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at our feet, and washing the base of the hill, flowed a respectable moun

tain stream, filled with fragments and detached masses of rock, and_

having but little water. There was a gradual descent on the other face of the hill, where this stream was crossed again. At the distance of 6.

couple of hundred yards from the ford stood a Goand hamlet, a mere

collection of five or six wretched-looking huts : at the distance of a. mile further, we crossed a small open plain, in which the jungle was cleared away, and the soil cultivated. This patch, however, extended but a

short distance, for it was bounded on the left hand by a range of well ->

wooded hills, and on the right by high grass and praus jungle, with hills close at hand. Another stream, a little deeper than those previously passed, was reached, and a short and easy ascent out of its gravel bed brought us to the Goand village of Basigurh, which is situated on the crest of a small hill, covered with wood; it was a small place, and of no note whatever, save being the supposed haunt of the Pindary freebooter Shekh Dulla. To the S. S. E., in a hollow, stood, some short distance off, another Goand hamlet called Kali-kko.

Returning the same road, I remained a few minutes at Doomgaon to take a look at the fort of Mukrai, which appeared to be about three or four miles distant, nearly south. Its walls appeared very high, and were built of light red-colored sandstone. The front presented a beautiful appearance, situated as it was on the table-land, or plateau, while the rays of the morning sun, shining right on it, increased the effect.

Mukrai is the residence of a Goand Raja. The Sianee nuddee flows under its walls. On making inquiries for Kali-bheet, I was informed that it was only 25 miles distant from Mukrai, but I conceive its site further to the westward.

The natives of this part of India appeared quiet and inoffensive, but sadly poverty-stricken, while the population was excessively scanty. The climate is fatal to the European constitution, between the months of June and December. Malaria rages greatly during the intervening months, and the water both of the running streams and wells is unfit to drink, without being previously boiled. Fogs and mists are of frequent occurence just after the rains. Two or three different kinds of fish are procurable in the Machuk nuddee, but chelwas (a kind of sprat) and eels predominate, and green pigeons are abundant.

If I recollect rightly, there was in Mugurdut one bung/a’s (or chandler) shop; one blacksmith’s ; one carpenter's: these two obtained a livelihood by forging and making and repairing the rude implements of husbandry, beyond the knowledge of which their skill did not extend; and two or may be three korees, (Hindo weavers,) for the weaving of dhotees and clzudurs.

Table of Latitudes and Longitudes of Places in Central India ( Valley of the Nerbudda)


Names of Places.

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Hindiah, M. .. .. 22

Hoshungabad, M. 22 Ditto, .. .. .. 22 Ditto, fort, . . . . . . . 22 Baitool, Fort, E. 21

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29 34
49 56


A fortress in Malwa (Bhopal),l3 miles N. W. of Hoshungabad.

A town and fort on the S. side of the Nerbudda, which is here 1000 yards broad, belonging to Sindeea.

A town and fort on the south bank of the Nerbudda, here 900 yards broad.

A city and fort in Gondwana. The Baitool valley was ceded to the Company in 1818-19.

A hill E. by S. from the city of Baitool, noted in the Gt. Trig. Survey.

A high hill to the east of the Baitool cantonment, noted in the Gt. Trig. Survey.

A hill noted in the Great Trig. Survey.

A hill noted in the Great
Trig. Survey.

A hill near Hoshungabad,

noted in the Great Trig.

A small isolated hill of
rocks, distant 1 m. 1 f. 74


A hill in the Bhopaul territory, noted in the Great Trig. Survey.

A small town on the north bank of the Nurhudda.

A hill station noted in the

Gt. Trig. Survey.

Note.—The letter M. denotes that the latitudes and longitudes are from Sir T. Malcolm’s work ; E. that they are taken from Major Everest’s data in the Grand

'I‘i-igonometrical Survey of 1824.

[See the accompanying map, Plate II.]

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III.—A Summary Description of the Geology of the country between Hoshungabad on the Nerbudda, and Nagpoor, by the direction of Baitool. By Lieut. John Finnis, 51st Regt. Asst. Exec. Ofr. 14th Dion.

[Presented to the Asiatic Society, 15th July 1829*.]

The route between Nagpoor and Hoshungabad presents as great a variety of formations and as interesting a series of minerals, as is probably to be met with in any part of India of equal extent.

The formations exhibited are trappean, primitive, transition, and secondary, frequently under a very peculiar and confused arrangement with regard to each other, and much intersected by veins of greenstone and trap.

I regret that the circumstances of my march did not allow a more leisurely survey of the geology of a country so well deserving the attention of more competent geologists, or of forming a more regular map of the'road described ; but I shall hope that my sketches may help to connect the descriptions of other observers, the present route being, I believe, unexplored.

The formations appear to be distinctly divided into five principal divisions.

The first division includes the tract of country lying between Nagpoor and Baitool to the south bank of the Machna river.

An unvaried formation of trap occurs during the whole of this distance, and the face of the country is covered with round wacken boulders.

The trap forms the southern and eastern boundaries of the valley, and it stretches away to the S. W., but its extent in this direction and to the E., I am not acquainted with.

2nd Division.--The second division comprises the space within the southern and northern gheits on the Machna.

This river at Baitool is running to the west, and after winding round some hills it re-crosses the road, running east to join the Towa river at Shahpoor. The distance is about 27 miles, the intermediate country, hilly.

On the N. bank of the Machna at Baitool, trap no longer appears ; it is followed by strata of quartz and mica schist, traversing the plain up to the hills north of cantonments. These are of quartz, brittle, very

* ‘We have taken occasion to publish this interesting account of the geology of the country south of Hoshungabad, in juxta position with Lieut. Miles’ paper, for the advantage of incorporating the two route surveys furnished by these oflicers, in one map. Some apology is due to Lieut. Finnis for the delay which has occurred

in bringing his labours to the notice of the public.—En.

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