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they invariably spoke of China by the name Kathfti (cathay) and the emperor as the Khakhan. Russia, they called Unis. They were highly amused at the races, but said theirs which are held once a year were very superior. The English ladies they admired very much, but asserted their own were as fair and had more colour. The dress of the Usbeks is generally a small round cap of ermine, a large flowing robe with an under dress and broad flowing trowsers; like the Usmanloos they wear a broad leathern belt round the waist. When they go out they always wear boots of black or shagreen leather ; their arms were Chinese short swords, and matchlocks with Russian barrels and daggers.
They mentioned the fact of dreadful earthquakes having occurred in. their country about three or four years ago. The Cholera also had ex‘ tended its ravages to the territory of their Khan.
It is proper that I should state that this information was collected casually and in the course of many conversations I had with these per. sons; there may be some exaggeration, but I believe it may generally be depended upon. The Usbeks are a very straightforward, honest, and simple people, very unlike the Persians or other Asiatics, and much more‘ approaching in their disposition and manners to Europeans. With regard to the rebellion of Jannuom Known in Chinese Tartary, the truth of what they stated was fully borne out and verified by Mr. Lmnssr, the late Secretary to the Select Committee at Canton.
In order to give a correct idea of the geographical situation of the kingdom of Kokan, I have appended to this memoir a map* of Central Asia, drawn up from the best authorities within my reach. The following genealogical table will also be useful to shew the descent of UZBEK, the founder of this horde, from Cnunoiz KHAN
ALANCORA, widow of Dunbun Bayxin.
The Noanar horde was subdued by the Russians, and these Tartar: are now scattered throughout Siberia.
" Vile regret being obliged to omit this map, which however necessarily contains no matter new to geography, beyond perhaps the extension of the sway of the KHAN of Kokan, as far north as the river lrtish. Any good map of Central Asia will be suflicient to elucidate the memoin—Em '
lI.—N0te of a Pilgrimage undertaken by an Usbek and his two Sons from Khokeml or Kolcan, in Tartary, through Russia, &c. to Mecca. Obtained in conversation with the parties, by W. H. WATHEN, Esq. &c.
About fourteen years ago, A. D. 1820. our father had ahouse and small
-estate in the city of Kokan: this he sold for four hundred goldpieces, ( a
tila of Kokan is equal to about eight rnpees,) or rather more than three
‘ thousand rupees, and having determined to abandon worldly cares, and
commence a religious life, he took leave of all his friends and relations, and proceeded on a journey, with the view of performing a pilgrimage to the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina. We went from Kokan to Tzishkend, which is eight days journey of a caravan: this is a large ,city, enclosed with a wall, and had been lately taken by our king from Yums Knou's sons; their father had held it as a fief from our government. At Tzishkend we waited some days, until the caravan for Russia took its departure : the caravan consisted of about 50 or 60 persons, mostly Bokhaira and Tsishkend people. From Tdshkend we then proceeded to a fortified town, called Turkistain, of rather smaller consequence than Téshkend. Leaving this city, we arrived in about ten days at a small place named Sozak. After this, we saw no more fixed habitations, until we had entered the Russian territory. The country -consisted of immense Steppes’ of pasture land, the grass growing to a prodigious height, and it was occupied by hordes of Kuzzaks, who dwelt in small black tents, and ranged about from place to place. _.After passing through the hordes of Kuzzziks subject to our sovereign, we arrived at the river called the Kiik-Sui, and on crossing it found the country occupied by Kuzzsiks, dependent on the Russian king, (A'k Padshah, or White King.) We then arrived at a. small place called Shumi : here the Russians collected a toll from the people of the caravan; but on being told we were pilgrims, they left us alone: lthe caravan dispersed at Shumi. We staid at this town two months, and lodged with a N ogai Tartar. We were two months on our journey from Tashkend to the Russian territory. We hired three kibitkas from the Nogais, and went in fifteen days to Omsk, which is a large fortified town. The Russian soldiers, dressed like yours, stopped .us at the gates, but on being told we were pilgrims, allowed us to pass. We staid ten days there with a Nogai. We got a passport in the (Russian language, from a great man, whom they called General; he had long festoons of gold hanging from his shoulders, and was dressed in black (dark-green). We left Omsk, and after passing through many places, the names of which we do not remember, we arrived at a very -large and ancient city, called Kazém. We were allowed to pass at the
gates on shewing the passport we had obtained at Omsk. We travel
