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has three ; water, the fourth, has four; and earth, the fifth, has five*.
These elements are evolved uniformly one from another in the above manner, and are revolved uniformly in the inverse order.
Sdnyatd, or the total abstraction of phenomenal properties, is the result of the total suspension of nature's activity. It is the ubi, and the modus, of the universal material principle in its proper and enduring state of nirvriti, or of rest. It is not nothingness, except with the sceptical few. The opposite of Swing/aid is Avidya. Now, if we revert to the extract from the Long-yan-king, and remember that la pcnséef Yintelligence luminenset, and -la lumiere precieusei refer alike to Prajna the material principle of all things, (which is personified as a goddess by the re1igionists,) we shall find nothing left to impede a distinct notion of the author’s meaning, beyond some metaphorical flourishes analogous to that variety of descriptive epithets by which he has characterised the one universal principle. Tonrbillon de vent, and tourbillon d’eau, are the elements of air and of water, respectively ; and le principe de solidité is the element of earth.
“ Tous les étres etant contenus dans la pure substance de Prajna une idée surgit inopinement et produisit la fausse lumiere :”-—that is, the universal material principle, or goddess Prajna, whilst existing in its, or her, true and proper state of abstraction and repose, was suddenly disposed to activity, or impressed with delusive mundane affection (A'L'id_1/a). “ Quand la fausse lumiere fut née, le vide ct Fobscurité fimposerent reciproquement des limites.” The result of this errant disposition to activity, or this mundane affection, was that the universal void was limited by the coming into being of the first element, or dkdsh, which as the primary modification of Sdnyatd (space) has scarcely any sensible properties. Such is the meaning of the passage “ les formes qui en resulterent étant indeterminées,” immediately succeeding the last quotation. Its sequel again, " il y eut agitation et mouvement," merely refers to mobility being the characteristic property of that element (air) which is about to be produced. “ De la. naquit le tourbillon de vent, qui contient les mondes.” Thence (i. e. from a'ka'sk) proceeded the element of the circumambient air. ' “ L’intelligence lumi
* There is always cumulation of properties, but the number assigned to each element is variously stated.
1' Prajna is literally the supreme wisdom, videlicet, of nature. Light and flame are types of this universal principle, in a slate of activity. Nothing but extreme confusion can result from translating these terms an pied de la lettre, and without
reference to their technical signification. That alone supremely governs both the literal and metaphorical sense of words.
neuse etoit le principe de solidité, d’ou naquit la roue d'0r qui soutient et protége la terre.” Prajna in the form of light (her pram-ittika manifestation) was the principle of solidity, whence proceeded the wheel of gold which sustains and protects the earth. Solidity, the diagnostic quality of the element of earth, stands for that element; and the wheel of gold is mount Merfi, the distinctive attribute of which is protecting and sustaining power: this passage, therefore, simply announces the evolution of the element of earth, with its mythological appendage, mount Meni. But, according to all the authorities within my knowledge, earth is the last evolved of the material elements. Nor did I
-e've'r meet with an instance, such as here occurs, of the direct inter
vention of the first_cause (Prajna) in the midst of this evolution of the elements. “ Le contact mutuel du vent et du metal produit le feu et la lumiere, qui sont les principes des changemens.” The mutual contact of the elements of air and of earth produced fire and light, which are the principles of change. This is intelligible, allowance being made for palpable mistakes. I understand by it, merely the evolution out of the element of air of that of fire, of which light is held to be a modification. To the igneous element is ascribed the special property of heat, which is assumed by our author as the principle of all
I changes and transformations. Metal for earth is an obvious misappre
hension of RnMUsA'r’s. Nor less so is the false allocation of this element (earth) in the general evolution of the five, and its introduction
here. “ La lumiere precieuse engendre la liquidité qui bouillonne a la sur
face de la lumiere ignée, d’on provient le tourbillon d’eau qui embrasse les mondes.”
Prajna (in the form of light) produces the liquidity which boils on the surface of igneous light, whence proceeds the element of water embracing the world.
This figurative nonsense, when reduced to plain prose, merely announces the evolution of the element of water from that of fire. Our terrestrial globe rests upon the waters like a boat, according to the. Buddhists ; and hence the allusion (embracing the world) of the text. What is deserving of notice is the direct interference, a second time, (and in respect to earth, a third time,) of the causa causans with the procession of the elements, one from another. All my authorities are silent in regard to any such repeated and direct agency; which amounts in fact, to creation properly so called—a tenet directly opposed to the fundamental doctrine of all the Swobhfwikas. Certain Buddhists hold the opinion, that all material substances in the versatile world have no existence independent of human. perception. But that the Chinese
author quoted by Mr. Rsnusxr was one of these idealists, is by no means certain. His more immediate object, in the passage quoted, evidently was, to exhibit the procession of the five material elements, one from another. To that I at present confine myself, merely observing of the other notion, that what has been stated of the homogeneousness and unreality of all phenomena, is not tantamount to an admission of it. The doctrine of Avidya, the mundane affection of the universal principle, is not necessarily the same with the doctrine which makes the sentient principle in man the measure of all things*. Both may seem, in efl‘ect, to converge towards what we very vaguely call idealism ; but there are many separate paths of inquiry by which that conclusion may be reached.
II.--Note on two Coins of the same species as those found at Behat, having Greek inscriptions. By Major D. L. Smcr, (Plate XXV.)
I have the honor to enclose a facsimile of a copper coin purchased by me at Chittore Gurh.
It was my intention to reserve any notice of this coin, till I ascertained if my good fortune would send me others, more distinct, and consequently more satisfactory ; but on reading the description of the famous stone pillar abAllahabad, given in your number for March, 1834, (No. 27,) I am induced to submita few remarks with the copy of the coin-I-.
