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P. S.-—Whether RnMUsA'r's ‘ avenu' be understood loosely, as meaning come, or strictly, as signifying come to pass, it will be equally inadmissible as the interpretation of the word Tatluigata ,- because Tathdgata is designed expressly to announce that all reiteration and contingency whatever is barred with respect to the beings so designated. They cannot come; nor can any thing come to pass aifecting them*.
And if it be objected, that the mere use of the word avenu, in the past tense, does not necessarily imply such reiteration and conditional futurity, I answer that Rsuusar clearly meant it to convey these ideas, or what was the sense of calling on me for the successive incarnations of these avenus? It has been suggested to me that absolu, used substantively, implies activity. Perhaps so, in Parisian propriety of speech. But I use it merely as opposed to relative with reference to mere mortals; and I trust that the aftirmation—there are many absolutes, many
infinites, who are nevertheless inactive—may at least be distinctly
understood. I have nothing to do with the reasonableness of the tenet so affirmed or stated, being only a reporter.
IV.— Geological Section across the Valley of the Nerbudda, from Tendukhe'rz' to Bittoul. By J. G. SPILSBUBY, Esq. Ben. Med. Est. Plate XXIII.
In your No. for November last, you expressed a wish that some one should give you a section of the geological features of the country from Tendukhéri to the hills south of the N erbudda. Opportunity has been aflbrded me of making such a trip, and as probably you may not receive an account from one versed in the subject, I send you such notes as I made on the excursion, together with specimens of the rocks met with.
The conical hill to the S. E. near Tendukhéri is the point from which I started, the same to which Captain FRANKLIN alludes in the 1st part of the Transactions of the Physical Class of the Asiatic Society, and which he describes as being capped with basaltic columns.
The specimens from this hill are T l, forming a platform with T l a mixed in detached pieces. Above the platform are trap boulders reaching
Burmese writings, as the scene of GonAMA’s adventures, to which if the exact site and present designation of each can be assigned from the Sanscrit or the Tibet authorities, it will confer an important favor on Burmese literati.” It is highly interesting to see the spirit of inquiry stirring in the high places of this hitherto benighted nation. The information desired is already furnished, and as might be expected, the Burmese names prove to be copied through the Prakrit or Path directly from the Sanscrit originals, in this respect diifering from the Tibetan; which are translations of the same name.—En.
" Avenu signifies quad evenit, contigit, that which hath happened.-—(Dietion
naire de Trwouw.) Tatlzdgata ,- tathzt thus (what really is), gata (known, obtained).—(W1I.soN’s Sans. Dict.)—En.
to within some 50 or 60 feet of the summit where the columns T 2 are found. On coming to which, one would almost fancy that some vast temple had been thrown down by an earthquake. At the very top T 3 was lying—-(see Pl. XXIII. fig. 1.)
From this hill to Beltari Ghat, on the Nerbudda, is a distance of about 10 miles, the first part of the road much intersected by ravines of the Baranj, a considerable nalé. rising in the hills north of Tendukhéri ; after which is the black alluvial soil of the valley, until you approach the Nerbudda. About a mile to the east of Beltari, in a water-course of one of the ravines I obtained the accompanying fossil remains*, the matrix of which is (S C Bel) a conglomerate, very similar to the one forwarded with the fossilsfrom Segouni, on the Omar nadi near Umaria. This conglomerate forms also the bed of the river at this Ghat (Bel. 1.) butis so friable and little coherent that it is dificult to procure a specimen; it is also accompanied by the same nodules, (vide Bel. 2.)
On crossing the Nerbudda., about a mile inland, in a south-east direc
' tion, a low detached range of hills, some four orfive miles in extent, rising
to the highest perhaps 200 feet, is met with B H l; first occurring at the bottom ofa ravinedistant some 2 or 300 yards from the range : the strata. running nearly east and west, with veins of quartz (B H 2) traversing in the same direction, varying from aline to upwards of two inchesbreadth. Near is seen the same conglomerate (S C Bel.) of the opposite side of the river, and which appears to me to be spread over a considerable extent of country, if it be the same as mentioned by Captain FRANKLIN, as occurring at J anee Ghat. I have found it in several places along the course of the Nerbudda, as far as Hoshungabad, and one specimen I picked up in the bed of the Duhi, near Gurawara proper.
