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Chromium-manganese-iron group of ele-

ments, 194205
contrasted with ha-

logens and S

group, 198-200
general properties

of, 195, 203
oxides of, 196
oxyacids of, 196

salts of, 197
Chromium, compounds of, with ammonia,

418
Classification, chemical, 149 et seq., 226, 388 ·

-395
Cobalt and its compounds, s. Iron Group.
Coexistence of reactions, principle of, 248
Combination, chemical, laws of, 59—-75

in light of molecular

theory, 314
Combining weights, 74, 78, 79

connexions between and

properties of elements,

182
in light of molecular

theory, 315, 319, 320
Combustible bodies, examples of, 120
Combustion, supporters of, examples of,

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120

99

Chemical change, regarded in light of mole-

cular theory, 312, 313, 315, 332
Chemical changes and changes of energy,

260 et seq.
degradation of energy in,

263-267
Chemical classification, 149 et seq., 226, 388—-

395
Chemical equations, 83
Chemical equilibrium, 237, 269, 332
Chemical equivalency, 315
Chemical formulae, 76-88, 362—373
Chernical nomenclature, 142–148
Chemical phenomena, general character of,

2--20, 270
Chemical properties of matter, general cha-

racter of, 5-7, 41-44, 48
Chemical symbols, 76–88
Chemistry, contrasted with alchemy, 16

kind of phenomena dealt with in,

1, 45, 206
Chlorine and its compounds, s. Chlorine

Group.
Chlorine group of elements (C1, Br, I), 150-

159
hydrides of, 153
interactions of, with

alkalis, 158
interactions of, with

water, 157
mutual interactions

of, 159
occurrence of, 151
oxides and

оху-
acids of, 154
physical properties

of, 150

preparation of, 152
Chlorine group compared with metals, 156

non-metals, 155
S group and al-

kali metals, 181
Chloro-auric acid, 441
Chromates, 196, 416
Chiromium and its compounds, s. Chromium

Group.
Chromium group of elements (Cr, Mo, W,

U), 411-419
general properties of,

411, 412
relations of,

419
haloid compounds of,

415
oxides of, 413
oxyacids of, 416
salts of, 417
sulphides of, 414

Compositions of acids, bases, and salts, 134-

141, 187–193
connexions be-

tween and pro-
perties, 328---

331, 377
Composition of compounds, 46, 54-56, 75,

86, 498
Composition, chemical, meaning of term, 22,

46, 381
Compound radicle, 211, 370
Compounds, changes characteristic of, 29, 30,

32, 35-44
compared with elements, 23

32
composition of, 46
distinguished from mixtures,

33, 34-40, 58

nomenclature of, 144-148
Conservation of mass, 52

of energy, 260
Copper and its compounds, s. Copper Group.
Copper group of elements (Cu, Ag, Au), 437

-446
general properties of,

437-438
general relations of,

443, 445, 446
haloid compounds of,

441

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Copper group of elements, oxides of, 439

salts of, 442
sulphides of, 440

Dalton's atomic theory, 275-282
Davy's experiments on composition of water,

93
Degradation of energy in chemical changes,

263-267
Dichromates, 196, 416
Didymium and its compounds, s. Nitrogen-

Phosphorus Group.
Dissociation, 235, 236, 333-337
Dulong and Petit's law, 302–305
Dunjas’experiments on composition of water,

95

Germanium and its compounds, s. Silicon

Group.
existence of, predicted by Men-

delejeff, 482
Gay-Lussac's law of volumes, 87, 88, 281,

282
Gold and its compounds, s. Copper Group.
Group, use of term in nomenclature of pe-

riodic law, 389
Group I., elements of (Li to Au), 435—446

(s. also Alkali metals, and Copper Group.)
Group II., elements of (Be to Hg), 396–410

(s. also Calcium Group, and Magnesium

Group.)
Group III., elements of (B to Yb), 453—466

(s. also Boron Group, and Aluminium

Group.)
Group IV., elements of (C to Pb), 467—482

(s. also Carbon Group, and Silicon Group.)
Group V., elements of (N to Bi), 424—343

(s. also Nitrogen Group, and Nitrogen-

Phosphorus Group.)
Group VI., elements of (0 to U), 411-422

(s. also Chromium Group, and Sulphur

Group.)
Group VII., elements of (F to Mn), 150–159,

194—203, 447-452 (s. also Chromium Group,

and Chlorine Group.)
Group VIII., elements of (Fe to Pt), 483 —

495 (s. also Iron Group, and Rhodium-

Iridium Group.)
Guldberg and Waage's law of mass-action,

247

Electrical conductivities, connexions between,

and affinities, of acids, 254, 256
Elementary principles of alchemy, 50, 53
Elements, changes characteristic of, 25, 30,

