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men ignoro, quia nascitur regionibus Sinensium provincia: vicinis. Magno vero ernitur Geidwar; nec facile invenias, nisi apud circumforaneos quosdam et circulatores, quos Indi jogues, Mauretani Calandares appellent, hominum genus quod peregrinationibus et stipem amendicando vitam sustentat. Ab his enim et reges et magnates Geiduar emunt.” “Utile est autem istud Geiduur ad plurima, sed praesertim adversus venena, et virulentorum animalium ictus morsusque." Clusius, at p. 378 of the same work, “ Exoticorum libri deeem,” having ob

'tained some specimens, “Gedwar veri nomine inscriptas," gives afigure, and

compares them with the roots of Anthora, which was at one time thought to be the Zedoary; they resemble a good deal those of atees, as represented in pl. I3. The Persian authors, after giving the synouyrnes, mention that there are five kinds of Judwar. The best, called Khutai, or Chinese, procured from the mountains of that country. The two next kinds are the produce of the mountains of Tibet, of Nepal, of Morung, and Rungpore; the fourth kind‘ is from the hills of the Dukhun; and the fifth, called Anlulah, is the produce of Andaloosee, or Spain. A long account follows of the properties and uses of Judwar, of which it is needless to adduce more than that it is considered a powerful antidote to poison, particularly of the bish ,- more so, indeed, than the tiryakfarook, the ingredients of which are given by Prosper Alpinus De Medicin. /Egypt. lib. iv. o. 9. It is therefore probable, that the Nirbisi is the true Zednary or Geiduar of Avicenna, whatever may be the plant which produces it ; that it is not likely to have been what is now so called, the produce of a species of Curcuma, is evident from the difiiculty which GARCIAS AB Onrn had in procuring it even in India. Further, if the descriptions in the Persian works on Materia Medica be compared with those of the old Arabian authors, they will be found to refer to the same article, of which in India the name is Nirbisi. It may therefore be recommended as an interesting subject of inquiry for travellers in the I-Iirnalayas from. Silhet to Cashmere, to ascertain the plant or plants which furnish the dilferent kinds of lVirbisi, Judwar, Zudwar, or Antuleh. Cissampelos conoolvulacea is called dukimirbisee in the N. W. provinces.”

Since selecting the above extract for press, the Tnrnn PART of Dr. ROYLr:’s Illustrations has reached India. It contains plates of fourteen new plants ;—two zoological; and one plate of the fossil plants of the Burdwrm coal formation"". Under the family malvaceaa, we find a luminous and highly useful account of the cotton plant and its cultivation in various parts of‘ the world, which we regret having no space to notice further at present. The author‘ has also supplied a desideratum in botany by his monographical epitome of the gossypia, which he distinguishes into eight species.

Lieut. ARTHUR. CoNor.LY‘s Overland Journey to India, and Lieut. A. Bunnns’ Voyage up the Indus and subsequent Mission to Kabul and Bokh{mi, have both appeared among the recent arrivals from England. As the Gleanings in Science have already given an epitome of the former journey, and the Journal As. Soc.

of the latter, we need say no more than that, both works do credit to our enterprising travellers. '

* What has become of the valuable series of drawings of these fossils prepared from the specimens in the Society’s museum by Dr. FALCONER. three years ago ?—-Eu.

XlI.—Col. SYKEs’ Catalogue ofBirde ofthe Imessorial Order in the Dukhun.
[Continued from page 423.]
Fam. Merulidw, Vigors.—Genus Oriolus, Auct.

58. Oriolus Galbula, Linn. Golden Oriole, Lath. Mango Bird of Dukhun.

Very abundant in Dukhun just before the rains. It is called Pawseh by the Mahrattas, from being the precursor of the monsoon. It is a quarrelsome bird. Irides, rich lake.

59. Oriolus melanocephalus, Linn. Black-headed Oriole, Lath.

Rare. Seen by Colonel SYKES only in the immediate neighbourhood of the Ghauts. Found also in Africa.