From this low range toFuttehpoor, the country presents no particular feature for the geologist. Near all the rivers, and nalris, ravines abound : generally a light soil mixed with kankar, on which is grown-I~ cotton, kodo, urhur, juwar, and rain crops. At a greater or less distance from the ravines, the rich black soil of the valley prevails, fitted for gram, wheat, and rubee crops in general.
As from this point I proceeded to visit one of the hot-springs, I shall here insert my remarks on the westernmost of them.
It is situated some 14 miles, in a westerly direction from Futtehpoor, about four miles in a S. S. E. one from the village of Kyrie, ‘belonging to Lala Thakur. A short distance before reaching the spring, in crossing a small nalé. (chiefly derived from these springs), the bed was formed by the specimens K 1, 2, and 3; No. 1 formed a small fall (see fig. '2,) and No. 2, intersected the strata running in a E. N. E. direction. No. 3 being the general bed of the river, and giving it a greyish appearance.
‘* The upper jaw of a horse.—En.
1- My observation does not accord with that of Lieut. Muss’, (p. 65 of your
Journal.) Great quantities are grown on the banks of the Heren and Nerbudda, but in soil as described above.
There are two springs, distant some five or six paces from each other, the southern one has been squared by stones being placed tank fashion, forming an area of about five feet each way : the other is left pretty much to nature ; depth about a foot and half. Much gas is extricated, of an of~ fensive sulphureous odour, temperature 114°; that of the air 86°, time noon, (28th February, 1833.) At 12 paces distant, is acold spring; the temperature of which I found to be 82”. Of the specimens accompanying, K 4 is the rock from which the springs issue ; a pace or two above, K 5 juts out; K 7, is a rocky ledge justbelow the junction of the hot and cold springs; K 6, is a small detached hill, large masses of which are lying at the junction of the springs, on which are carved the yum’. In a watercourse between the hill K 6, and the springs, lie large rolled pebbles of different colors, jasper, agate, and boulders of all sizes, precisely similar to those at Futtehpoor (F. 1.)
Futtehpoor (at which reside three Goand Rajas) is situated first within the gorge of the low range of hills that form the southern boundary of the valley of the Nerbudda. On passing through the town, which is built on both sides of the Unjon mile, the road winds through the low* hills, varying from 150 to 200 feet in height, composed of F 2, capped with F 3. F 2 descends all the way, and is seen forming the bed of the nétla ; at one place where they crossed it, the rock puts on the appearance of a platform, covered with rough mortar, in which numerous small siliceous pebbles were mixed. In the né.la and all about, are boulders of F l, as atKyrie hot spring. About six miles round the western end of Chuttair, the road up to this being undulated low jungle, the country becomes more open, and the soil changes from siliceous to decomposed trap, small hillocks and ridges of which are seen jutting up in this valley. The intermediate spaces, being the black alluvial soil similar to that of the Nerbudda, had crops of gram and wheat on them. About four miles from Maljihir S. S. E. near a small low range of hills (specimen M H) is the other hot-spring. The gas extricated is more oifensive than the Kyrie one;temp. 134° air 92°; time 2 P. M. (3rd March, 1834,) cold spring about 20 paces ofi", 78°. This spring bubbles
* It is to be noted that although the hills are generally low, yet some high
peaks, as Chuttair and Douria, (probably rising to 800 or 1000 feet above the plain,) are met with.
up much~more than the other, and a greater volume of water issues. It has also been rudely enclosed, and at a short distance off is a Mahadeo temple in ruins. M S is the rock from which the spring issues, and M N is a ledge of rocks, and G the néla, some 200 yards ofi’.
From Maljihir westward to Kunchari, a ridge of trap is traced, which crosses the river Deinwa at this place, and through which the river has cut its way ; changed into the solid compact rock of D at K 1; a similar ledge being seen above the ford : the strata appear to run nearlv east and west, with a dip of about 30°, in places traversed by thin veins of quartz and agate. D at K 3, forms the bed of the river at the ford, while large rolled conglomerates D at K 2, are thickly strewed in the bed, varying in size from a small pebble to large masses, a foot in diameter.