‘led in kibitkas, or carriages drawn by one horse. We staid four months at Kazan, during which was the month of Ramazan ; we lived with a Nogai Tartar. We resolved to go by water thence to Astrakhfm, (the journey by land takes forty days.) At about one hour’s distance from Kazan, we came to a large river*, and we embarked with several other merchants, Tartars, and Russians, on board a large boat about the size of a patéla ; the owner of the boat was a Russian. About half way to Astrakhan, on the right bank of the river, our boat came to anchor ofl' a large town named Sarat, where we staid six days: this town is smaller and more modern than Kazzin. We then embarked, and arrived at Astrakhan in about forty-four days after leaving Kazan. We were stopped at the gates by the guard; after examining our passport, they let us pass; they were dressed like your people, except that their clothes were black (meaningdark-green). We staid one month with a Nogai there, as it was winter, and the country difiicult to travel, owing to the snow and ice. After this, we hired kibitkas, and in twenty days ‘arrived at a town where the Sultan of the Nogais resides. We cannot correctly recollect the name of the place, but it was something like Evel. Three days journey from thence, we met with a river or branch of the sea, where was a Russian fort, with a small detachment of military; our passport was again looked at. We then crossed over and came to a desert of one day’s journey in the carriages aforesaid; after which, we reached a village of the Cherkes (Circassians) : they gave us a guide who brought us to a Muhammedan village, whence we went with a. caravan to Hunufa (Hanapa). We had now entered the Roman (Tnrkl ish) territories. After a stay of ten days at that place, we took ship, and arrived safely at Rfim (Constantinople) ; here we hired a house for three or four rupees per month, staid in that city four months, and passed over in a boat to Eskudari. We here purchased horses, and proceeded on horseback through many villages and towns until after forty or fifty days, we arrived at Sham (Damascus). We hired a house in this city, where we staid some time. We wished to visit Jerusalem, but the country was in-such a disturbed state, that we could not go for fear of the plundering Arabs. We then travelled to a town called Ghaza, and thence ‘to Elarish, whence we went in twenty-five days to Cairo, the capital of Egypt; here we hired a house and remained three months. We then left for Suez, which port we reached on camels in four days; here we embarked on board a vessel, and arrived at Judda in seventeen days. W'e put on the dress of pilgrims on board ship four days before we arrived at Judda. We reached Mecca in two days on camels; arrived there in the month of Ramzén. We hired a house there at four dollars
'* The Volga. J
per mensem, and after the pilgrimage was performed, we went with a caravan to Medina, where we arrived in twelve days. From Medina we came to Yarnbo, a sea-port; thence we took ship to Cossier, thence in four days we reached Kenneh; we then dropped down the Nile to Cairo, whence we went to Alexandria; there we took ship, and sailed to a place called Adania; we thence journeyed to a town called Katahia, thence to Boursa, then to another town called Adania, Scutari, and Rum. At Constantinople we were directed by the Scutan’s minister to apply to the Russian ambassador for another passport. We took ship and arrived at Taridska*. Here we saw a large Russian fort. Thence we came to Astrakhan, from which place we proceeded round the head of the Caspian to the city of Orenbourg; thence we went to a place called Kezziljer, the last town in the Russian territories. About twelve or thirteen days after passing through the hordes of wandering Kuzzaks. we crossed the Kiik-Sii river, and happily re-entered our prince’s territory. On both sides this river are hordes of roving Knzzaks; those to the north are under Russia, to the south under our king. The river is very broad, and at times very full of water; its current is very strong. We arrived after thirty days on camels at Soz6.k ; hence we bent out steps to Turkistan, Tashkend, and Kokan. When we arrived, the KHA'N_, our king, had just returned from his campaign in Chinese Tartary} whither he had gone to assist Jnmmoin K1-IOJA WANG. Jmmnoin KHOJA was no rebel, as treated by the Chinese. His ancestors were the sovereigns of the country before the Chinese conquered it, that is of Kashgar. Our prince in some degree failed in his expedition against the Chinese ; this was owing to Jmmnoin Kno.n’s not joining him cordially. Our prince could not infuse confidence into his mind, imd Jnnuvoia wanted to conquer the country for himself. The consequence of that campaign, however, was that the Chinese agreed to our kingis supremacy over their Muhammedan subjects; on the other hand, he is to keep the country in order, and be responsible for the Kirghiz and Muhammedan population. After our return, our father waited on the Snnxn-on Ismu, who paid him great attention, as did all the ulema, and people in general; but his other four sons died, on which he set out with us and our mother on a second pilgrimage, both our parents being
determined to leave their bones in the holy land. Our good father how.