60. Omonvs Kursnoo. Or. corpore suprlz fiavo-viridi; uropygio,m'sso, pogoniis in. ternis rectricum ad apices, abdominisque lateribus nitidEflavi9 ,- alis olivaceo-brunneis ; corpora subths sordid? albo, brunneo striato ,- rostro nigro.

Irides, rufo-brunneae. Longitudo Or. Galbulw.

Both sexes alike. Size of golden Oriole, and much resembling the female of that

bird ; but the bill is always black, and the irides reddish-brown instead of lake.

Genus Turdus, Auct.

61. Turdas maerourus, Gmel. Long- tailed Thrush, Lnth. Rare. Found in the dense woods of the Ghauts.

62. Turdus Saularis. Gracula Saularis, Linn. Pastor Saularis, Temm. Little India" Pie, Edw., pl. 181.

63. Turdus cyanotus, J ardine and Selby, pl. 46

This bird has the tongue of a Pastor. Irides, intense red brown. Stony fruit and

Cicada. found in the stomach. Has the naked spot behind the eyes, but the bird has not the air of :1 Pastor. Inhabits the Ghauts.

Genus Petrooincla, Vigors.

64. Perrnocmcnn Pnmoo. Petr. brunnescenti-t_|/anea; pteromatibus, nmigibu, rectrieibusquefuscis. Irides, fuscae. Statura minor quam Turd. eyanei.

This bird differs from the solitary Thrush of Europe (Turd. vyaneus, Linn.) in its smaller size, slighter form, brighter cterulenn tint, want of orange eye-lids, and white tips to the feathers. Found only in the dense woods of the Ghauts. Flight, low and rapid. It appears to correspond with var. A. of Dr. LATHAM'S solitary Thrush, vol. 5, p. 47.

65. PETROCINCLA MAAL. Petr. supra griseo-brunnea, subtils rufescenti-alba, plums’ brmmeo marginatis ; crisso rufescenti, fusco-brunneo fasciato. Stature praecedentis.

This bird corresponds as closely as possible with what is stated to be the female of the Turd. cyaneas, and may by analogy be supposed to be the female of Petra. rim-la Pandoo ,- but it inhabits only the prickly milk-bushes (Euphorbia tortilis and pentagona) of the rocky plains of the Dukhun. Colonel SYKES never saw it in the Ghauts, nor in company with Petr. Pandoo.

66. Pdroeinola cinclorhyncha, Vigors, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 1. p. 172. Figured in GOULD’s Century of Himalayan Birds.

Genus Timalia, Horst.

67. TIMALIA MALCOLML Tim. pallide grisescenti-brunnea, uropygiopallidiori, remigi. bus rectricibusque mediis saturatioribus, his fusco absoletéfasciatis ,- subths albeseens, leriter rosaceo tincta ,- frontis plumis subcyaneis, in media albo striatis.

Irides, flavo-aurantiae. Rostrum hrunneum, mandibulé inferiori ad basin flave. scenti. Longitndo corporis 11¢} unc., eaudze 5%.

Kokuttee of the Mahrattas. Congregate in flocks of ten or a dozen; fly low, slowly, and with difliculty : never cease chattering, and all at the same time. Food, grasshoppers and grain. Colonel SYKES has dedicated this species to Sir J omv MALCOLM, G.C.B., who zealously aided his researches in India.

68. TIMALIA SOMERVILLEI. Tim. ritfescentt-brunnea ,- abdomine, crisso, dorso imo eauddque dilute rufis, hdc saturation‘ obsolefifasciatti ; remigibus brunneis ,- gutturis pectorisque plumis in media subcyaneo notatis.

Rostrum pedesque flavi. Longitudo corporis 9%, eaudw 4%.
Irides, pallidé flavse.

A size less than Tim. Malcolmi, but shorter. Irides, bright yellow : same habits as the preceding, but found in the Ghauts only; the latter on the plains. Colonel Svxns has dedicated this bird to Dr. WILLIAM Somnnvmts, F.R. testimony of his respect. _

69. Timalia Chataraa, Frank]. Gogoye Thrush, Lath.?

Habits of the preceding, but about half the size of Tim. Malcolmi. Irides, red brown,

legs, yellow.

Genus Izos, Temm.