The style of the Greek character would, alone, be suflicient to stamp this coin as provincial, were the chungahs or symbols on the obverse, and monogram on the reverse, less distinct, or even obliterated. The suggestions of Lieutenant BURT, and Mr. STIRLING, viz. that the characters on the Allahabad Pillar N0. 1, resembled the Greek, drew my attention to the plate, when it immediately occurred to me, vice versa, that these provincial Greek characters, on my coin, might have taken their style or fashion from the writing of the dynasty, or descendants of the dynasty, which owned this pillar. '
‘ Manas, the sixth element, is the sentient principle in man. The Chinese author mentions it not, unless the passage beginning “ la méme force,” and immediately following that I have quoted, was designed to announce its evolution. That passage as it stands, however, does not assert more than the homogeneousness of this sixth element with the other five.
_ 1' The original coins were subsequently sent, and are depicted as figs. 2 and 3, of plate xxv.—-En.
That the Greeks did send as a subsidiary force to the assistance of CHANDRAGUPTA, son of NANDA, Rzijé. of the Prachi, I believe no one doubts: and contrasting all circumstances on the subject within our knowledge, we may fairly presume, that the services of this subsidiary, were paid by a grant of land (J aédad).
In Connnrfs “ Modern Traveller,” speaking of these times, after relating the death of the aged NANDA by poison (given by his minister SACATARA), he proceeds, vol. vii. page 123. “ The crime did not, however, go unpunished ; SACATARA and all his sons, except one, were put to death ; and to secure himself against hostile claimants of the crown, UPADHANWA gave orders for the massacre of all his half brothers, the children of NANDA by different mothers. CHANDRAGUPTA alone escaped, and fled to the court of PARYATESWARA ‘ Lord of the Mountains’ or King of Népél ; to whom he ofl'ered one half of his kingdom if he would assist him in taking the field against his enemy.
“ In conjunction with this powerful ally, aided by a body of Greek auxiliaries, CHANDRAGUPTA defeated UPADHANWA with great slaughter under the walls of his capital, the monarch himself being among the slain, and took possession of the throne of his father. His promise to PARVATESWARA was now disregarded. He retained a large body of Yavans or Greeks in his pay, and fortifying his capital, set his enemies at defiance.”
Concluding the Greek auxiliaries were paid by a grant of land, as
by agreement the Nepalis were to have been, and at the period CHANDRAGUPTA sought Greek assistance, he could have had no other means of paying them. Considering also, that the high estimation they were held in, caused them to be retained after the object, which brought them to Pryag, was accomplished, we may naturally conclude that the “ Jaédad” granted to this subsidiary was very considerable. ' The value of the services of the Greeks had been shewn, 1st, in the aid lent in placing CHANDRAGUPTA on the throne of his ancestor; 2ndly, in enabling the newly made king to retain that half of his territory, which he had pledged in case of success as a recompense to the Lord of the Hills.
These were services already performed: and to people, who had proved themselves so useful in his recently acquired kingdom, CHANDRAGUPTA, must for every reason, have given a substantial proof of his consideration. The marriage of CHANDRAGUPTA to the daughter of Samucus*, must have added strength to the position of the Greeks amongst the Prachi, and the appointment by Summons of the celebrated Mnonsrunnns as resident at the court of his Rzijé. son-in-law. went as far as human wisdom could do, in adding stability to their footing.
* Tonn in his Rajast’han, vol. i. p. 671, makes Snuwous marry the daughter of CHANDRAGUPTA, instead of CHANDBAGUPTA marrying a daughter of SEuwcos. This is evidently an oversight.
It requires more experience in numismatic lore than I can boast, to explain the meaning of the different symbols or “ Chungahs" on this coin. The obverse has the word “ Soter” very distinct: what letters follow I cannot say; they certainly are not the same character,
but what they are, must perhaps remain a secret till further research *
gives us a more complete coin by which to determine. The j’har or branch is distinct. (can this be the olive branch?) the other Chungahs I cannot decipher. The monogram on the reverse is the same as
that on some coins in my possession, having an elephant on the obverse*.
The Greek jaédad or territories we may suppose grew into consideration much the same as did the Honorable Company’s after their first footing : and like the infant Company too, we may suppose, the Greeks established a currency of their own, though more perhaps with a view of handing down their achievement to posterity than as a necessary medium of barter, and I think the coin (the subject of this communication) bears every mark of being of those times, of the Chandragupta dynasty.
Note on another Coin of the same type procured by Lieut. A. Conolly,
at Kanouj, by the Secretary.
At the moment of perusing Major S'rAcY’s remarks on the indications of a Greek inscription on the Behat type of coin, as it may continue to be designated until its origin be better determined, and with his two coins before me, (Pl. xxv. figs. 2, 3,) corroborating his readingt; I am most opportunely put in possession of another scion of the same stock speaking a totally different language !
Lieut. CONOLLY has already had the good fortune to make known a valable Kanouj coin with a legible inscription, in the language and character of the Allahabad column, (inscription No. 2.) His zealous exertions have again conducted him to a brilliant discovery at the same place, of the very nature we could have desired at this momenta coin of the Behat type, bearing a clear and distinct inscription: and that inscription in the unknown character No. 1. of the Allahabad column! Two of Mr. MAssoN’s coins, it will be remembered, bore
characters which were pronounced to be of this alphabet. They were
* No. 27, Journal Asiatic Society, page 121, line xvii. The Elephant appears to have been one of the Symbols of the CHANDRAGUPTA dynasty.
1' It should be remarked however that the apparently Greek letters when inverted resemble closely the Delhi character : it will be wrong therefore to assume positively that they are Greek.