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The next observation which ofl‘ers is, that none of the words of the inscription are Greek; neither the titles of the Indoscythic sovereigns of Bactria, ancrnarc BACIAI-ION, nor even Greek terminations to the words, being any longer apparent (with exception of two Kanrrnsas coins upon which the Greek legend was barely perceptible). It was not until I had carefully analyzed all that was legible of the fresh supply of coins of the same nature, that I was able to distinguish the direct consanguinity of the whole of these barbaric descendants with their comparatively pure progenitors above mentioned.

Nearly the whole of the Bactrian series of coins is now known to us.

Those of pure Grecian fabrication, such as the beautiful silver medal of Eornrnmws brought down by Lieut. Buarms, of which Dr. GERARD has recently favored me with a duplicate, simply bear the head of the sovereign on the obverse, and his name, along with a figure of .1 UPITER, Haacunas, or some other god, on the reverse, after the fashion of their Syrian prototypes*.

The coins of Mnnnnnaa, Aronnonorvs, and Eucnnrnns, as well as those of Arrrrnaxrnns, Hanmaus, Urznnrnnanos, and other princes made known through Mr. Massorfs successful researches, have invariably an inscription in Pehlevi or some unknown character on the reverse, while the name and titles of the sovereign, instead of running straight across the field as in the Macedonian coins, encircle the device on the obverse,’ in the manner of the Roman coins of the same period, which were then no doubt current extensively in the east.

The Pehlevi inscription continues on the coins of Knnrrnsns, which we may conclude from their comparative rarity in the Manikyala collection to have belonged to a difl"erent province from those of Kanerkos, or to have been antecedent to them by a period sufficient to render them scarce in the district.

The fortunate discovery by Dr. MARTIN Homoanaona of one of the coins of this prince in a tope near Kabul, corroborates the idea of a separate seat of government; and the device of the bull (and SIVA P) points to a different creed from that of the Kanerkos series, which hear an image, as will presently be shown, of the sun ; and thus appear

more nearly allied to the Persian creed. , At the period however, of the erection of the Ménikytzla monument,

a considerable change had taken place in the designation of the princes of both countries : at least we find a similar alteration in the inscription of the coins of both; the devices in other respects remaining unal

tered or only deteriorated in execution.

" See Journal As. Soc. vol. ii. plate xi.

The alteration to which I allude, is the omission of the Greek title BACIAETC BACIAEQN1 and the substitution of PAO NANO M0, or simply PAO. That such was the case may be proved from numerous coins in Mr. Msssorfs plates; I have however endeavoured to make the transition still plainer by placing together in Plate XXV, drawings of the coins which I imagine to be thus allied. Figures 7 and 8, are from very perfect specimens of the genuine Kanerkos coin in copper, the first sent me by KERAMAT ALI, the second by Dr. GERARD : while figures 10 and 11, are from other equally well preserved coins in my own enriched cabinet. The devices will at once be pronounced to be

identical. - Of the legend on the first two coins I need add nothing to what has been before said : of the others, I have collected, to the right hand of figure 10, the various readings extant, and, beginning on the right hand, we find as before stated PAOKA . . . . NHPKI, which I suppose to be equivalent to pamievs Kqm,p,.W*; the break between KA and NHPKI seeming to have been merely caused by the want of space below the device, while the dots between the A and the N may be intended to denote their immediate connection. V _ If we now turn to the Kadphises group in Plate XXVI. we find precisely the same change of designation, at the foot of the plateon the right-hand side, where for the sake of saving space, the terminating words only of the Greek inscription are engraved. : The first part of the full inscription on the elder type of these coins, both the large and the small, is correctly given by Mr. Mssson, as BAQI AGVC BAClA€wN CwTl-lPME1‘AC"l‘. The name KAAQIOHC is itself not very. distinct in any of the ten coins whence my inscriptions are copied, but coupled with Mr. Msssorfs authority, it may be fully relied on. The intervening letters are more uncertain : the various readings are oox, OKMO, OOKMO, oonzv, OOMO. The two omicrons cannot well be intended as stops to denote the termination of the inscription, to which purpose they would be applied in the Zend, or Pehlevi; nor can the intervening word be an epithet, coupled with I“‘Y¢b for the same word occurs on the gold medalfound by Dr. MARTIN*, with the simpler form BAQIAEVC oonmo KAA<l>!CI-10. The only probable conjecture is this, that O0km0 or iikemo may be a part or an adjunct of the name of the prince.