70. Imosjocosus. Laniusjocosus, Linn. Joeose Shrike, Lath. This is also the Lanius Emeria of SHAW. The male has a sweet note. Found only in the lofty woods of the Ghauts. Irides, fuscons. Lives on fruit : sexes alike. 71. Iz-os Cafer. Turdus Cafer, Linn. Cape Thrush, Lath. Le Courouge, Le Vaill. Inhabits gardens : destructive to fruit : without musical notes. Sexes alike. 72. Iwosfulicalus. Motacilla fuhcata, Linn. Sooty Warbler, Lath. Traquet noi des Phillipines, Bufi‘. Sir J. ANs'rn.U'raEn.’s variety. 'Lath., vol. 7, p. 112. Female, sooty-black, or brown-black.

Genus Pomatarhinus, Horsf.

73. Pouaronnmos Honsrnunn. Pam. olivaceo-brunneus ,- strigrl superfiliari, calla infronte, pectore, abdominique media albis. Irides, fusco-sanguineae. Rostrum flavum. Pedes fusci. Longitude corporis 9.7 unc., euudm 3-7.

Minute insects (Dipterous) found in the stomach. Birds remarkably shy, and only met with in the dense woods of the Ghauts. The note of the male is hoot, whoot, whoot, uttered slowly : the female answers haoe. The tongue and he.hits of this bird are those of a Thrush or Timalia. I have dedicated this species to a gentleman to whom science is deeply indebted.

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Dr. I-lorsefield's J01-a scapularis appears to correspond with the iemale of Jora
Tiphia. Irides, gray.
Genus Sylvia, Auct. Warbler,

'75. Sylvia montana, Horsf. Prinia montana, Swains. Differs from the type of Prinia in its rounded tail. Irides fuscous. 76. Sylvia s_1/lviella, Lath. Lesser White-throat. Difiers from the European bird only in the reddish tint of the white below. 77. SILVIA RAMA. Sylv. pallidi: brurmea, subtiw albescens ,- eaudd obsolete fasciahi. Longitude corporis 4.7, made 1.9. Sexes alike. A size smaller than Sylv. montana, and might be mistaken for it ; but

Colonel Svnns has shot them male and female, in several places in Duklmn, full. grown birds.

Genus Prinia, Horsf.

78. PRINIA socmus. Prin. rapite dorsoque intense cinereis ; remigibus rectricibusque

rufo-brunneis, his prope apices fasco-fasciatis; subtiw rufescenti-alba, abdominis lateribus saturatioribus.

Rostrum nigrum. Pedes flavi. Irides pallide aurantiacae. Longitude corporis 5.2, caudw 2.2. Sexes alike in size and plumage. This species constructs the same ingenious nest,

and has the same habits, same note (tooee tooeej, and feeds in the same manner, as the Orthatomus Bennettii.

79. PRINIA INORNATA. Prin. supriz pallide cinereo-brunnea, strigd superciliari cor

poreque subtirs albescentibus, abdominis lateribus crissoque mfescentibus; caudd obsolete faseiald.

Irides rufo-brunneae. Rostrum brunneum ; mandibuld inferiori ad basin flawi. Longitude eorporis 4.7 unc., caudze 2.7.’

Sexes _do not difier in size or plumage. Habits of Prin. sorialis. Both the above species are remarkable for a. struggling flight, as if they experienced difiiculty in making their way.

Genus Orthotomus, Horsf. Tailor Bird.

80. Onrnoromus Bnxnwrrn. Orth. olivaceo-m'ridis ; subths albidus
ferrugineo ; caudd elongatd obsolete fasciatd.
Irides flavaa. Longitude corporis 6 unc., caudw 2.7.

Two central tail-feathers elongated beyond the rest for one inch, and twotenths of on inch wide only. Sexes alike. This bird is very remarkable for the ingenmty shown in constructing its nest, by sewing the leaves of trees together, with cotton thread and fibres. Colonel SYKES has seen nests in Winch the thread used was literally knotted at the end. This species very

closely fresembles Dr. HOR.sEFIELD’s Orth. Sepium but on a com ' birds, they were found to have specific diiferences. , panson of the

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This species difiers from the type of Orthotomus in the short tail, but has the characters of the genus sufllciently marked to beincluded in it. Sexes exactly alike in plumage. Principal food, black ants.

