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to connect them with the individuals whose existence they commemorate*. The relics which have accrued to Mr. Homcnnnonn are however extremely curious, consisting of very minute bones, or their dust, pearls, pieces of amber and rubies, and different kinds of sedimentary remains, the nature of which can only become known by chemical analysis. These were found reposing within excavated (turned) cylinders, of a soft striated stone, quite similar to that of which the shot and shells of H. R. H. Aanns MIRZA atMeshed are made. These cups, both in their size and form, correspond to a model which is frequent enough in India: they have alid surmounted by a small knob. A roll of paper, apparently the back of the Bu'jpatra, containing written characters, occurred in one instance ; this precious fragment may unfold some satisfactory evidence of the origin and design of the edifice which enclosed it. Small burnt clay lamps, and occasionally square or oblong clay receptacles, filled with osseous remains, gems, and thread, are among the collection. If my memory _does not deceive me, I think I remarked small golden images of birds, while I am certain that many things escaped my observation, and also that I retain but a very imperfect idea of any individual relic, notwithstanding the candor and liberality with which they were displayed to my view. I felt backward to gratify a curiosity that had little to recommend it, and the brief and defective notice I have now taken of Mr. Homosaacaa’s discoveries, while it can only convey but a faint trace of the facts which remain for original analysis, I venture to believe will receive from that gentleman the only construction that its motives can be supposed to meditate in making it. One object may indeed be gained, since Mr. Honronnnonn has already embarked upon a long and perilous journey via Bakhtar to his‘ native land1-, after having given charge of all his valuable ac-' quisitions to Chev. ALLARD, whose prospects of returning to Europe seemed to offer a favorable passport for their transmission to Germany, but which I have since learnt is likely to be protracted indefinitely.
' Under such a view, the foregoing remarks, if deemed worthy of being read before the Asiatic Society, may become known in Europe through the medium of a journal which has already in these obscure regions (as will soon be shewn) stimulated the development of antiquarian research, and in this immediate instance is calculated to communicate and preserve the merit of labors, which natural and adventitious causes might otherwise tend to consign to oblivion.
‘* There are inscriptions on the brass cylinders deposited in the topes ; see the foregoing paper.—ED.
1- See note of this traveller’s adventure at Bamian, p. 246. It is fortunate that he had left his coins and relics behind.—En.
Mr. HONIGBERGER would only-have promoted his ownviews, had he made the Journal of the Asiatic Society a channel of publicity to his discoveries, since it is fully probable that subsequent laborers in the same field will weaken the interest of his researches, before that gentleman can reach his own country (which must be considered a problem), or the fruits of his exertions shall have quitted British India. Those are destined to enrich the Cabinet of Vienna, and we may imagine the precious banquet they will afford to such eminent literary patrons as
Kmraorn and Von HAMMER. .
[We thank Dr. GERARD most cordially for his zeal on behalf of the Journal, but it would indeed be presumption in us to imagine the German Doctor’s coins could be better disposed of here than in the hands of the eminent men he names, We appeal to M. Scam earls note on Bactrian coins too often to allow of our undervaluing such high authority. We have been obliged for want of space to curtail the foregoing memoir, and to omit for the present Dr. G.’s remarks on the climate and country of Kdbul and Jeldlabdd. We have said nothing on his hypothesis thatthese mounds are the sepulchres of kings ; a theory also adopted by Mr. MASSON, but contradicted by most other authorities, who look upon them as Buddhist structures. This supposition is confirmed by the existence of similar’
mounds in Nipal and elsewhere, and by the very nature of the relics discovered in them.——En.] ‘
III.—Ewtracts from Mr. Masson’s Letter to Dr. J. G. Gerard, on the Excavation of Tapes, dated Tattung, 22nd March, 1834. ,
The fourth tope I opened had in its centre a small chamber, with nothing therein but a little loose dust. I excavated to the very soil beneath the foundation, but nothing farther was discovered : eighteen days’ labor were expended here. In the central chamber was a small cobweb with its tenant, a spider, apparently in good health and spirits. The tope was 144 feet in circumference, and how the insect got there, and contrived to live, is somewhat astonishing; if he introduced himself at the period of the erection of the tope, he must have been above 1600 years old. I know not whether naturalists will concede to his species such extraordinary longevity. The results of three other topes will be known within the three next days. Of one of them a nisluin or token of there being something has been brought to light. Although by the experience of the fourth tope, I find that some of these structures do not contain relics, by which they may be identified, as coins, writings on leaves, &c. yet from the experience of all hitherto opened, I am confirmed in the opinion, that no one is without a sign or token of
some kind, if it be only a small recess or -chamber in the centre. ‘sovereign princes, members of their family who did not rule, and of saints, at least it so strikes me on a primfi. facie consideration of these monuments ; but there is one misfortune, that the contents of none can be judged by the mere appearance. To ascertain them it is necessary to excavate; and tokens the most useful to antiquarian or historical research are often extracted from such whose appearance is least inviting, and Vice vers6.. The topes, which are well preserved, and whose outlines are clear, are also excavated at less expence, than the dilapidated ones whose outlines are faint or totally defaced. With the first the sanctum aanctorum is reached without chance of error : with the last, the direction of the excavation depends more on chance, and there is the additional trouble of penetrating through the mass of fallen materials around. The famous Nanddrd tope, 164 feet in circumference, was opened in eight days ; a much inferior one on the level plain, from which I now expect something, and which has a circumference only of 108 feet, has now employed the same number of men twelve days.
