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kritloriginals. I am happy in being permitted to take this opportunity of publishing the catalogue and notes of this indefatigable scholar, placing in juxtaposition the parallel expressions of the Sanskrit language, for the convenience of comparison with the catalogue just given of the terms usually employed in the latter tongue.

Tibetan Symbolical Names, used as Numerals.

“ In astronomy and astrology, there are many works to be found in Tibet, that have not been introduced into the Kah-gyur or Stan-ggur collections. Of these the most celebrated is the Bei’du'rya Kzirpo, written by s,Dé-srid Sangs-r,g_1/as r,Gya-m,ts’ho (§r'§§vN;4vv§;v'§'3{£,) a regent or vice-roy at Lhassa,inthe last half of the seventeenth century of our aera. In all these works, symbolical names (§]r:,4v'qigrangs br,da, numerical signs), are used instead of numerals, in all arithmetical and astronomical calculations. As for instance : + q]q, for-l-2;-—i;, for—3; X g5,for,><4; '.'— Q1/,for+ 32.

This mode of expressing numbers has been borrowed from India by the Tibetans. For some of the numerals specified below, there are yet other synonymous terms applied in Tibetan,as in Sanskrit, but in their works these only are of general use. Although the nine units, together with the zero (0), would be sufiicient to express any greater number, yet there are used the following numerals also: 10, ll, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 24, 25, 27, and 32.

-When dictating to an assistant in symbolical names what to write in characters, the pandit commences the operation from right to left: thus if he says Say; (12), a4'|zQ (O), s;£(4), the other writes 4012, &c. This method is the Same with that followed in the Shastras of India therefore it is unnecessary to add any thing further on the subject.

The following numbers are expressed by such names as are stated here below, and explained in English, to which the Sanskrit terms also have been added (with a few exceptions) not from Tibetan books, but from

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14;, phung, a heap of the aggregates constituting the body and *9 soul; S. skdndha. 4, or 6. gig“, mtshams, the six cardinal points : the north, east,

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9, or m_ girl“, pkyogs, corner, quarter, point: S. Dik or Dish. The ten points. 4 cardinal, 4 intermediate, the zenith and the nadir.)

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or 27. Skar-ma, a star, one of the 27 constellations in the

path of the moon; S. Nakshatra. Q3 or 32. So, a tooth ; S.danta,

For 0 zero or 0 the following three terms are used:
an-sq mkhah, void, space, S. kha, dkdsha, gaganam.

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II.—A Brief Description of Herat. By Munshi Mohun Lal.

To the Editor of the Journal of the Asiatic »S'0ciet_1/.~ Sm,

The arrival here lately of a package from India, bringing Journals of the Asiatic Society, of which you are the source, containing many curious novelties, has excited my desire to contribute some little information to so great a public object.

I was two years in the Dehli College, under the tuition of Mr. TAYLOR, and enconraged to gain the eternal advantage of learning by C. E. TREVELYAN, Esq. who is my kind patron. .

At my friend Mr. B. FI'rzoEnALn’s house, I met Lieut. A. Bvarrns, whoml accompanied at his wish, and of my own free will, to Bokhdra and Persia, in the capacity of a Persian Munshi. I am now in company with Dr. Gsnann. We have only native articles of writing, and are also not in a place of solitude, or even of quiet repose, an account of the preparations for encountering SHAH SHUJA. I therefore hope you will be kind enough to forgive the feebleness of my observations, and the badness of my pen and paper, but I trust my endeavours in the accompanying will not be the less acceptable in describing a brief account of Herat.

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The City QfHerat.

Tradition and the following Persian verse say, that the foundation of the city of Herrit, or Hari, was by an ancient king called LAHRASP, who was succeded by Gusnmsr. ALEXANDER, the successor of BEHMAN, built and finished the structure of Herat very beautifully, and after him it was never repaired.

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stroke to it.—]

The city is environed by a strong wall, and also by a small, weak, and thirsty ditch. The circumference is nearly four miles. The houses in the city are generally made of two stories high, and have very small doors to enter at.

Great part of the population of the city, and even of the western district, is ParsiBaban, the follower of Panj-tan, or five persons, namelv, MUHAMMED, ALI, FATIMAH, HASAN, and Hosam.-—They are all fond of the Persian g0vernment—not with regard to religion, but through the ill treatment, which they daily receive from KAMRAN and his ministers.

He is a decrepit and gloomy prince. He excites the pity of mankind. He has neither state nor good palace, which is like a prison. He is


destitute of the signs of royalty, and a ray of meanness and melancholy gleams on his features.

He is afraid of his ministers and of the whole Ala koo zay family, who over-mle him. He is anxious to get rid of them, and to be an ally of the English Government, of which he often talked very friendly.

SHAXR MUHAMMED KHAN, the Acting Vizier, is a talkative and base man. He suspected us to be Russian spies, and twice sent thieves at night to destroy us, but availed nothing.

Our abode in Herat for seven months was very far from agreeable, especially as we hoped to be in Cabul in December. Upon one hand, the plague was ravaging the city; on the other, the dearth of every article caused us to spend a great deal of money.

The streets of Herat are very narrow and dirty, but the roofed bazar, or cha'rsu', gives an idea that in old days it was a great market in Khorasan. The shops are adorned by English chintzes, which are here very dear. '

The people of Herat, though poor, are fond of pleasure. They go daily to gardens, which resemble paradise, and pass their time in firing from horse-back, in racing, and also in singing, joking, dancing, and sleeping.

Their dress is a red shirt and an open red trowser, below a cloak or ¢-hogha, and on the head a turban of Pesluiwer lungi. They tie a very thin cloth round their waist, and keep a knife on their girdle for show, and also for aggression.

The suburbs of Herat are exceedingly fertile, and covered by numerous villages, which extend as far as the eyes reach. The whole country is divided into four parts; namely, Obaih, Kurakh, Ghuryan, and Salwar, or Isfazu'r.

Since KAMRAN’S dynasty, the commerce of Herat has fallen to nothing. The caravans are plundered, as we ourselves were witness of_ The resident merchants are fined in a large sum of money upon any foolish pretext of the Government.

There are two frequented roads from Herat to B0/cluira, one goes through Maimara, where the caravans generally meet with difliculty. The other, which is easy, leaves Sdrakhs on the left hand. By this last route the caravans cross the Mur-ghdh river, and reach Bokluira after 23 marches, the distance of which (a merchant told me) is 110 farsangs, or 480 miles.

The caravan pays duty only in four places through all the way, and I have got the name of every stage written in my diary.

I subjoin the list of the income of Herat, which if you think 5u_fl5ci_ ently interesting and proper, you may include in this letter.

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