Page images
PDF

VI.—-Abstract Statement of 412 Villages m Zillah Barellg/. Settlement under Regulation VII. 1822. By H. S. Boonnnason, Esq. Collector. The following statement, for which we are indebted to the Secretary of the

Allahabad Sudur Board of Revenue, will give a just notion of the produce of land in the Rohilcund districts.

[graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][ocr errors][ocr errors][graphic][graphic][graphic][ocr errors][graphic][graphic][ocr errors][merged small]

Wednesday Evening, the let October, 1834;
[C0]. Sir JEREMIAH BRYANT, Sen. Mem. present, in the Chain]

Lieutenant Mnonaon, Madras N. I., attached to the Burmese Embassy, and Lieutenant-Colonel J auras Low, Resident at Lucknow, proposed at the last Meeting, were balloted for, and duly elected as members of the Society.

Read a letter from N. Wnnucn, Esq. M. D. Acting Secretary of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Bengal, expressing the thanks of the Society for their present of Kandahar tobacco, cottomseeds, &c.

Read a letter from Professor FRANK, expressing his best thanks for the 17th volume of the Asiatic Researches received through their late Secretary, Professor H. H. WILSON.

Also one from C11. D’ Mares, Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, acknowledging receipt of volumes 16th, 17th, and 18th of the Asiatic Researches, and volume 1st of the Journal As. Soc.

Extracts were read of private letters from Professor Wmsozv, and Mr. Gnoaon Swnsrou, on subjects interesting to the Society.

The celebrated sculptor Cuauraar has at last undertaken to execute the bust of our late Secretary. Some delay is anticipated, as he is at present engaged in a colossal equestrian statue of Sir THOMAS Murmo for Madras, and a full length of Sir J. MALCOLM for Bombay.

A fresh supply of the 15th volume, Asiatic Researches, was required, all hitherto sent home having been disposed of.

Sir DAVID Banwsrna is at present engaged in a work on the crystalline lenses of animals, and he is anxious to procure specimens of the eyes of all the fishes of the Ganges. Those who have opportunites of supplying this desideratum are requested to wrap the eyes up in thin-sheet-lead, numbered with reference to a catalogue of their names and species, and then all may be enclosed together in spirits of wine. Mr. Swmron thus sent home the eyes of elephants, tigers, &c. on a former occasion.

Mr. Swmron, referring to the notice in page 304 of the Journal for July 1833, intimates that he has received back from Sir D. Bnswsrna the amount of Indian subscriptions for the polyzonal lens, with bank interest at 2 per cent., and that he holds it at the disposal of the subscribers to be paid to their agents in England. (A notice to this efiect is printed on the cover of the present month.)

Library. Reada letter from J. VAUGHAN, Esq. Librarian of American Philosophical Society, forwarding the undermentioned books for presentation. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, volume 4th, part 3rd, new

series. Facts, observations, and conjectures relative to the Generation of the Opossum

of North America, in a letter from Professor BARTON to Mons. Rooms of Paris.

Laws and Regulations of the American Philosophical Society.

Note of the efleet upon the magnetic needle of the Aurora Borealis visible at Philadelphia on the 17th May 1833, by A. D. Backe.

Observations on the disturbance in the direction of the horizontal needle, by A. D. Backe.

Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania; and various pamphlets on the subject of canals and institutions for education.

The following works were also presented :

Memoirs of the Astronomical Society, volume 7th—presented by that Society, through the Honorable the Court of Directors.

Select papers on expressing the languages of the East in the English character—presented by Mr. Tr-evelyan.

A brief account of the religion and civil institutions of the Burmans—by H. N. Thakoor.

Journal Asiatique, Nos. 73 and 75,-—-by the Asiatic Society of Paris.

Boorhéni Qétiu, a Dictionary of the Persian language, a new edition, edited and printed by Hakim Abdulmojid—by the editor.

Museum.

Model of a musical instrument and a battle-axe used by the hill people near Hazéribagh—presented by Lieutenant J. Awdry.

Specimens of the shells and corals from the Isle of Socotra were pre-. sented by Mr. J . Camus, on the part of Mr. H. V. Lvucn.

