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PART l.—Land Shells.
Animal unknown to me.
SHELL.--Diameter about 1} inch ; spire, prominent and pointed; whorls, rounded and six in number; umbilicus, well defined and discovering to the third whorl ; aperture circular, margins united, thickened, and reflected: slightly inclined to be angular at the point where the right lip comes in contact with the body whorl; interior of the aperture with a red or deep orange-coloured ring.
Colour of the shell dingy white, with irregular tortoise-shell coloured patches and transverse broken lines on the upper side of the whorls ; the under side with longitudinal bands of the same colour, leaving a broad longitudinal white stripe down the middle of the body whorl; operculum horny; concentric larnellar. In some shells the colours are more vivid than in others; I have one in my possession of which the colour is a pale yellowish brown or bull‘ throughout, the markings being very little darker than the ground colour: this however does not appear to have been caused by exposure, as the shell exhibits a very healthy appearance. This is the only specimen with an operculum.
These shells I found at Rajmahl, lying dead among the loose bricks and rubbish by the side of pathways leading among the ruins of the ancient palace. It is probable that they may be found living on the rocks in that neighbourhood, and among the ruins themselves; I had however no time to spare, and was obliged, though reluctantly, to proceed without making farther discovery.
No. 2.—-Genus Crcnosroua, 0"asciata .9)
Animal unknown to me.
Snnu.—Diameter little‘ "more than half an inch, or 5% lines; whorls five in number, and flattened on the upper side; spire depressed and flattened, even with the whorls ; mouth horse-shoe shaped, (not circular,) the margins reflected and partially interrupted by the body whorl, a thin plate alone joining them ; colour white, with four or five longitudinal
, stripes of reddish brown: the first* or upper stripe being generally the broadest and darkest, and following the whorls from the apex to the margin of the mouth. Umbilicus discovering the third whorl.
I have seen no operculum.
the Ganges, where they were no doubt left by the subsiding waters
after the rainy season. On account of the aperture being horse-shoe shaped, I have placed a No. 3.--—Genus HELIX?
mark of doubt to the generic name. * In some the second (not the first) stripe is the darkest, 6:0.
Annvmn.—Dark brown or blackish, with four tentacula, the two superior ones being longest, and bearing the eyes at their summits; tentacula clubbed or forming a button at the tips, retractile ; body elongate, with a hooked process on the extremity or tail, pointing backwards: from the right side of the animal proceed two narrow, flat, gradually-pointed filaments or tentacula, which, when the animal is in motion, are kept constantly playing over the surface of the shell, and in all probability give it the high polish it possesses.
Snnu.—Thin, fragile, pellucid, with a small pillar cavity, not discovering the previous whorls; whorls six or seven in number; colour pale brownish; shell very glassy, with fine smooth polish ; aperture lunated, margins edged and disunited, being interrupted by the body whorl; diameter about one inch; spire flattened, as are also the sides of the shell more or less.
I have placed a mark of doubt to the generic name, because I do not find in the description of the genus Helix any allusion made to the process on the tail of my specimen, nor to the two tentacula proceeding from the right side of the animal. I found specimens of these shells, dead, in dry ravines, and on the banks of the Ganges.
They live however in rocky situations, so that their being found in the above-mentioned places must be owing to the mountain streams having carried them 011' during the rains.
I procured living specimens at Tara, in the range of rocky hills near Mirzapur, in the month of August, 1832. In wet weather, or more properly speaking, during the rains, they sally forth from their retreats in quest of food, which consists chiefly of vegetable matter. They prefer the early hours of morning to feed in, before the sun has suflicient power to become distressing to them; they appear to require a great deal of moisture, while in motion, without which the slimy matter, which exudes plentifully from their bodies, becomes so thick as to impede the progress of the animal: I observed this to be the case with several which I kept alive for some time; when a few drops of water were sprinkled upon it, the animal put itself in motion, and continued so to do, until the slimy matter became too thick to allow it to proceed without evident exertion. I never found these shells in motion, except on very wet days, and the above circumstance may probably be the reason. At the close of the rainy season, they deposit their eggs in the ground, and retire to some secure retreat, where they remain during the cold and dry seasons of the year, protected from the weather by the dark caves or blocks of stone among which they conceal themselves,
shutting up the aperture of the shell with a viscous fluid, which soon hardens, and becoming like a thick coating of gum, efl'ectua1ly excludes the external air.
The ova are deposited in long strings, and are white.
No. 4.-—Genus BULIMU8.
Srecnss. B. acutus .9 Drap. Moll. 77. Also, vide F lemming’s British Animals.
ANIMAL.——Wlth four tentacula, bulging and rounded at the summits, and the two longest having the eyes at the tips; body elongate and tapering posteriorly, of a pale colour; the tentacula inclining to pale brown.
Snnnn.—Ground colour white, with a longitudinal brown band on the lower side of the body whorl, and many irregular small spots of the same colour; markings of increase distinctly seen; the smaller shells have a tinge of very pale brown in the ground colour; margin of the mouth slightly reflected on the small pillar cavity; whorls eight in number; length 5% lines ; shell turretted ; spire acute ; whorls gradually tapering ; mouth ovate, longer than broad ; right lip edged.
This elegant little shell I first found at a place called Dhuni, in the Jypoor territory, on some large banian trees* (burgut) overhanging a tank. They conceal themselves during the dry seasons in holes, and beneath the bark, shutting up the mouth of the shell with a brittle gum-like substance, which enables them to adhere to the wood. I found some of this species also at Neemuch during the late rains, on a khujoor treet, and also on vines in a garden.
