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l.--Climate qftheNeelgherries (Nllgiris, or Blue Mountains) , on the Malabar Coast.
We have drawn the following abstract from the Daily Atmospherical Register, published in Dr. BAIKIWS recent work——-“ on the Topography, Climate, Soil, and Productions” of these bills, a work embodying every possible information regarding this new resort of invalids, and embellished, in the most profuse manner, with maps, coloured drawings, and botanical plates*. As the volume itself will be in the hands of most of our readers, we do not think it necessary to make any further extracts than such as illustrate the meteorological table, but we recommend the author’s “ hints to invalids" to the perusal of such as feel inclined to visit Ontacamund. Captain H.uurunss’s observations on the inhabitants of the Nilgiris, and a valuable list of plants by the Rev. Mr. Scmvun, are added in an Appendix.
Pressure.—“ The range of the barometer on the hills appears to be considerably greater than in the same latitude at the level of the sea. I have no access to any accurate account of the range on the Malabar Coast, opposite to the hills, but I believe it does not exceed 0.250 of an inch. Now, on an inspection of the annexed meteorological tables, it will be seen, that in January, 1832, the barometer attained the height of 23.375, the maximum of its elevation since my observations began; while in the month of September previous, it had fallen as low as 22.675, (corrected to 32° Fahrt.,) shewing an extreme range of 0.700. This range appears however to differ annually; being for three years as follows ;
“ For 1831, it was 0.560.
“ As might have been anticipated, the barometer appears to attain its maximum height in the cold dry weather of January or February, and its minimum during or immediately after the S. W. monsoons. It generally begins to sink gradually about the beginning of April, and continues descending (but with occasional starts) till August or September, when it again rises gradually till the cold weather sets in. But here (as is found to be the case elsewhere within the tropics) I have not been able to satisfy myself that any accurate prognostication of the state of the weather is to be deduced from the fluctuations of the mercurial column. I have seen it rise suddenly before or during heavy showers of rain, and sink, equally inexplicably, before a course of fine dry weather. The only agent which appears uniformly to act in the same way upon it is wind, the mercury always rising before or during the prevalence of high wind. I have also occasionally been able to predict wet weather, from observing the top of the column to be flattened, or concave, but not with any degree of certainty.
“ The daily range of the barometer is very trifling, probably never exceeding 0.040 or .060 of an inch, and seldom greater than .035 ; but on this head, as on thatpof its horary oscillations, I am unable to speak confidently, from want of leisure to make the necessary observations; the horary oscillations occur, as far as I have observed, exactly at the same hours, and in the same succession, as elsewhere all over the globe ; but according to Dr. Dnnunnov, only to half the extent observed at Madras, and they are not interrupted during the monsoon, as conjectured by Baron HUMBOLDT.
* The work is published at the Calcutta Baptist Mission Press; the plates and maps by Tnssnz. Mr. SMOULT, the Editor, gives, in the preface, a statement of the
cost of publication, amounting to Sa. Rs. 3494, for the plates, and Rs. 758. 4. 0. 1'01 the letter-press. The subscription list contains nearly 300 names.
“ The mean annual height of the barometer appears to vary considerably, and to have diminished annually for the last three years : this may have depended on the situation of the instrument*.
“ The mean of ten months : in 1831, was 22.932, six ditto, in 1832, ,, 23.067, eight ditto, in 1833, ,, 23.054, giving as an annual mean for 24 months in three years, 23.018. This is probably near the truth, and Dr. Damunnov, in his calculations to determine the height of Ootacamund above the level of the sea, assumes it to be 23.005.” Temperature.—“ According to theoretical calculation, the mean temperature of
Ootacamund should be 52°28. “ There is some discrepancy of opinion as to the correct method of ascertaining
the mean observed temperature. The author of the able article, Meteorology, in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, after an elaborate consideration of the various proposed methods, gives the preference to the mean of the daily extremes. According to this calculation, the mean of the daily extremes for 25 months is 58°.68, which we therefore assume as the mean annual temperature of Ootacamund. The daily range for nine months of this year, which may be considered as an average season :
“ January, 20'40 a June, 15-59
February, 20-33 July, 10'29 Minimum. March, 23‘33 Maximum. August, 1522
April, 1973 September, 1173
Giving a general mean of l7'0l “ The greatest observed annual range (but in different years) appears to be 38'
(viz. between 39° and 77°.) “ It is important to remark, that this range is still betwixt two points, which
occur frequently in temperate climates, and is certainly less than what prevails in most of them. The maximum observed is 77°, only 2” above what is assumed as summer heat in England; and the minimum, 38", is much above what frequently occurs even in the mildest parts ot Europe.
“ In stating the observed minimum at 38°, it must be recollected, that the observations were taken at a point raised above the lake, and about half way up the hill bordering the cantonment on the south.