Specimens of the rocks in the jungle mehals, particularly of the strata exposed to view by the new road, cut in the Katjor pass of the Dalma range of hills, separating Burrabhum and Patklin from Dholbhfim and Singhbhém ; were presented by Lieutenant Western, Engineers.

The fossil tooth alluded to in Dr. Smnsaunv’s last communication, was received from Dr. Row.

Specimens of basalt, white porcelain clay, coal, and pyrites from Sadiya in Assam were presented by Lieutenant H. L. Brena, Adjutant, Assam Light Infantry.

A note was read from Lieutenant Ancnnonn, enclosing a letter from an Oflicer of H. C. Sloop Coote, stating the impossibility of finding a conveyance for the mummy left there by him, in consequence of the prejudices _of the Mahomedan seamen. It had become necessary, after many endeavours to get it away from Mocha, to bury it at that place !

Readaletter from Lieutenant W. Fonav, dated Khyook Phyoo, Arracan, 6th September, transmitting Journal of a tour through the Island of Ramree, with a Geological Sketch of the country, and brief account of the customs, &c. of its inhabitants.

Extracts from Lieutenant Fonnv’s journal were read, and the thanks of the Society were voted for his valuable communication.

[The journal will be published in an early number.]

A notice of a new coin with the monogram of figs. 1 and 8, Plate ix. of Hindu coins, volume iii. Asiatic Society’s Journal, was received from Major 'S1-Acv, and read.

A note by the Secretary was read, on the perfect identity of the inscriptrons of the lath of Faaoz Sana at Dehli ,- Bum Sam's lath at Allahahad ;

[graphic]

Cloth; and hence the characters for silk and cloth are component parts of the character used for paper.

and the column bearing the same name near Bettiah. [The notice of this curious and important fact will appear in the next number.]

VI II .——Miscellaneous

1.—0n the making of Chinese Paper; translated from the 23rd Volume of the Pun Tsaou Kang Muh. [From the Trans. Soc. Arts, xlix. pt. 2.]

In ancient times, bambus were connected together, and letters burnt on them, to form books; and hence the several characters employed to denote papers and documents are formed partly with the character for “ bambu."

In the time of the Tsin and the Han dynasties, letters were written upon silk

In the time of the Emperor Ho Te, (A. D. 100,) Tsac Lun began to take the bark of trees, old silk of difierent kinds, fishing-nets, and hemp, and boil them to rags, and make paper of them, which was used throughout the whole of the empire

Another authority says, the people of Shuh, on the western side of China, use hemp or linen to make paper ; the people of the East, in Fokin, use tender bum. bus ; the people of the North, the bark of the mulberry ; others use the rattan ; some, mosses or lichens; some, the straw of wheat or other grains; some, the cocoon of the silk worm; and others, the bark of the Chu-tree (syn. of Rub),

the Brousoneltia. Sim Che, or Grape Paper. This paper is brought from among the mountains of Nanking, in the province of

Kwang Se.
In spring, during the first and second moons, they take the bark of a tree called

Ruh-muh (Brousonettia Papyrifera), and having pounded it, throw it into a stone reservoir of pure water, where they leave it to steep till it is fit for use. They then take it out with the sediment, and pouring into it cow-skin glue, boiled with water, stir all together. Taking up this mixture with a mould of bambu screen of the size required, they put it out into the sun to dry. and it becomes crape paper.

The Chinese paper called touch-paper (or paper fuel) is made at the village called Peih Keang, a few miles from Canton, of the variety of bambu called Lane.

At the beginning of summer, during the fourth and fifth moons, the young sprouts of the bambu are cut olf just as the leaves are beginning to grow, and, having been beaten flat, are thrown into a lime-pit to steep for about a month. They are then taken out, washed clean, and dried in the sun. After which, they are pounded small, passed through a sieve, and laid up. The kernel of the Longan fruit (Dirnocarpus loflgan) is also used, being pounded small, dried in the sun, and passgd like flour through a sieve. When making the paper, this powder is put into clean water, stirred about, then taken up with a mould made of bambu screen, and the water left to run 06. It is afterwards applied to a heated wall to dry, and the paper is then complete.

