« PreviousContinue »
_c_lnded ascompletely as the Lunar race from the character here assigned,
of “ children of the Sun.” The last reason excludes. also a more ancient CHANDRAGUPTA who, as Colonel Ton informs us, stands before MXNIKYA-RA'r, in the long line, (which he has not published) of the Chohans’ descent from their remote ancestor AGNI-PXLA : though this prince, if real, may very possibly be the Lord of Oujein who is the subject of the Jain inscription already alluded to, (T. R. A. S. vol. i. p. 140.)
The same reason prevents us from profiting by another tradition often repeated by the same learned inquirer, both in his Annals of Rajasthan and his contributions to the R. A. S. Transactions, relating to another celebrated branch of the Agni-kula Xattriyas, the Pramaras. One tribe of this Rajput race, the Flori, is in the habit at this day of claiming for their own the celebrated CHANDRAGUPTA Maarya, founder of the dynasty so called at Palibothra in the days of Sensuous Nrcaron. The account given by all the ancient Sanscrit authorities of the origin of thatname is very dif_ ferent from this, viz. that it is the patronymic noun derived from the Sudra damsel Mun‘, of whom the king NANDA MAHXPADMA became enamoured (being himself also of half-blood, the offspring of the Lunar prince MAHKNANDA by a slave girl), and thus became the father of CHANDRAcorrn, who afterwards succeeded by extirpating, with the Machiavelian pBrahman’s aid, his nine more legitimate brethren. This account is so universal——and it is so visible also even in the inverted accounts preserved by Drononus Swunus, Tnoous Poxwvnws, and others in the west, (making Sannnacorrus the oifspring of a queen and a barber, instead of a king and a barber's daughter) that it requires no ordinary attachment to the later chroniclers of Rajasthan to set aside these statements by making this king a member of a noble tribe of the purest Rtijputs, to make him consequently unconnected altogether with those Namms whom he succeeded or displaced-—-and even to suspect the word Maurya, (as Colonel Ton does, T. R. A. S. ii 211,) to be an interpolation for Mori. There may however be a CHANDRAGUPTA to which such a tradition points with partial truth; and such I should have suspected to be the conquering CHANDRAGUPTA of our column, but for the objection of family above stated.
Upon the whole, our researches for the subjects of this inscription in the records of Northern and Central India, seem to be hitherto unsuccessful, notwithstanding, the various Cnannnaeurrss that have appeared there. Of the name SAMUDRAGUPTA I have not yet seen any trace ; but to facilitate the progress of future inquiries, it may be use.
ful to exhibit syuoptically the genealogical facts which the pillar supplies. Gurrs, Mjs of the Solar Race.
Gnarorxncaa, do. Rfijput, whose daughter was CHANDRAGUPTA, do. ——CUMJRA Ds'vi, SANHA'RICA, an indeand Sovereign, wife of the king. pendent princess, whose
Another consideration, however, which should not be overlooked in this research, is the name of the contemporary king, mentioned in line 17 of the inscription, as having been overcome, together with several inferior princes, by SAMUDRAGUPTA. The king is called DHANANJAYA, and is described as of the race of UGRASEINA, i. e. most probably the celebrated king of Mathura so called, the father of Carvsa, who was slain by Csrsmu, and was,like his enemy, of the great lunar family of Ynnu. Now in inquiring who this king could be, the g5:-l~1!>,_\ D!-IANJYE or DHANANJAYA,
who is mentioned by Anni. Fnzrn lit the head of the royal lists of Malwa, as having founded a dynasty there about 2000 years before, should appear as much out of the question as the fabulous ARJUNA, who also bore the same name. Yet this prince, who in ABU'L Fazu/s list (Ayin Acbery, vol. ii. p. 54,)has a SALIVXHAN for his grandson—is identified by Colonel WILPORD, with a DI-IANANJAYA, mentioned in the royal lists of RA
' onuuirnn as having sprung from a temple in the peninsula of India,
and thence attacked andslain a king named A'D1TYA, and then reigned at Ujjayin : and on the strength of this last tradition, he is identified also with the great SALIVXHANA himself, the founder of the era A. D. 78, because this latter is celebrated as the foe of and destroyer of the celebrated V1cn1ms'n1rYAl (See As. Res. vol. ix. pp. 134, 185, 140, 141.) The authorities from which the age, and family, and reign of this Dnannmara, might perhaps have been obtained, are so loosely cited by this very learned but fanciful writer, and so mixed up with his own evidently groundless and inconclusive deductions of identity, that we can derive no aid from them in determining whether he be the king men
tioned on the column or not, or what could be thence safely concluded
VI.—On the Influence of the Moon on Atmospherical Phenomena. By the Rev. R. EVEREST, M. G. S. M. A. S.
Having observed one or two coincidences in the Meteorogical Registers which I could not but deem remarkable, I was induced to examine them farther, in the hope of being able to furnish some rules which might be of use to those whose occupations are affected by atmospheric changes, such as the planter, the sea-farer, and others, and through them to the whole community. With this view, I have confined my observations to the chances of rain, that being the only uncertain condition in the bringing of our harvests to perfection ; of heat and sunshine there is no lack at any time. In pursuance of this object, I now beg to call your attention to
The influence qf the Moon in producing rain.
