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point of drowning, is making an expiring effort to ascend the side ; the features of all fully pourtray their melancholy situation.
In another compartment is the sacred tree and altar, surrounded by groupes of figures, both male and female, some beating tympans, others playing cymbals, others dancing; the winged figures before described attend above the groupes. The lintel of this gate-way is borne by the uplifted hands of five uncouth dwarf figures, five feet high, with thick lips and flat noses, their hair curly, and having large protuberimt bellies, appearing as if on the point of being crushed beneath the immense hurthen they are supporting ; in short, it is hardly possible to conceive sculpture more expressive of feeling than this.
A representation of the grand monument fills another compartment of one of the perpendiculars.' (See plate xxvii.)
The eastern gate-way is of the same dimensions as the others, with door-wardens armed with maces. Two of the compartments in each perpendicular comprise a procession leaving the gates of a city in progress to the tree and altar, near which is a human being, his hands strongly corded above the wrists, and held by another. The procession consists of horsemen, footmcn, elephants, and short-bodied cars, drawn by horses : the latter crowned with plumes, all highly finished. The headdress of the figures seated on the cars is the Roman helmet, with the plumes and hair. The whole is preceded by footmen, armed with circular shields and clubs, followed by a band of musicians playing flutes. The head-dress of the groups running by the side of the cars dilfers from’ that of all others, being a closely-fitting turban of circular folds, most exquisitely delineated, on the top of which is a small globular crown.
Another compartment is filled with figures of devotees of different orders, performing various penances. In another division are three figures, with long beards, (the only figures of this description seen throughout the whole building,) seated in a boat in an open sea, at the bottom of which are seen various kinds of shells, alligators, &c. Underneath the ocean, and as if supporting it, are three male figures, and one female, the central male figure with uplifted hands, and his back outwards, the female in the act of praying to him. The whole of this groupe are clad in long loose vests, and the head-dresses of the males resemble mitres. On both sides of the groups are the winged figures, the tree, and altar.
The lintel of this gate-way is supported by elephants, richly caparisoned, and resting on projecting horizontal cornices.
The capitals of the several gate-ways are crowned by figures of lions, elephants, naked and clothed statues, and images of various birds and beasts.
On the south, there is a plain entrance, near which is a double colonnade of quadrangular pillars, 20 feet high, most curiously set up, and forming an almost oval apartment. Near this lies a large obelisk, in circumference nearly equalling the Inith of Franz Sns’n, near Delhi. On the part which is uppermost, I could not observe any inscription ; it is worked with a string of flowers.
At the door of the apartment above mentioned, is the lower part ofa statue of Pfirswfméth, smaller than those of Buddha in the gate-ways, resting on a throne which is supported by lions couchant on a pedestal, on which is an inscription, but so much obliterated, that I could make nothing of it, although the few letters that partially remain are Sanscrit. Near this is also a pillar, 14 feet high and 3i in circumference, crowned with lions and tigers.
In front of and about 60 feet from the eastern gate-way, lie the shafts of two obelisks, about 10 feet in length, broken from the bases, which formed an entrance I4 feet in width ; on these I confidently expected to find an inscription, but was disappointed.
The whole has been surrounded by a stone wall, varying in distance from the monument, from 60 to 400 feet. It is 12 feet thick, and 8 feet high, built without cement ; at the four intermediate points were gate-ways, similar to but on a smaller scale than those in the colonnade around the monument.
The wall has fallen into general‘ decay, and only one gate-way now remains,
which is on the north-east. In the upper compartments of the perpendiculars are female figures, naked and
fettered, supporting on their heads a circle divided into 27 equal parts ; there are also figures holding snakes, standing close to a small relievo representation of the monument, in the body of which is a small aperture. This, as I have before said, serves to strengthen the opinion of apartments existing within. The lintel is slightly sculptured with circles of flowers in the same manner as in the others. It is supported by five uncouth dwarf images, with thick lips, curly hair, and their features expressive of the immensity of their burthens.
