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within cognate limits through the very fortunate discovery of many coins imbedded in the same place with the bricks and bones. The coins belong to three diiferent species already made lmown through Mr. Wu.son’s paper on the Society’s cabinet*.
1. The Indo-Scythic coin, or that having the figure of a man in a coat of mail, offering something on a small altar (Nos. 23 to 33, Plate II. As. Res. xvii.), which has been referred with much probability to the commencement of the Christian era:—-of this only one coin is recognizable out of 26.
2. The chief part of the coins belongs to the series No. 69, Plate III. of the same volume, of which nothing at all is known; only two have hitherto been seen, one of which was dug up in cutting the trench of the new road from Allahabad to Benares: this however was square, as was a duplicate in Colonel Macxnnzmfs collection. but all those now brought to light are circular: they are identified with it by the elephant on one side, and by one or more singular monograms. Some of them differ considerably in other respects, having a Brahmany bull on the reverse. and an inscription in unknown characters round the edget.
3. The third species of coin is of silver. A square lump with no regular impression, but simply stamped with various chhzips, as might have been the custom anterior to the general introduction of coined money. Of this ancient coin, the MACKENZIE collection furnishes abundant examples, (Plate V. figures 101 to 108,) but his researches altogether failed in ascertaining their date, or even their genuineness, both which points are now satisfactorily developed by the present discovery. They must all date posterior to the lndo-Scythic dynasties in Bactria, and belong to a period when (as in China at present) silver was in general current by weight, while the inferior metals (for all of the present coins are not of copper) were circulated as tokens of a fixed nominal value.
This discovery alone would be of great value, but it is only one of immunerable points for which we may eagerly expect elucidation from this Herculaneum of the East.
The appearance and state of the tooth and bone sent down are also of high interest; they are not entirely deprived of their animal matter, though it is in a great measure replaced by carbonate of lime. The tooth is of the same size, and belongs to the same animal (the ox) as those of the Jumna fossils, presented by Capt. E. SMITH at the last meeting, but the mineralization in the latter has been completed, whereas in these it remains imperfect. J . P.
* See Asiatic Researches, vol. XVII. 1- We shall insert drawings of these coins, and of other objects discovered on the same spot, when Capt. CAUTLEY favors us with further particulars.
IX.——-A Brief Account of the System adopted by Divers in the Deccan, for the Recovery of Valuables, lost in the Tanks and Rivers qf that Province. By Lieut. G. J. Taylor, 7th Mad. Lt. Cav.
Happening to lose a valuable diamond ring when swimming some years since in a tank in the Deccan, I was induced to employ a set of divers for its recovery: not, I confess, with much hopes of success, notwithstanding the confident tone in which I was assured they seldom or never failed in their search. I was however most agreeably disappointed, for after seven hours’ labour, the ring was found. As the mode which they adopted, for the recovery of the lost article, was new to me, and may possibly be unknown to many of your readers, I venture to forward the following brief sketch of their proceedings. The head of the set I employed, and who eventually was successful in his search, was a celebrated diver in that part of India. He wore a beautiful gold bangle on his right arm—a present from the Peshwa BAJEE RAO for having recovered a valuable emerald from the Tapti river, which that prince had dropped in crossing the stream: He assured me, that although a most laborious and sometimes painful trade, he had usually found it alucrative occupation.