My search for coins at this place has been very unsuccessful; I look forward however to a glorious stockfrom Ktibul thisyear,andonlyhopethat my competitors may not raise the market too high forme. I have an idea, if funds permit, to send one of my men to Balkh for a couple of months, for~the purchase of antiques : this will moreover depend on my verifying what I have heard from two or three sources, viz. that old coins are readily procurable at that place and neighbourhood. Now that Bactrian coins excite so much attention, you may, if you please, let Mr. Pnmsnr know that three years since Major Tarnon at Bagdad had some sixteen or seventeen Bactrian silver tetradrachms, and that two gold Bactrian: were procured at Tabriz, both or one of them by Dr. Conmcx. That gentleman’s coin was stolen from him. Major Tunon intended his coins, with a vast number of others, for Sir J OHN MALCOLM.
I have heard nothing farther concerning MARTIN. I learn that he did not forward to Captain WADE the account of his operations on the topes of Jeleilabéd and Keibul, which he had prepared for that purpose in Persian. When I wrote the notice on the Beghram coins, I supposed that he had sent it, as he even read it to me, and made the remark that Captain WADE might publish it if he pleased. I observed that Captain WADE was not likely to do so unless authorized by him : he therefore by a letter authorized Captain WADE to make it public. Neither one or the other was probably sent, and this I merely note in case I may have alluded to this account in the memoir, which I presumed would have been published by the Indian press. The account was simply one of the operations and discoveries, without any hint or opinion as to what age, the. they had reference.
I have some idea of publishing a detached small volume in India, (that is Calcutta,) “An Account of the Topes of Afghanistan," with sketches of the whole. I apprehend that India is too limited a field to expect any extensive sale for any literary work whatever, nor do I know‘ how the publication of works is managed in Calcutta, neither whether engravers would be found to execute the plates. Of these there would be some thirty or forty, or perhaps more. Neither am I satisfied that any one would undertake the expence of publication, nor am I sure that a publication by subscription would be sufiiciently encouraged. I have set in order a general and individual account of these topes, explaining their site and identification as far as the relics extracted from them testify, with my conjectures respecting all and each of them: these conjectures involve some points of history and geography not to be avoided. I have also taken sketches of all of them, at a certain measured distance, and used a camera lucida, that their comparative dimensions in the sketches might be exactly preserved*.
I have not heard whether M. MARTIN, on being despoiled, lost his gold medal of Knnrmsss : as he justly prized it he always retained it about his person, and it was the only one of his coins, excepting perhaps the silver ones of Mnrzsunnn and Eurnrnnmvs, of each of which he had one, that he did not forward by your medium to M . Annsan. If he lost it, it is fortunate that I preserved the sketch of it. (See Pl. xiii.)
I hear nothing conclusive here of your researches at the Peshawar tope. Osman notes in his letter to me that the statues are very wonderful and beautiful. I trust you will have found a prize there; they are certainly a very singular discovery, and may occasion a good deal of speculation as to the nature of the monument ; it will be highly inter-' esting if their caste be recognizable.
I inclose a copy of the inscriptions around the koti or box extracted from a tope here, as noted in my last. This if you think fit may be forwarded to Mr. Pamsnr for notice in the Journali‘, and he may in-' vite those who are competent to decypher it. There must surely be‘ individuals at Calcutta, certainly at Bombay among the Parsees, who can read the Zendavesta in the original. I should fancy a reference to the article ALPHABET in any of the Encyclopedias would exhibit the value of the Zend and Pehlevi characters. I note in a memorandum the equivalent characters of the Greek Bactrian coins to five Greek names and cognomens, and could have carried the subject farther, did time allow*.
*' We should be most happy to second Mr. Mnssorfls project, did we think that he could be rewarded by any sale or subscription in Calcutta. It would certainly be preferable to publish in Europe, with all the advantages of good engravers, a large reading public, and the various facilities which publishers there enjoy of interchange and communication with others of the profession at home and abroad. There is besides a heavy duty on importing into England works printed in thispart of her dominions ! The camera lucida sketches will be most valuable.—Em
1- See plate xxii. and the remarks in page 319.-En.
Your messenger brought a letter for the Nuwab from Osman, and this caused his detention to-day. I visited the biirjes or topes in hand : the one I noted as expecting something from is not yet got through: in the centre was a. kind of structure in form [as in Plate xxii. Fig 27], the bottom has not yet been reached. I hope to-morrow will produce something. The topes with these forms of inferior gumbazes or domes,
&c. in the centre, are very suspicious ; I fear in some instances these.
are the only tokens they contain, and they do not give much information. _ 23rd March, 1834. C. M.
IV.—Journal of a Tour through Georgia, Persia, and Mesopotamia. By
Speaking to Prince GALETZIN of the Russian Cavalry, who had been attached to the Count’s staff in Turkey, he said, “ We do not lose half so many men as you are inclined to believe ; since on the instant a man is infected, we plunge him in iced water, wash all his linen, and on the Second day he is sure to be convalescent.” That the soldiers of the Russian army should be infected, can create no surprise whatever. Their filthiness is proverbial. I once saw a regiment paraded to perform (as I imagined) their evolutions. serjeant stepped out to the front with a long broom, and rubbed down
the men, as our grooms do horses. Had I been on the parade ground,‘
I might have been murdered by an attack of lice—-a second plague which
has smote this land. A punishment parade succeeded this novel scene,‘
and several offenders were brought forward. The drum-major passed down the line, and actually spat into the mouths of the prisoners. The reader is tired of a narrative so disagreeable. I can assure him, that my disgust to this nation is founded on practices that exist not amongst the most barbarous people. I leave them to their admirers.
_ On the morning of the 8th of February, we quitted Ganja forZodi, distant four leagues. On leaving the town, my attention was attracted
' * We shall take an opportunity of introducing these in a subsequent plate, with a many more of the same character as are now within our reach from the collections of Shékh KERA'MET ALI, and Munshi MOI-IAN LAL.—ED. '
On being drawn up in line, a’