The upper parallels are beautifully sculptured with hooded serpents, passing through them in spiral wreaths. In that part of the outer hall which is still entire, are small fiat-roofed apartments, 12 feet square, in most of which are large mutilated images of Buddha.
In a larger apartment, which stands opposite the eastern entrance to the menu. ment, the roof of which is flat, and supported by a double row of granite pilasters, is a gigantic statue, the profile of the face measuring 13 inches from the fore-curls to the chin; the nose and lips are much disfigured, and both arms are broken off below the elbows. This appears to have been more highly finished than any other. In the same apartment, on the right, is an image of Brahma, with the sacerdotal thread, the front face mutilated ; the remaining, as well as all the tiaras, in excellent preservation. It measures three feet and a half from the throne, which is supported on two cobra capellas.
At the bottom, and in the centre of the supporters, which are diamond-cut, are alto-relievo figures of the Brahménical order, their bodies thrown back in the act of attempting to avoid the heads of the serpents, which are not expanded, but projecting from under the throne, and turned as if endeavouring to ascend the columns.
On projecting pedestals, and in a line with the diadem, are small figures of Parswanath, cross-legged ; another also crowns the centre. This is the only statue of the Brahmanical mythology which I observed throughout the different subjects of sculpture. Ina corner of the same apartment, is an image of P./irswainath, over which are five expanded serpent-hoods, the only one which possesses this distinguished mark.
I was highly gratified at finding, on one of the pilasters, a Sanscrit inscription, with a date, which determined the structure to have been completed in the 18th year of the Samvat am, or 40 years anterior to the birth of our Saviour. _
There are numerous inscriptions on different parts of the colonnade around the monument, in a character almost totally unintelligible to me, though some of the characters are Sanscrit. I have taken fac-similes of a few.
About a quarter of a mile to the northward of this monument, is another, exactly similar to it in shape, but smaller, and built of free-stone, without any cement, each layer closely fitting, and not projecting over each other as in the former ; neither has this been covered with a coat of mortar. It has a buttress, which measures round the base 246 feet ; the diameter of the superior surface, 19 feet. It is in perfect repair, not a stone having fallen, and is surrounded by a colonnade of granite pillars, of the same description as that encompassing the large one, giving a clear area of 8 feet.
Almost every stone of this bears an inscription in characters similar to each other ; there is no sculpture, nor gate-ways, but numerous stones lie strewed around in the vicinity of both monuments, being parts of columns, capitals, mutilated images of Buddha, pedestals, tablets covered with sculptured figures of horsemen, elephants, lions, and almost obliterated inscriptions, &c. There is no reservoir for water, nor asingle well within the whole enclosure, nor on the hill ; but there is a pucka tank, and several wells lined with masonry, abouts. mile from the monuments, both of which are undoubtedly co-eval.
Any antiquary, skilled in research, would here find employment and amusement, for some time ; even the taking fac-similes of the numerous old Sanskrit inscrip_ tions that I observed, (and more would perhaps be found if sought for,) would occupy some days. I lament exceedingly my want of sufiicient ability in the art of drawing, to do justice to the highly finished style of the sculptures ; and also my deficiency in technical knowledge, and in experience in the power of description, for which these monuments afford ample scope. ‘ ,
These defects, together with the very limited time I possessed for inspection, will, I fear, render my account less satisfactory than I could wish: indeed I am -fully aware'my description can convey but a very faint idea of the magnificence of such stupendous structures, and exquisitely finished sculpture,—but as I know of no previous description of them that has been given to the world, I have been emboldened to seudit you with all its imperfections on its head.
Having prepared also in Plate XXX, an engraving of the inscription on thelron Pillar at Delhi from a facsimile taken by the late Lieut. WILLIAM ELLIOT, of‘ the 27th R_egt. N. I., at the request of the Rev. Dr. MILL, I think it as well to insert it‘ in this place, although unprepared to give any account of its contents. Many of the letters agree with those of the Canouj alphabet, but the general aspect of them, I think, has greater conformity to the classical Deva Nagari.
Those who are acquainted with Sanscrit are invited to aid in decyphering it. The first-few letters appear to contain figures, probably conveying the dateof the monument. J. P.