Genus Budytes, Cuv.

82. Budytes citreola. Motacilla citreola, Lath. This is the variety A. of Mot. citreola of Dr. LATHAM, vol. 6. p. 330.

Length 6.7 inches : tail 2.8.

This bird so closely resembles the European species, that Colonel SYKES has not ventured to separate it. It has the habits of a Motacilla, but its long hind claw sufiiciently distinguishes it, and M. CUVIER has facilitated research in forming a genus for such Wagtails as have this claw.

83. Bvnvres MELANOCEPHALA, Bud. ohvuceo-varidis ,- corpora subths nitidé flaw.tapite, nuchd, rectricibusque nigris, herum duabus lateralibus albo marginatir: alisfuscis, plumis olivaceo»flovo notatis.

Irides intensé rufo-brnnneae. Longitudo carporis 6.8 unc., cauda 3.

These are solitary birds, and are rarely found, excepting in the beds of rivers. In seven specimens four birds only were examined, and they happened to be males ; so that Colonel SYKES is uncertain with respect to the female.

84. Bvnvras BEEMA. Bud. olivaceo-viridis, subthsflavus ,- capite supr& griseo ,- strigd superciliari albd ; alis fuscis plumi: fiauescenti marginatis ; caudd atrd, rectricibu: duabus laterulibus albis.

Irides flavo-brunneae. Stature prmcedentis.

This bird very closely resembles Budytes flava of Europe, but differs in the shade of the upper plumage, in the hind claw being two-tenths of an inch longer, and in the base of the lower mandible being whitish. This is a solitary bird in beds of rivers : female not known.

Genus Motacilta, Auct.

55. Motacilla tmriegata, Steph., vol. 13, p. 234. Pied Wagtail, Lath., vol. 6, p. 320, pl. 114. Mot. picata, Frankl.

36. IVIOTACILLA Doxnrm nrss1s. Mot. dorso scapularibusque pallescenti-griseis, caudm tectricibus ad apicem uigrescentibus ; capité suprd, nuchd, gutture, pectore, rectricibusque mediis atris ; frontis fascid latd, corpora subtiw, plumarum marginibus, alarum remigibus primariis exceptis, rectricibusque duabus lateralibus albis ,remigibus fuscis.

Irides intense rufo-brunneae. Stature. Mot. albaz.

Sexes do not difl'er in size or plumage ; but young birds have the black less pronounced. This is the most common and abundant Wagtail in the Dukhun, frequenting not only the beds of rivers, but the plains ; and Colonel Svxas has seen it in his own garden frequently. It very closely resembles the Mot. alba, of Europe, but differs in being of a light slate or cinereous instead of a blackish cinereous, and in the wing-coverts and secondaries being edged with broader white. It is almost identical with the Mot. alba of the Northern Expedition.

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81. Mnenwnus P nos-roars. Meg. olivaceo-brunneus, subiiw albescens, pectore bran.neo striato .- capite genisque brunnescentirufis, strigd superciliari rufescente ; capatis dorsique plumarum rhachibus pallidioribus ; rostro pedibusque lutezs.

Longitude corporis 7.5 unc., caudw 2.2. ' Wings short : tail equal, narrow. Female unknown. Black ants only found in the stomach. This bird has the air of the Anthus Richardi figured in the Planches

coloriées, 101. Frequents the plains only, like a Lark. Genus Anthus Bechst. Pipit.

33. ANTI-IUS AGILIS. Anth. alivacea-brunneus ; subths rufescenti-albescens, fusco-brim. neo striatus ; remigibusfluvo-olivaceo marginutis ; ungue postico subelongato, subcurvafo.

I ‘des fusco-sanguineae. Longitudo corporis 6.8 unc. caudw 2.5. I
Frriund on open stony lands : female unknown. Clbsely resembles the Tdlark of
Europe. its chief difference is in the hind toe.

Genus Saeicola. Bechst, Wheatear.

_ S ' ola rubicola Temm. Stone Chat. _ 89 123; intense brown. These birds were met with only in low scattered bushes.