For coarseror finer paper, a coarser or finer mould is used.

The Person who made the drawings says, the bambu is cut into lengths of about three feet, tied up into bundles of seventeen each, and put into running water, where it stays six months. It is then put (in the same bundles) into pits made in the ground, mixed with quick lime made from the shells of the Venus Sinensis, pressed down with weights, and left for six months longer. The bundles will have been thus soaked for twelve months : they are then taken out, cut into short lengths, put into one of the usual Chinese pounding mills, and beaten down into Pulp; being stirred occasionally, so as to present a new surface ; about four hours’ labour will break it down.

Pits, twelve covids deep and ten long, contain 2000 bundles of seventeen pieces each, weighing about 24 catty, or 32 pounds.

Cisterns are about eight covids long, in two partitions, two and six broad, and two pailfuls of water are used to one of the pulp.

King Yuca Paper.

During the fourth moon, at the close of spring and commencement of summer, the bambu shoots are cut olf at the length of three or four covids, (14-625 iaches,) and the size of six or seven inches, and then thrown into a lime-pit to steep for about a month. They are then taken up, washed clean, and bleached every day, till they are of the purest white; after which, they are dried in the sun, pounded small, and passed through a very fine sieve, and the finest and whitest part of the pow

der taken for use. With this is used also the best white cotton of Loo Chow, ten times bowed (or bolted), and the very light cotton which is uppermost taken for use.

Rice-water, made from the whitest rice, being mixed with these two ingredients, the whole is taken up with a mould made of bambu screen of the size required, and then applied to heated wall to dry.

This forms the whitest and finest King Yuca paper.

The above notes were accompanied by seven outline drawings, made in China, of the various processes of manufacturing paper from the bambu, which drawings, by the liberality of Mr. Rnnvns, have been placed in the Society’s Library.

[graphic]

2.—Preventing the Adhesion of Earthy crust to the Inner Surface of Steam Boilers. [From the Trans. Soc. Arts, xlix. pt. 2.]

Almost all natural waters hold in solution both carbonate and sulphate of lime, two earthy salts, of which the former is thrown down by bringing the water to a boiling heat, and the latter by evaporation. On this account it is, that if the inside of a steam-engine boiler be examined, after having been in use for a few days, it will be found to contain muddy Water, and an earthy crust will be seen adhering to the iron plates of which the vessel is formed. The rate at which this crust is deposited depends on the hardness of the water employed, that is, on the proportion of the above-mentioned earthy salts which it contains. This crust is a much worse conductor of heat than iron is, and, therefore, a boiler lined with it, even to the thickness of the tenth of an inch, possesses the following defects. The water which it contains is not so soon brought up to the boiling point, and a greater quantity of fuel is required to produce a given quantity of steam, because a large proportion of the heat given out during its burning is carried up the chim. ney and lost. It becomes, therefore, necessary, from time to time, to remove this crust, which is naturally done by a hammer and chisel ; but this operation not only incurs a Waste of time, but the boiler is often seriously injured, and rendered leaky by means of it.

It has been found, if a few potatoes are thrown into the boiler when it is again filled, after having been cleaned out, that the formation of crust is sensibly re. tarded, and that the adhesion of it to the sides of the boiler is greatly weakened, so as to allow of its being'detached more speedily, and with much less hazard.

Another method of producing the same effect has been pointed out to the Society by Mr. J AMES Bnnronn, of Leeds, druggist. He put into alarge steam boiler between two and three gallons of sperm oil foots ; and found that, after eight weeks constant use, the deposit of crust was very small compared to what it used to be from the same water alone, and also that the crust could be cleared off by means of a common stiff broom. The application of oily matters for this purpose, though original on the part of Mr. Bnnroan, is not absolutely new; for the Society have been informed by one of their members, that he has known an iron boiler using Thames water preserved in constant use for seventeen years by cleaning it often, and smearing the inside with oil or tallow after each cleaning.

The Society, however, have reason to believe that neither of the above methods are in common use, and have, therefore, directed this short statement to be pub

lished for the benefit of those whom it may concern.

« PreviousContinue »