“ In the valley below, from the combined effects of radiation, evaporation, and the descent of the colder columns of air by their superior weight, which are moreover comparatively undisturbed by the wind, the temperature frequently falls below freezing point, and ice is often found in the dry seasons half an inch thick. Hoar-frost is commonly seen extending half way up the hills on every side, disappearing as the power of the sun's rays gradually increase. The difference is most evident in descending into the lower valleys on a dark clear and still
* The height of Ootacamund, found trigonometrically by Captain WARD, was 7361
feet. From the Barometrical mean, 23,054, compared with Madras, 29,810, and cor
Sl. 5 .6 rected for temperature of the mean stratum of air -_—72i—7-—:;69.6, the altitude
results, 7221 feet. The boiling point, noted in May, 198° Farh., gives 7574 feet, but the Thermometer was probably in error.—J. P.
night, when the sudden immersion into the column of air next the ground, cooled by its contact with the radiating earth at the bottom of the valley, strikes one with a sudden chill. As a consequence of the same cause, the lower valleys are frequently filled with a dense fog, while the stratum of air immediately above is perfectly clear and transparent.
“ So powerful is this effect of radiation from the earth, that a cup of water or milk, placed on the ground, even in the higher situations, instantly freezes, while a thermometer, elevated three feet above it, will only indicate a temperature of 38°; 39“, or 40°. This fact leads to some important conclusions both as to the situation of houses, and of ground selected for horticultural or agricultural purposes. In a clear bright day, the thermometer generally attains its maximum at about 2 or 1} past 2 r. M., but this is, to the feelings, by no means the hottest part of the day, owing to the constant current of wind prevailing, from one quarter or another, at that time. Ahoutl past 8 or 9 A. M. is the time when the sun's rays appear to have most power, the air being then still, and its capacity for heat having been diminished by the increase of density arising from the cold of the preceeding night. This it is important for invalids to observe, as well as the sudden chill produced by the sinking of the sun below the horizon in the evening, when the column of rarefied air next the surface rises aloft, and is rapidly replaced by a colder stratum from above. ‘
“ The minimum generally occurs about halfan hour before sun-rise, when as before observed, the lower valleys are generally filled with fog.
“ During the monsoon season, when the sky is covered with clouds, at once diminishing the power of the sun’s rays, and obstructing the efiect of radiation from the ground, the temperature is remarkably equable, the range seldom exceeding 12° or 14° in the open air, while in rooms without a fire, it is under 4 or 5°. The thermometer attached to one of my barometers, kept in a small sleeping room, without a fire-place, (though the house itself was rather exposed,) during the months of May, June, July, August, and September, 1831, never fell below 59°. 5, nor rose above 62°. This is therefore, notwithstanding many drawbacks, much the most favourable season for invalids, and should be selected, when a power of choice exists, as the period for ascending the hills.”
M0isture.—“ The air during the month of January, February and March, is intensely dry, the point of saturation, (or temperature to which the air must be reduced to deposit any part of its moisture,) being occasionally as low as 13°, the temperature of the air being 60“. In April it begins to fluctuaté, and in May, the quantity of moisture increases very perceptibly. being accompanied by rapid changes of the electrical condition of the atmosphere, indicated by thunderstorms and heavy showers, but ofshort duration. During June, July, and August, it is nearly charged with moisture; in September, it is again fluctuating ; in October and November, moist; and in December, it begins to re-assume its dry state.
“ In close connection with the above statement, we find, that there is little or no rain in the first three months, some showers in April and May, a good deal of drizzle and light rain in June, July, and August ; the month of September varies, as does that of October; in November there are heavy falls, and in December the weather again becomes dry. This will be more distinctly seen in the table in which is given the fall of rain in each month during the greater part of foul‘ years, as observed by my friend Dr. GLEN, of the Bombay Establishment; i118 mean annualfall, as deduced from this table, is 4488 inches, or 13. 58 inches great
or than the mean fall in England, as statedby Mr. DALTON‘. Tl1e followlng table will probably be interesting, particularly to invalids, whose comfort depends so much on the capability of taking exercise : it presents the actual state of the wee.ther for 366 days, from lst March, 1831, to 29tl1 February, 1832, which, from all I can learn, may be considered an average season :
Numberof daysofheavy rain, . . . . . . 19
Do. occasional showers with fair intervals,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
1831. 1832. 1833. 183118321833
Jan..... —- 23.228 23.134 23.200 +.148 __ 53.0 53.1 53.0 —-4 6 E. 0 Feb... .. — 23.224 23.105 23.180 +.12s _ 53.5 56.0 54.5 —3.1 51.12. 0.47 March, 23.175 23.029 23.167 23.124 +.072 58.0 58.5 62.0 59.0 +14 E- 1-02 April, .. 23.085 23.025 23.109|23.073 +-021 62.0 63.0 63.0 62.6 +5.0 11.8. 4.00 May. .. 22.983 22.996 23.018 22.999 —--053 60.5 64.5 61.5 62.2 +4.6 var. 6.50 June, .. 22.910 22.903 23.015 22.943 -.109 59562.5 58.0 60.0 +2.4 w. 6.50 July, .. 22.86] _ 22.944 22.900 —-.152 58.0'55.0 58.7 57.2 -0.4 sw 4.27 Aug. .. 22.820 _ 23.045 22.920 —.1a2 59.0 56.5 58.7 58.1 +0-5 SW 4.00 Sept. .. 22.785 _- 22.936 22.970 —-082 56.5 57.5 59.9 58.0 +0.4 w 6.36 Oct. .. 33.056 -— — 23.050 _.002 58.0 -—-— 58.0 +0.4 var 6.51 Nov. .. 23.070 —— —- 23.080 -|-.028 56.0 --_ -— 56.0 —l.6 N E 3.52 Dec. .. 23.174 —— -— 23.1130 +.128 52.5 —— 52.5 -5.1 N E 1.73 23.052 30 0! 57.6 44.88
2.—-Tibetan Grammar and Dictionary of M. Csoma de Kfirfie.
