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first operation of filterings, and its specific gravity of course is much increased. It is now sufliciently prepared for final evaporation, and is therefore removed to the evaporating squares, and exposed (very thin) to the action of the Sun and heated air, which it appears is soiliciently powerful to evaporate the saline solution to dryness, leaving a thin crust of a brownish white coloured salt attached to the bottom of the solar evaporatory, from which it is taken off by means of an iron chisel.

The salt thus obtained is, however, far from being a pure article : an average sample which I collected, and subsequently subjected to analysis, produced the following result—100 grs. operated upon.

Insoluhlematter (sand).................................... 3.0
Sulphateofsoda,..............-.--..--.-...... . . . . . . . ... 37.0
Muriateofsoda,.................-...-........ 60.0

100.0

A slight trace of nitrate of lime was detected during the examination.

The quantity of salt produced, of the above quality, at the Ratouly factory, is twenty-five maunds for each filter, and there being seven in number, the total produce for three months’ operations will amount to 175 maunds, which, at the stated price of rupees four per maund, make a total value of rupees 700. However, as this amount is from the manufacturer’s own statement, the real produce may be one-third more.

An average sample of the saline earth, which I carefully collected from the heaps merely scraped off the soil at two of the factories, being analysed, gave me the following result:

100 grs. operated upon.

The filtered solution made no change on turmeric paper. It therefore contained no loose alkali. I obtained precipitates from the following re-agents, viz. muriate of barytes, nitrate of silver, oxalate of ammonia, prussiate of potass, and liquid ammonia: these precipitates, being

carefully washed and dried, produced the following equivalent results :

Earthy matter, insoluble in the three } silex 89 0 minem1acids_ .. .

carbonate of lime. . . . . . . . 4.0 alumina and oxide of iron. . 0.2

(sulphate of soda. . . . . . . . 2 7 muriate of ditto . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 nitrateoflime .......... 0.4 2 0 0 2

Earthy matter, soluble inmuriatic acid, {

Saline matter, soluble in water, .. .-1

,rnoisture...... . . . . . . . . ..
Llons.. .... .. ..

VII.—Progressof the Boring for Coal at Jamutra in Cutch. By Capt. C. W. Grant, Engineers.

[Extracted from that Officer's Report to J. Bax, Esq. Sec. toithe Bombay Government, communicated to the Asiatic Society by the Supreme Government, 30th J an.]

“ On the 3rd instant, I dispatched 125 maunds of coal from the vein at Dujapoor, agreeable to the desire of the Right Honorable the Governor.

“I continued sinking the bore at Jamutra as mentioned in my letter of the 18th June, until towards the latter end of July, when the rain fell, and the river came down so suddenly, that I had but just time to save the boring apparatus, and it was of course impossible to go on with the work, so long as the monsoon continued. At this time also, the whole of my establishment, my personal servants, and the sepoy guard, were attacked with fever—one man only out of 31 escaping it, so that I was obliged to allow them to go into Bhooj, for a few days, for change of air. As soon after the receipt of your letter of the 24th July, as the men had regained suflicient strength to work, I commenced digging out the coal at Dujapoor, and by the beginning of September, had it all ready for shipping to Bombay; since then, we have again been working at the bore at Jamutra, and we have now got down 184 feet below the bed of the river, or 190 feet below the general level of the country, principally through the sandstone and slate-clay, with here and there an exceedingly hard stratum or band of iron stone, as will be better seen by the enclosed list of the numerous strata passed through. The last 22 feet of white sandstone consists entirely of the finest particles of white quartz, and is evidently the channel of an underground spring; for after sinking through it some feet, the water rose, and flowed out at the mouth of the hole in large quantities, night and day, without ceasing, as much as could be conveyed away by a seven or eight inch pipe. It is rather brackish, it cannot be otherwise, as it has to pass through 148 feet of very brackish water, which is constantly flowing in from the sides of the hole, before it can reach the surface; but I have no doubt, but that if it came up through pipes, it would be perfectly sweet. I particularly mention this circumstance, as the boring for water is now becoming of great interest, and my meeting with a spring 190 feet below the level of the plain, shows that success in that line should not be despaired of, even when not found at small depths. The flow of water is constant and uniform, and runs down the river in a fresh stream, and very much impedes our work; so much so, that added to the great depth of the bore, it renders the work exceeding tedious and difficult. I am only waiting to hear the result of the trial of the coal just sent down, to stop work here, and should the coal be approved of, have it in contemplation to commence a bore at Dujapoor, and see if any other veins lie under the present one. In the mean time, I am about to make a long tour through the northern and western parts of the province, where, I think if any where, coal is likely. to be found. I have already examined a great deal of the eastern side of the country, and after this trip, shall have a tolerable idea of the geology of the province.

“ The strata passed through in the present bore, as shown by the enclosed list, are such as usually denote the presence of coal; viz. sand stones, slate clay, and iron ore, and iron pyrites, andbear a very strong analogy to the sections of some of the coal districts in England. Whether coal exists beneath this, -the ineans at my disposal do not permit me to ascertain, except at a great cost; but from the evident traces and presence of coal, though in small quantities, over a large extent of country of which Jamutra is one boundary, still inclines me to think that it must, though in this instance I have not been fortunate enough to hit upon it.

The establishment of a steam communication between Bombay and Europe being now I hope placed beyond a doubt, the discovery of coal so conveniently situated as this, appears to me to be more than ever a desideratum, and I beg you will assure the Right Honorable the Governor in Council, that no exertions shall be spared on my part to contribute to so desirable an object.”

List and description qf the several Strata passed through in Boring for Coal at Jamutra in Catch.

