the rivers ; the proximity of the lines of sandhills and their directions might lead to speculations ; but these are just as well avoided ; for if, as we must allow, (from finding shingle and old beds of rivers many feet below the present surface,) the present surface has been considerably raised, we have with the agency of these mountain streams, and the soil acted on by winds, data suflicient to shew that the inhumation of a city, or whatever was at the spot in question, was nothing at all extraordinary.
It may be interesting, with reference to the constant change of surface in this region, to mention, that when engaged in constructing a bridge at the village of Gandewar, about two miles higher up the canal than the Nogaon row, the difliculty of obtaining water for the works was such, thatl was induced to sink a shaft in the canal bed. The well was sunk 30 feet to water, the upper 20 feet was through the reddish sandy clay above-mentioned, below which was shingle or boulders exactly resembling those found now in the beds of all these rivers: through 10 feet of this shingle water was found. This nearly corresponds with the bed of shingle now laid bare south of the Belka Falls, and amongst which the coin, 810. have been found, and I have no. doubt that it is all part of an extensive line formerly the bed of the escapes from the lower mountains. If this is true, it goes far to prove a circumstance that I before mentioned in a communication to the Society, that the enormous discharge of matter from the debouchements of these lower hills is, in the reduction of themselves, gradually giving a rise to the whole country skirting their bases ! I may also mention, that near a village namedJytp\’1r, three miles south of the Kalowala. Pass, (at which pass water is within 10 inches of the surface,) I sunk a well for the reasons aforesaid 60 feet deep through a succession of beds of shingle, and left off, finding no water! At a place six miles south of this again, water is within eight feet of the the surface. Thisphenomenon extends apparently on the whole line between the Jumna and Ganges, that is to say, water is near the surface at the foot of the hills, and shows itself again near the surface about 10 miles south, being in the intermediate distance at a great depth. In building the masonry dam on the N ogaon river, water was found at a depth of 29 feet from the bed of the row; the excavation through beds of sand and clay, but no shingle. The only mark of building which has