‘We have to congratulate the learned world upon the completion of M. Csoma’s labours, and the accession of a standard to the keys of oriental literature, upon which the utmost confidence may be placed by those who may hereafter seek a knowledge of the Tibetan language. The two volumes (600 pp. quarto) have been printed at the expence of Government, under the direction of the Asiatic Society, aided by the immediate superi.ntendance of the author himself. The style of printing does great credit to the Baptist Mission Press; and although the Tibetan characters being from the old Serampur fount, are not well formed, this imperfection is removed by the copious lithographed alphabetical schemes at the end of the Grammar, where all the varieties of writing are faithfully rendered.
M. CSOMA has, perhaps wisely, withheld from his present work all disquisitions on the connection of the Tibetan with other languages, on the people, or their iterature, further than to show that the latter is derived from Indian sources,
"‘ Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Article Meteorology.
and to give a few examples for the exercise of the student. He has however enumerated in page 180, a few of the principal Tibetan authors, and he has also given a chronological table with valuable notes; and a list of the various epochs of the death of SHAKYA, according to Somsumarr, the pupil of PADMAKARPO. We cannot refrain from quoting the opening remarks of his preface.
“ The wide difiusion of the Buddhistic religion in the eastern parts of Asia, having of late greatly excited the attention of European scholars, and it being now ascertained by several distinguished Orientalists, that this faith, professed by so many millions of men in different and distant countries in the East, originated in Central or Gangetic India, it is hoped, that a Grammar and Dictionary of the Tibetan language will be favourably received by the learnedgPublic; since, Tibet being considered as the head-quarters of Buddhism in the present age, these elementary works may serve as keys to unlock the immense volumes, (faithful translations of the Sanskrit text,) which are still to be found in that country, on the manners, customs, opinions, knowledge, ignorance, superstition, hopes, and fears of great part of Asia, especially of India, in former ages.
“ There are, in modern times, three predominant religious professions in the world, each counting numerous votaries, and each possessed of a large peculiar literature :—the Christians, the Muhammedans, and the Buddhists. It is not without interest to observe the coincidence of time with respect to the great exertions made by several Princes, for the literary establishment of each of these difl"erent religions, in the Latin, the Arabic, and in the Sanskrit languages, in the 8th and 9th century of the Christian ./Era: by‘C1~rARLEs THE Ganar, and his immediate successors, in Germany and France ; by the Khalifs A.L-MANsna, Hanna: AL-RASHID, and AL-MAMUN, at Bagdad ; by the Kings of Megadha, in India ; by KHRISRONG nn’nn TSAN, Knur nn’saono TSAN, and RALnacnau, in Tibet ; and by the Emperors of the Thang dynasty, in China. But it is to the honour of Christianisin'to observe, that while learning has been continually declining among the Muhammedans and the Buddhists, Christianity has not only carried its own literature and science to a very advanced period of excellence, but in the true and liberal spirit of real knowledge, it distinguishes itself by its efforts in the present day towards acquiring an intimate acquaintance with the two rival religious systems, and that too, in their original languages. Hence, in the north-western parts of Europe, in Germany, England,France, where a thousand years ago only the Latin was studied by literary men, there are now found establishments for a critical knowledge both of the Arabic and the Sanskrit literature.
“ Hence, too, has been founded recently the Oriental Translation Committee, composed of the most eminent Orientalists of Europe, from whose labours so much has already been done, and so much more is expected. The students of Tibetan have naturally been the most rare, if they have existed at all, in this learned association. insulated among inaccessible mountains, the_convents of Tibet have remained unregarded and almost unvisited by the scholar and the traveller :nor was it until within these few years conjectured, that in the undisturbed shelter of this region, in a climate proof against the decay and the destructive influences of tropical plains, were to be found, in complete preservation, the volumes of the Buddhist faith, in their original Sanskrit, as well as in faithful translations, which might be sought in vain on the continent of India. I hope that my sojourn in this inhospitable country, for the express purpose of mastering its language, and