I may add that I subsequently saw the same mode adopted, on various occasions, for the recovery of the nose ornaments, ear-rings, and other jewels lost by women when bathing on the'ghats of the great rivers and banks in that part of the country, and almost always with success. 1
Their method is as follows : _
A set of divers consists of three persons, two ‘of whom dive by turns, while the third sits on the adjoining bank. The two divers wade to the place pointed out, if within their depth, each carrying with him a circular flat-bottomed wooden basin, with sloping sides, about seven inches deep and two and a half feet in diameter. With this the diver descends, and having scooped into it as much of the surface of the mud or sand as it will contain, ascends with the platter and sends it ashore, where its contents are carefully washed and examined by athird person. If the water he not deep, when one man has stooped under water, he is kept down by his partner, placing one foot upon his neck or shoulders, until the platter is filled, on which a signal is made, the foot is withdrawn, and the man rises to the surface. But when the depth of water will not admit of such arrangement, the diver sinks a grapnel or heavy stone from a canoe, and then descends by the rope. When he ascends, the platter is lifted into the boat, and there examined. In this way, they continue to work for hours, each diver descending in turn, until they have examined the whole surface of the mud or sand around the place pointed out, and very seldom fail of success if ordinary information be only afforded, asto the spot near which the
article has been lost. They remain under water from one to one and a half minute at a time—oft-times more, if the water be deep. They adopt the same system precisely, whether in still water or in a running stream : only that in the latter, of course their labour is more severe-— their success more precarious.
Their remuneration depends solely on success ; the ordinary salary being one-third of the extricated value of the lost article, and which is divided in equal portions among the set.
X.-—-Register of the Weather at Futtehgurh (Lat. 27°21’ N. Long. 79° -30' E.) from April 1832 to October 1833. By M. P. Edgeworth, Esq. C. S. The thermometer was placed in the open air, on a wall fronting the
north, until 1st January, 1833, when it was removed to an open veranda
on the north side of the house. Up to 26 Sept. the maximum was taken by a self-registering thermometer, which was accidentally broken : it was
then taken at 2%hp. m. till December, 2 p. m. till April, } by a spirit thermometer, 3 p. m. till August and from August 6, by a self-registering thermometer. The minimum
all along by a self-registering spirit thermometer.
NOTE. We have endeavoured to render the abstract, into which want of space has obliged us to condense our c0rrespondent’s register, more complete by expressly numerically the number of days, windy, cloudy, fair, &c. in each month, as far as can be gathered from a register not intended to shew these points with accuracy. The columns of west and east wind comprehend 45'' degrees on either side of the cardinal point, as it seemed more proper to class these winds (north-west, south-east &c.) with the directions generally prevalent, than with the north and south winds, which are of rare occurrence.
The mean temperature of Futtehgurh seems nearly as high as that of Benares or Ghazipoor*, but we are not aware that the instruments used had been previously compared with a standard.
For four days of 1832, Mr. Enenwonrn took the temperature every hour during the day and night: which enables us to prove that the supposition of deriving the mean temperature of a place from the means of two hours of the same name will not hold good. At the foot of the hourly register we have given the means of the pairs thus deduced; and under them the errors from the mean of the whole (75°.55), which may be taken as the corrections due to each pair. The mean of the extremes of heat and cold (76°.55) is 1.00 higher than the mean diurnal range. In my register for Benares (App. X. As. Res. xv.) I found the excess to
p be 0.86, which is a near accordance with Mr. Encnwoarn’s result.—J.P.
* See vol. i. 29, and vol. ii. 604.
August, . . . . . .
May, . . . . . . . . .
June, . . . . . . . . .
July, . . . . . . . . .
August, . . . . . . .
Mean of 1st yr ,
g>g;7J00®\I:‘J>cn»> -¢-ovca\1\1a>00\1\1 owwrraarv P???@PP?P ‘\1;\-,=:>u~uc>1-~1>o> <.n<oooo1<:>-o1c:wo
1OA.M. Max. l0P.M. Mall.
The last column shews the difierences of the means of pairs (of hours of the same,) from the mean temperature of the whole twenty-four hours 75°.55. The 19th August was cloudy after ten o’clock ; the rest were fine throughout. The greatest heat of the day occurs at 2 p. 111.: the minimum temperature at 6 o’clock in the morning.
XI .-—Note on the Botanical Specimens from Mount Ophir.
The specimens from Mount Ophir, with which I was favored the day
Botanic Garden. N. WALLICH.