Having remarked that a great proportion of the spring showers fell near the time of the new moon, I drew out a table of the quantity of rain that had fallen in the first four months of each year, for eight years, (which was as far back as I could obtain the registers,) showing at the same time what number of days it fell, before, or after, the day of new moon (see Table No. 1). From this it will appear that rain fell most abundantly on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, and 7th days before the new moon, and the 6th day after it, that, out of a sum total of 34,55 inches of rain, 25,31 inches fell within seven days from the day of new moon, and only 9,24 in the rest of the lunar period, being in the proportion of 2,73 : l, for nearly equal portions of time. If we take the quantities that fell in eaeh year they
are as follows:
nearly 2 : 1. For each year the quantities are—
1831 1832 1833 ..........—
Here the days of maxima are somewhat diiferent from ‘what they were before, being the 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 7th days before new moon, the day of new moon, and the first day after.
Upon examining further, I found that this excess of rain towards the new moon obtained in a. degree through the succeeding months, May and June, but that the ratio was somewhat altered. For instance (see Table No. 2, of Calcutta year's rain), the rain that fell in the same days, about the new moon, during a period of eight years, amounted to 83.73 inches, and for the rest of the lunar period to 52.04 inches, being in the ratio of 1'6 : 1'0. The numbers of rainy days for the above two periods respectively were 68 and 54, in the proportion nearly of 1'3 2 1. If we particularize the quantities of rain, we find that the 3rd, 6th, 7th, and 8th days before the new moon are now become maxima, as well as the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th, and 10th after it. In the third division of the year, which I have confined to the month of July, the numbers approach still more a ratio of equality, the respective quantities of rain being 43'60 inches and 28-78 inches, or in the ratio of about 1'5 : 1, and the numbers of the rainy days are very nearly equal, being 61 and 60, or in the ratio of 1.017 : 1. In the fourth division of the year, which I have made to comprehend the months August, September, and October, the ratio is altered, the quantities of rain for the two periods being 96-75 and 119'39 inches, or in the ratio nearly of 1 : 1'2, and the numbers of rainy days 159 and 173, being as 1 : 1'1 nearly. The different numbers are here placed, for the sake of comparison in a tabular form.
TABLE I11. Within 7 days Rest of Lunar Ratio.
Upon looking over the days of maxima in this last case, we find them to be the 3rd, 9th, and 11th, before the new moon, and the 3rd, 5th, 6th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, after. I must here observe, that the present mode of comparison is not strictly correct. As the lunar period is, properly speaking, only 29% days, the fifteenth day on the left hand of the table only occurs alternately. The comparison, however, is sufficient for my purpose. Taking thefour periods of the year together, the inequalities may be accounted for bysupposing four days to be theprincipal maxima: one of these being'the fifth ‘day after the new moon, and another the 9th day before it. It is true that the 9th day itself is but once a maxi
mum in the four periods. In the early part of the year, the days immes diately succeeding it are maxima, and in the latter part of the year the days immediately preceding it. If therefore any cause can be assigned why the rain at one time should be a little retarded, and at another a little accelerated, there would be no error in supposing the maximum tendency to rain to occur on the 9th day. Two other days of maxima are the 3rd day before the new moon, and the 12th day after.
With a view of ascertaining whether the Barometer was similarly afi'ected, I next put the heights of it at sunrise for five years into a. similar table, and on taking the mean of the whole year, found that the fifth day after the new moon was the (See Table No. 3). My next object was to find whether the dew points varied in a similar mannet, and I therefore reduced them from the wet-bulb indications in the registers, and those of Leslie’s hygrometer preceding them. The mes thod recommended in the lst volume of GLEANINGS being too laborious to adopt, and Major Omvnn’s tables in the Gmnnmes not having been published, I took the very simple method of multiplying the wet-bulb depression by 1'6, and subtracting the product from the temperaturc*. I do not mean by saying so to recommend the operation as a general rule, but only that, where the whole diiference between the temperature
‘and dew-point does not amount to more than two or three degrees (as is
usually the case at sunrise at Calcutta), and the temperatures are between 80 and 50, the errors will not be important. But another and greater difiiculty still occurred to me, which was this. By a copious fall of rain the dew point is immediately lowered, so that on looking over the list of dew points on different days, the day of most moisture will appear to be the driest by its having the lowest dew-point. Thus, for instance, in
Here the 25th and 26th were the days of the great storm, but looking atthe dew-points alone, no indication is afforded of the quantity of moisturei-. Unless, therefore, we could make due allowance for the rainfall, the dew-points alone would be a very imperfect mode of judging
* This rule would answer for an aqueous tension of 0.75 at the temperature of 90°. We think it would have been better to have used the aqueous. tension them. selves, for which a table is given in the Gleanings, I. p. 81 and 3_40.--En.
1" When rain is accompanied with a strong wind, and that from the north, the air is seldom saturated with moisture ; the chief cause however for the fall of the dew-point is, the reduced temperature of the air during storms.-En.