"’ We have no authority for writing it um/npxos, since it always occurs with the genitive termination ou, although united to Baa1Aevs in the nominative.

1- Mr. Mnssorfl-s Memoir is so full on the subject of the Kadphises coins that I have not thought necessary to add any thing thereto. I may here however point out that the portion of Colonel Ton’s bull and raja coin, which SCHLEGEL could make nothing of (As. Res. xvii. 579), has been successfully developed by the more perfect specimens now obtained. What the Professor decyphered as IHPNIGIC and EAOBIFPIG are evidently (supplying the two first letters of saviour) a"wTHPMEI‘AC KAA<I>ICI-IO. Scrnnenn considered the name to be of a Tartar Khan, or Indo-Scythian prince. Colonel Ton however leaned to a Parthian origin, whilst the Bactrian kingdom was subject to Parthian kings ; this view seems the most probable from several considerations, such as the fire-altar, the costume, and the Pehleoi inscriptions.

Quitting this dubious ground, and descending to the inferior coins of the bull type, we find legends ll-, 12, 13, l4,and 15, expressing more or less legibly the same term PAD NAN0 observed on the Kanerkou group.

In the same manner, fifteen of the elephant coins aflbrd, some entire, and some in part, the legend PAO NANO PAO in place of the title, and some few, as that depicted in the figure 31, of Plate XXV. have the word KENPAN0, which until contradicted by more satisfactory testimony we may assume to be the prince's name on this coin. In some coins this name seems written KENOPANO.

The two copper coins having seated figures, 29 and 32, of the M5.nikyfala Plate, XXII ; also 32 of Plate XXV., and 3 of Plate XXVI. ; have,though in fewer examples, furnished unequivocal fragments of the same legend or title. mo NANO.. ..

The coin with the running figure, on the contrary, has only (in the three legible samples of our collection) yielded portions of PAO KA .. .. NHPKI, and is therefore in all respects similar to the secondary form of the Kanerkou medals. The above includes all of the Indo-Scythic type yet known : Mr. Masson restricts them to four distinct sets (page 174), and in fact so judicious had been. his survey of the group, that we have not been able to add one new type to his list.

We now turn to the two gold coins of the Manikyala cabinet, having, from the above cursory survey of the more numerous copper coins, become possessed as it were of a key to their solution.

It was some little time before I discovered that the inscriptions on the larger gold coin of the first Manikyala deposit, (Plate XXI. fig. 2,) and the little gold coin of the lower cylinder (Plate XXII. fig. 24,) bore precisely the same legend on the obverse. The first half of the writing on the small coin 'was not legible ; and it was only after perceiving» the analogy of the latter half, with the second part of the larger coin,’ that I was led by careful examination, to trace and recognize the rudiments of each letter of the first part of the obliterated coin. I have in the present Plate, XXV., placed the two-in juxtaposition, (figs. 25 and 26,) to shew their identity, and the whole line thus restored becomes very evidently

‘ See the drawing of this coin by Massmv, in Plate XIII.


There is some indistinctness, and perhaps an omission, about the central portion of this inscription, where portions of the letters are cut of, or entangled with the ornamental head-dress of the prince; but we are fortunately able to clear up this uncertainty from a coin depicted as No. 2 of Professor Wn.soN’s plates, in the seventeenth volume of the Researches, and stated by my predecessor to have been discovered in a field near Comilla in Tipera. The inscription on this coin, of which the fac simile in type metal, cut for the Researches, is fortunately in my possession, is now rendered legible by our acquired knowledge of its associates; I here place the corrected reading under the fac simile:

vac N 9 N°‘DI'O|<A ""lbhlK°bl7'N0 PAONANOPAOKA NHPKI-KOPANO and it at once enables us to supply the omission in the centre of the Manikyala gold coins by the name already so familiar to our ears, as Kanerki or Kanerlcou. "

Are these various coins then all the production of one sovereign, or was the superscription of that prince maintained by his successors, and gradually lost by the corruption of the Greek characters, in which it was endeavoured to be conveyed P To these questions a satisfactory answer cannot be given in the present state of our knowledge: but we cannot avoid remarking that the. . KENOPANO of the elephant coin may, by a very trifling alteration, be read as . . . . . KI KOPANO, which will bring it to coincide with the other coins of this extensive family.