ANIMAL.-—Furnishedwith four tentacula, retractile, the two upper ones being the longest, and bearing the eyes at the summits ; foot elongate, rather rounded posteriorly, truncated before ; colour pale yellowish.
Sumn.—Transparent, thin, and pale coloured, or rather colourless; spire gradually tapering ; whorls 12 ; body whorl equal to the two preceding ones ,- length 6% linesf, ; aperture longer than broad, semiovate; pillar lip straight and slightly reflected ; right lip edged.
This delicately formed shell I found beneath a flower pot at Mirzapoor, in September, 1832. They were in great abundance, particularly among the grass growing at the base of the outer walls of my Bungalow. I afterwards found them beneath stones at Futtehpoor Sikra, in December, and also buried deep in the earth with Pupae at different places in the rocky hills, between Agra and Neemuch. They feed on
* Ficus Bengalensis, vel Indica.
1- Phoenix Sylvestris? 1 I have only one of this length, the generality being about five lines. It has
also 12 whorls, while the others have about 9 or 10.
vegetables, but appear to have no objection to animal matter also. They bury themselves in the earth, descending foot foremost after the manner of the Pupae, and remain torpid during the dry season.
I had lately a great number of living specimens in a torpid state, buried in a large glass jar full of earth, in which they had lived eight or nine months ; most of these I find however to have died, leaving a string of whitish ova in the shell.
No. 6.—Genus PUPA.
ANlMAL.—Wlth four tentacula, the upper pairbeing longest, and hearing the eyes at the summits ; animal blackish; tentacula bulging at the tips. Ova-viviparous.
SnEL1..—About 7% or 8 lines long, cylindrical, spire blunt; whorls 9 or 10; aperture roundish or sub-quadrate; margins thickened, and slightly reflected, interrupted by the body whorl, a thin plate intervening. Colour of living specimens, very pale brownish.
The exuvia of these shells is very common in ravines and on banks of rivers, and in these situations the shells are always white from exposure.
They are to be found in abundance in the range of hills between Futtehpoor Sikra, and N eemuch, and it is probable that they are to be met with in the hills near Mirzapoor, and indeed all along that range. They bury themselves deep in the earth, beneath huge masses of rock, the roots of trees, &c. in immense numbers together. They appear indeed to have formed a community, so thickly do they lie upon each other, and to have buried themselves by common consent in a chosen spot. They do not appear to be scattered indiscriminately over the whole rock, but only in selected spots here and there. The aperture of the shell is generally closed with a very thin coat of hardened viscous matter, considerably thinner than fine silver paper.
They appear to be ova-viviparous; I foundone shell with four or five young ones in it, all dead, and having 2 or 2% whorls. Another with three young ones of three whorls each.
ANlMAL.—Wlth four tentacula, buttoned at the tips, the upper pair longest and bearing the eyes at the summits; colour blackish.
SHELI...-——About 2% lines in length; whorls 8; spire rather obtuse; colour brown; aperture rounded, margins reflected and interrupted by the body whorl.
The shell is covered over with a coating of mud. These little shells I found at Beana ; they were adhering to the face of a bare and very steep rock; the mouth of the shell is stopped up with a viscous fluid similar to the foregoing descriptions, and this enables them to stick to the rock with such firmness as to render it diflicult to detach them without breaking.
I found one or two buried in the earth, among the preceding species.
From their being covered with clay, I was at first inclined to pass them, thinking they were the nidi of some small species of fly. They were scattered over the bleak face of the rock in great numbers.
The “ Bulimus Obscurus" is said to cover itself with mud in the manner as here mentioned, but it also changes the materials of this coating according to circumstances; for instance, if on a tree, it makes use of bits of lichen to conceal itself, or if on rocks, it uses clay and so on. Perhaps the above species may be found to do likewise.
AN1MAL.—With four tentacula, retractile, clubbed at the tips; the superior pair longest, and bearing the eyes. The upper pair of tentacula and a line along the back leading from them are vermilion coloured ; the lower tentacula minute, and with the rest of the animal very pale yellow; body elongate, inclining to a point posteriorly.
SHELL.——ThlXl, vermilion-coloured when living, but diaphanous and colourless when cleared of the animal, cylindrical, obtuse at the summit; whorls seven or eight; aperture rather subquadrate, with four teeth, and corresponding indentations externally; length about three lines ; margins of the mouth reflected.
These shells I discovered first at Mirzapoor beneath garden pots, and at the base of the walls of my Bungalow, in company with “ Bulimus” N0. 5, in September, 1832. Their habits appear to be the same ; they were however very scarce, and I could only find one or two buried with Pupa No. 6, in the rocks between Agra and Neemuch.
No. 9.—Genus Succmnn. ANIMAL.—Wlth four tentacula, short and thick; the superior pair
bearing the eyes at their posterior summits. Colour greenish.
Snsnn.—Thin, fragile, diaphanous, and colourless; aperture longer than broad, and ovate; margins edged; lines of increase delicate and distinctly seen; spire prominent; whorls twisting rapidly and four in number. The body whorl forming nearly the whole shell. Length of my largest specimen half an inch.
In form these shells are very like the Lymneae. I found them adhering to the face of the rocks at Beana in December, 1832, along
with Pupa No. 7. There was a thin coat of a hard gum-like substance closing the mouth of the shell.
I also found a few buried with Pupae in the earth.