ever died at Somniany. In the first instance our 400 tilas (gold pieces) carried us to Mecca. After all our expenditure there, we had one hundred1~ left, and on this we subsisted on our way back. We were seven years in performing our first pilgrimage, and returning to our own country. We had no anxiety about being short in cash, as we kneyv
we had God for our protector, and that he would bring us through zadversities, according to his holy and immutable decrees.
The two young men, from whom I gleaned the above particulars, .came to Bombay in the suite of the "azir of Kokan ; their names were -‘HAJl SHAH Ku’1.i and Hui SHAH KALENDER; they were very young when they performed the pilgrimage, being now only about thirty and
:twenty-six years of age respectively. They have received a very good
education, having a good acquaintance with the principal Persian .authors, and are well versed in Muhammedan science; their father .was a Mulla or Doctor of Law, and received his education partly at .Kokan, and partly at Pokhara; he also travelled to Kabul to become
..initiated in Siifeism by a famous nakshbandy pir or seer of that place.
~III.—-European Speculations on Buddhism. By B. H. Honcson, Esq.
C. S. Resident at Nipal, 8;c.
In the late M. ABEL Rsnusafs review of my sketch of Buddhism, (Journal des Savans, Mai, 1831,) with the perusal of which I have
just been favoured by Mr. J. Pamsnr, there occurs (p. 263) the fol
lowing passage: “ L’une des croyances les plus importantes, et celle
'sur la quelle l’essai de M. Honoson fournit le moins de lumieres, est
celle des avénemens ou incarnations (avatdra). Le nom de Tatkdgata (avenu*) qu’on donne a SAKIA n’est point expliqué dans son mémoirey; et quant aux incarnations, le religieux dont les reponses ont fourni la substance de ce mémoire, ne semble pas en reconnoitre d’autres que celles des sept Bouddhas. Il est pourtaut certain qu’on en compte une
‘infinité d’autres; et les lamas du Tibet se considerent eux mémes comme
autant de divinités incarnées pour le salut des hommes.”
I confess I am somewhat surprised by these observations, since whatever degree of useful information relative to Buddhism my essays in the Calcutta and London Transactions may furnish, they profess not to give any, (save ex vi necessitatis) concerning the ‘ veritable nonsens' of the system. And in what light, I pray you, is sober sense to regard “ une infinité” of phantoms, challenging belief in their historical existence as the founders and propagators of a given code of laws P The Lallita Vistara gravely assigns 505, or according to another copy, 550, iivaldrs to SAKYA alone. Was I seriously to incline to the task of collecting and recording all that is attributed to these palpable nonentities .9 or, was it merely desired thatI should explain the rationale of the doctrine of incarnation P If the latter only be the desideratum, here is a summary recapitulation of what I thought I had already sufiiciently explained.
* A radical mistake ; see the sequel.