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Female unknown. Three males were examined. Black_ants, caterpillars and beelets were found in the stomach. Habits of the precedmg.

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Statura Sax. bicoloris. Male unknown. Genus Phanicura, Jard. & Selb93. Phmnicura atrata. J ard. 8: Selb. Indian Redstart, lid.

This bird is of the size of the Redstart of Europe, and has the same habits. It has a very peculiar manner of vibrating its tail when seated on a bough, as if it

had an ague fit. A pair of these birds built their nestin an outhonse constantly

frequented by Colonel SYKES's servants, and within reach of the hand. They had no alarms.

94. Phaenicura Suecica. Matacilla Suecica, Linn.

Not differing from the European bird. Irides deep brown. Length 5.9 inches; tail 2.

Fam. Piprida, Vigors.
Genus Parus, Linn. Titmouse.

95. Parus atriceps, Horst‘. Mésange Cap-négre, Temm., Pl. C01. 287. f. 2. 96. Parus aranthogenys. Vigors, Proceedings Zool. Soc. I. p. 23. Figured in GOULD’! ‘ Century of Himalayan Birds.’

Irides sienna brown. Tongue divided into four short laciniw at the tip. Wasps, bugs, grass seeds, and the fruit of the Cactus Opuntia were found in the stomachs of both species.

Trihus Comaosraas, Cuv.
Fam. Fringillida, Vigors.--Genus Alauda, Auct.

97. Alauda Gulgula, Frankl.

This is the common Lark of the Dukhun, with the habits and notes of the Sky. lurk of Europe. When confined in a cage and shrouded from the light, it learns to imitate the notes of other birds, and even quadrupeds. The male is crested. It is called Chundoala in Dukhun. Irides sepia brown. Length 6.7 inches ; tail 2.3 Food, grasshoppers.

98. ALAUDA Davn. Al. rufescenti-brunnea brunnea intensiori notata ; corpore subtiw struique supereiliari rufescenti-albis, pectore brunnco striata ; capite cristato, brunneo striata ; rectricibus brunneis rufo marginatis.

Statura minor quam praecedentis.

99. ALAUDA DUKHUNENSIS. Al. cor-pore suprh griseo-brunneo, plumis in medi‘ofuscobrunneo notatis ,- Subfits albescens, pectare strigdque superciliari rufescentibus ,rectricibusfuseo-brunneis duabus lateralibus albo marginatis.

Irides intensé brnnnew. Longitudo mrporis 6.3 unc., mudae 2.

Grass seeds only found in the stomach. Frequents stony plains.

Genus Mirafra, Horsf.

100. Mirafra phxznicura, Frankl.

This bird is characterized by the lightness, shortness, abruptness, and sudden ascents and descents of its flight. Irides, yellow-brown. Gmnivoi-nus,

Genus Emberiza, Auct. Bunting. l0l. Emberiza melanocephala, Scop. This native of Corfu is common to Western India. It appears in considerable flocks at the ripening of the bread grain Jowaree (Andropogon Sorghum) in December,

Irides, intense brown. Length, 7.3 inches: tail, 3 inches. Granivorous. Allied to Emb. Zuieola, Mus. Carls. vol. iv., t. 93.

102. Emberiza hortulana, Linn. Red-brown Bunting.

This, although not absolutely identical, is so closely allied to the European bird, that Colonel SYKES cannot separate it. Irides, intense brown. Length, 7.1 inches ; tail 3 inches. Grass seeds only found in the stomach. Bird, solitary.

I03. Embcriza cristuta, Vigors, Proceed. Zool. Soc. I.p. 35.

Length 6§ inches : tail 2.7 inches. Rare in Dukhun, and found only on rocky and bushy mountains. Female of a uniform sooty brown. Grass seeds only found in the stomach. Native of China and Nepaul as well as Dukhun.

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Irides intensé brunneae. Rostrum rufo-brunneum. Longitudo corporis 6.6 unc., caudw 2.5.

Sexes alike in size and plumage. Birds rare and solitary, and found only in the open spaces on high mountains. This bird is pronounced in Europe to be the

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