From this to Pugara is about nine miles. After leaving the Deinwa, the road is sandy, and a small ridge of sandstone is passed over, leading into a valley of black alluvial soil, up to the village of Singanama ; from which commences what may be termed the Mahadeo Hills. The road is one unvaried ascent, but by no means steep, tl1rough a forest jungle, (scarcely any low bush jungle,) the rock of which is a sandstone, P 1, r (and P 2, much intermixedwith it,) the wholevery practicable for all sorts of baggage, carts excepted. About seven miles from the river, the chief ascent in this march is attained, and the road keeps along the west of the ridge, which becomes more open and level up to Pugara, a small Goand village, belonging to a Thakur. The scenery about is very picturesque: a small nsila, the Kanjundeo, is in front, and on every side fine large trees of mango, jamin, mahwa, semul, &c. ; less than a mile to the eastward rises a small stream, the Kanjun Koonr, which after a very small course falls over a precipitous rock, some 3 or 400 feet perpendicular; it has obtained the name of Butkee Boorrin. Tradition saying that it derived its name from a young Goandee (it might add to theromance to style her lovely, but judging from the faces of this race in
our days, it could not be the truth,) being forced over; however Missp
Butkee has had her companions, as in the days of Goand rule, obnoxious individuals on being brought before their ruler, had the laconic sentence of “Shew him Butkee Boorein,” passed on him. This né.la, after winding through the hills, falls into the Deinwa at Pissun.
From Pugara to the table land of Puchmuree, the distance is about
seven miles, the roadbeing a series of rocky sandstoneledges, occasionally _
intersected by small streams ; the road on the whole is very practicable for all sorts of laden cattle, there being but one or two places where even camels experience any thing like difliculty. On passing the last elevation, one of the Kodri range (being the husks of the kado thrown aside by Mahadeo when resident here), you come to an open, rather level plain, of irregular size, the longest part probably not exceeding six miles
from Dobgur west to the Kanjee Ghatee. east, by five from the Pngara Ghatee to the cave at Mahadeo. There being no underwood or low jungle, this plain has much the appearance of a park ; two or three streams wind through it in different directions.
The whole of these hills are almost entirely one rock, a sandstone (Dok 2) varying a little in color. I visited the top of one of the peaks, Dokgur* by name, the same which is stated by Captain FRANKLIN to be 4800 feet high. On the pinnacle of this hill the pebbles were lying, evidently detached from the sandstone by the action of
weather. These pebbles are to be seen in horizontal strata in many places, where the bare mural rock rises 300 or 400 feet from the plain. The only exception to this sandstone was, Dok l, forming a water-course about 200 feet below the summit, and which is crossed once or twice in ascending to this peak, and Dok 3, about 150 feet from the summit.
In a cave, through which passed a stream, called Jumbo Dweep, the specimen of silicified tree was found by Captain OUSELEY, the description of which I give you in his own words.
“ After having _swam in as you know some 40 or 50 yards, with torches, where severalpassages appear to branch off, and not liking tug-Q farther in water, the depth of which was great but unknown, I came back to the debris on which you stood, formed of broken masses from above, under which the stream runs. On descending with the stream by torch light about 20 feet through the sandstone excavated by the action of water, we came to a small room 10 feet square by 10 or 12 high, the stream falling by a crevice through the floor, about two feet wide. We descended about 15 or 20 feet more, and between the sides of the crevices was jammed the tree, a trunk with apparently stumps above, part of the bark, all fallen forward and caught in a hollow of the sandstone made by water : about 4 feet long by 18 inches wide, from 2 to 6 inches thick: of this I struck off the piece-F I gave you, and have brought away the whole fragment, but not the tree,for what appeared was fully four feet wide, but
how large it may be I did not carefully observe.”
Lieutenant FINNIS, in the Journal for February last, p. 79, appears to meto givea greater degree of extentto these hills, than my observation More than three sides of them are defined by the Deinwa, taking its rise between. the peaks of Bhimgur and Dokgur, and to the westward of Dokgur a deep chasm immediately commences. Whether the geological formation differs on the side towards the Tek, I have no
* There are two other peaks exceeding this in height, viz. Putta Sunkur, (above the cave of Mahadeo,) and Choura Deo, the highest of all which I conjecture to be
about 5000 feet above the sea. + The one I send.