No. feet. inches. 1 Redanrlbrownsandstone.............. .. . . . . . . . . . 20 0 2Thinbandofclayironoreorstone,........ 0 6 3Brownsandstone.......................... 1 6 4 Thin band of clay iron stone, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 0 6 5 Argillaceous sandstone and slate-clay in thin alternate laminae,.. 4 0 6Clayir0nstone,Z 0 3 7 Sandstone andslateclayinthinlaminzc,...................... 5 0 8 Amygdaloidal rock inastate of decomposition,.. .. .. .. .. 2 0 9 Shale slate clay containingathin vein of coal,.... 1 10

10 Sandstoneslateclayinthinlaminaa,.......................... 5 O 11 Lightredsandstone, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 12 Sandstone and slate clay in thin laminae,............ 5 0 . 13 Light-brownsandstone,...................... . . . . .. 0 11$ 14 Deepredditto, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 15 Light-brown and yellow ditto, very soft, . . . . . . . . 7 9 16 Brownargillaceoussandstone,.............................. 3 ll 17 Reddishbrownsandstonc, . . . . . . . 1 3 18 Veryargillaceoussandstone,. . . . . . 0 11 19 Variegatedsandstone,..............l........ 4 0

20 Deepredditto,.......................................... 3 10

No.
21 Sandstone composed of very coarse grains of quartz, &c. and color-

feel. inches.

[graphic]

eddeepredbyoxideof1ron,.............................. 1 2 22 Fine argillaceous sandstone and slate-clay, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 0 2 23 Very coarse quartzy sandstone or breccia, deep red,. . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9 24 Ditto ditto white ditto, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7 25 Very argillaceous sandstone, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 26 Verycoarselight-brownsandstone,.......................... 1 4 27 Brownsandstone,fine, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 0i 28 Coarseqnartzysandstone,.................................. 2 10 29 Very hard red sandstone, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 30 Sandstone and slate-clay, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8} 31 Red ferruginous sandstone, exceedingly hard,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 32 Very coarse quartzy sandstone, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 7 33 Argillaceoussandstone,.................................... 1 5 34 Clayironstone,excessivelyhard,............................ 1 7 35 Deepredsandst0ne,...................................... 5 9 36 Very argillaceous sandstone, strongly impregnated with iron,. . . . 9 10 37 Excessively hard rock, consisting of particles of quartzy-clay slate and strongly cemented in ferruginous clay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 38 Reddish argillaceous sandstone,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3} 39 Very coarse quartzy breccia or sandstone,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Bi 40 Veryfinegrained sandstone, . . . . . . . . . 1 45 41 Very coarsequartzydittm 1 10 42 Redsandstone, . . . . . . . . . 4 8 43 Hardredclay,.......................................... 0 8 44 Hard brown sandstone, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 45 Blue clay or slate clay, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 46 Grey or pyritous iron ore, exceedingly hard,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 47 Slateclay,........................ 1 3f 48 Pyriteous iron ore, exceedingly hard,................ 2 3 49 Blue slate clay, with pieces of iron pyrites,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 0 50 Hard red iron stone, very diflicult to cut through,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 51 Slate clay, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 0 52 White sandstone, composed of extremely fine particles of quartz, 15 0 53 (A few small pieces of coal were now brought up) : perfectly white sandstone, composed of extremely fine particles of quartz, . . . . 7 0 54 Total depth of bore at present reached, including 42 ft.1 in. in the 190 11}

heightof thebankoftheriver...................

N. B. Below the white sandstone is avery hard rock, at which we are now working, and which serves as the pavement of the water channel

described in the letter.

VIlI.-—Discovery of an Ancient Town near Behut, in the Dodb. By Capt. P. T. Cautley, Supt. Doab Canal.

[Extract of a letter read at the Meeting of the 30th instant.]

“ I have this day despatched by dirk banghy, for the museum, a number of coins, of very great interest, from their having been found in the site of an ancient (apparently Hindu town,) which site is now seventeen feet below the present surface of the country, and upwards of twentyfive below that of a modern town near it. I will confine myself in this mere notice at present, to stating, that in consequence of the clearing out of the canal bed south of the Belka falls, near the town of Behut, north of Seharunpoor, the exposure took place; and on the canal being laid dry shortly after, the coin, &c. were found amongst the shingle in the bed of the canal. I may mention that this line is altogether distinct from that which is said to be the ancient canal, and therefore even were there not distinct marks to the contrary, there can be no quibbling on the articles having been transported, which is a favorite argument of the day. In the present case, the section is thus; the surface of the country at that point being much lower than that on which the town of Behut

stands :—Grass jungle with cultivation on the surface of the country. River sand, 4;‘ feet. A seam of sand with traces of shingle.

Reddish clay mixed with sand, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 feet.
A . . . . ..A, site of ancient town,............A..................A
Black soil full of pots, bones, &c. in which the coin and other articles have

been discovered, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 feet.

Bed of canal, 23 feet below surface.

The line marked above “ site of ancient town A A A A” is distinct in section for about a quarter of a mile, and were it not for the breaking down of banks, 810. it would be seen much further; the soil upon which the town appears to have stood is very black, and full of bones and pieces of pots of different description : bricks of a large size, and of unusual shape, appearing as if they had been made to suit the circular form of wells: pieces of the slag of iron-smelting furnaces, (such a thing as smelting iron at Behat was never heard of,) arrow heads, rings, ornaments and beads of different descriptions; in short, an Oriental Herculaneum, for there appears every chance of the discoveries being extended hereafter. The appearance of small pieces of kankar (amongst the shingle), of which I also send one or two specimens, is an extraordinary feature, as kankar is not known in this part of the country.”

Now. The probable date of Lieut. CAUT1.EY’s subterranean city, to

whatever cause its inhumation may be attributed, can be pretty well placed

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