The degeneration of individual letters is sufficiently visible in the various forms of the P, the A, the K, and the M, in the specimens engraved, but a more wholesale abandonment of the primitive form may, I think, be pointed out in the third 'gold coin of Mr. WILsoN’s plates, being one of what we have called the bull and raja, or Kadphises, coins. The legend on this is very prominent, and contains, under a trifling disguise, the very letters of the same sentence ; the first letter F is wanting, and the three final letters of the last word Facsimile» o\0no"lOpo' 0-% ooronov Corrected reading, (p) A O N A N O P A 0 0 O H 0 K 0 P(ava) ‘ The collection received from KERAMAT ALI has put me in possession of two gold coins of this curious species ; (which was indeed held to be of doubtful origin, from Colonel MACKENZIE having apparently multiplied fac similes of his in silver ;) they are thin, and of exceedingly Clumsy manufacture, but the legends in both are plain, though much more transformed than the specimen just given. Fig. 10 of Plate XXVI represents one of these coins, and fig. 11, the principal characteristics of the other, namely, the inscription, the king’s' head, (already alluded to as wearing the winged cap of the Sassanian monarchs,) the fire-altar, and the symbol, all more or less varied. The inscription now possesses but three characters, P, N, and O, the latter having swallowed up all the angular A's and P’s ;and the N assuming all the functions of M and K- Bearing this in mind, the lower line may be read without any fanciful straining, o I:AONANO P . 0 KOPA...

Fig. 10 is equally capable of the same interpretation, for beginning on the left hand, at the bottom, what appears to be

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is evidently letter for letter a corruption of PAONANOPAO OOHO KOPANO

The letter of the whole series of these curious relics of a dynasty entirely unknown from other sources having been so far developed, as regards the obverse of the medals, it remains, before we proceed to consider the variable motto on the reverse, to offer a few observations on the meaning these enigmatical words rao nano mo and korano may be intended to convey.

First then, as regards the termination in the short Greek 0 ;_we learn from M. EUGENE Bunnour’s very learned commentary on the Yap-na, in the introductory essay on the Zend alphabet, that the latter contains a short 0 unknown to the Sanscrit alphabet and used as the equivalent of the short Nrigari inherent a, while on the other hand it has precisely the value of the Greek omicron*. To express therefore any native word, so terminating, in the Greek character, the omicron would necessarily be employed. We know from the circumstance of the Zend or rather Pehlevi characters on the obverse of the Bactrian coins, that this dialect must have been the prevailing language of the country. Moreover from the learned, authority above quoted we learn, that the termination in do is of very frequent use in the Zend, the final 0 being the regular permutation of s, the sign of the Sanscrit nominative in words common to the two languages : thus in ahura-mazddo (ormuzd), the latter word is precisely the Sanscrit mahd-da's ‘ qui magna dat,’ an attribute of the

*‘ It is unnecessary to state that in the Zend as in the European alphabets, the vowels are all expressed by distinguishing symbols. M. BUBNOUF in speaking of a change of vowel orthography between the Sanscrit and Zend says ; “ Ce change_ ment devra peu étonner sans doute, si l’on pense que dans l’Inde méme l’a bref Dévam/tgari vaut 0 suivant la pronunciation Bengflie, et e brefcomme nous l’avons déjét remarqué plus haut. Dans ce cas l’6 Zend n’est pas en réa1itél’6 Dévanzigari c’est plut(‘)t l’0micron grec, en tent qu’il repond a l’a Sanscrit et a 1’e Latin dans les mots que ces trois langues possédent en commun.”—-Commeniaire surle Yapna par Eugene Burnouf, vol. I. p. 59.

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