32, 270
Elements, contrasted with compounds, 23-

32
electronegative and positive, 130

-132
metallic and non-metallic, 130

132, 140

nomenclature of, 143
Energy, connexion between changes of, and

chemical changes, 260 et seq., 339
conservation of, 260
degradation of, in chemical changes,

263-267
Erbium and its compounds, s. Nitrogen-

Phosphorus Group.
Equations, chemical, 83
Equilibrium, chemical, 237, 269, 332
Equivalency, chemical, 345

of atoms, 351--355, 372
Equivalent weights, 247, 346-349
Ethylene and Ethylidene chlorides, formulae

of, 364

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Ferrates, 202
Fluoboric acid, 457
Fluorides, 449
Fluorine, 448, 450
Fluosilicic acid, 479
Formulae, chemical, 76-88

empirical and structural, 366
structural, illustrations of, 367-

Halogen group of elements (CI, Br, I) 150 —

159 (s. also Chlorine Group.)
Haloid compounds of Alkali metals, 166

Aluminium Group (Al,

Ga, In, Tl), 463
Boron Group (B, Sc, Yt,

La, Yb), 457
Calcium Group (Be, Ca,

Sr, Ba), 400
Carbon Group (C, Ti, Zr,

Ce, Th), 471
Chromium Group (Cr,

Mo, W, U), 415
Copper Group (Cu, Ag,

Au), 441
Iron Group (Fe, Ni, Co),

488
Magnesium Group (Mg,

Cd, Zn, Hg), 407
Nitrogen Group (N, P,

As, Sn, Bi), 223
Nitrogen-Phosphorus

Group (N, P, V, As, Nb,
Sb, Di, Er, Ta, Bi), 429

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373

Gallium and its compounds, s. Aluminium

Group.
existence of, predicted by Mendele-

jeff, 482

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Haloid compounds of, Rhodium-Iridium

Group (Rh, Ru, Pd, Ir,

Os, Pt), 494
Silicon Group (Si, Ge, Sn,

Pb), 479
Sulphur Group (S, Se,

Te), 176
Hydrates, 104
Hydrides, classification of, 128, 129
Hydrides of Halogens (CI, Br, I), 153, 449

Nitrogen Group (N, P, As, Sb),

209, 215, 427

Sulphur Group (S, Se, Te), 174
Hydrogen and oxygen, chemical study of,

Magnesium group of elenients, general pro-

perties of, 403
haloid compounds of, 407
hydroxides and oxides of,

405
salts of, 408

sulphides of, 406
Manganates, 196
Manganese and its compounds, 451, s. also

Chromium-Manganese-Iron Group.
Mass-action, Guldberg and Waage's law of,

247
Mass, conservation of, 52

proportionality of, to weight, 21
Masses, relative, of reacting bodies, influence

of on chemical change, 238--240
Mercury and its compounds, s. Magnesium

Group.
Metallic and non-metallic elements, 130-132
Metalloids, use of term, 218
Metamerism, 313
Mixtures contrasted with compounds, 33-

99

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Molecular and atomic theory of Avogadro,

283-286

modern, 287-311
Molecular and atomic theory applied to ab-

normal vapour densi-

ties, 336, 337
allotropy, 322-325
atomicities of molecules,

316, 317
chemical change, 312,

313, 315
chemical combination,

314
combining and reacting

weights, 315, 319, 320
connexions between

composition and ener-

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connexions between

composition and pro-

perties, 328-331
dissociation, 333-337
isomerism, 326,341 et seq.
nascent actions, 339
solids and liquids, 309,

117-132
combinations of, with other ele-

ments, 122
its functions in acids, 331

relations of, to other elements, 144
Hydrogen fluoride, 449
Hydroxides, 104
Hydroxides of various groups of elements, s.

Oxides.
Hypothesis, meaning of term, 310 note

Indium and its compounds, &. Aluminium

Group.
Iodine and its compounds, s. Chlorine Group.
Iridium and its compounds, s. Rhodium-Iri-

dium Group.
Iron and its compounds, s. Chromium-Man-

ganese-Iron Group; s. also Iron Group.
Isonierism, 326, 341 et seq.

illustrations of, 342, 343, 362-365
Isomorphism appliel to finding atomic

weights, 306
Iron group of elements (Fe, Ni, Co), 483—

490
general properties of, 484, 485
general relations of, 183, 490
haloid compounds of, 488
oxides of, 486
salts of, 489
sulphides of, 487

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Lanthanum and its compounds, s. Boron

Group.
Lavoisier's experiments on changing water to

earth, 51

burning mercury, 18
Law, meaning of term, 340 note
Laws of chemical combination, 59—75, 87, 314
Lead and its compounds, s. Silicon Group.
Lithium and its compounds, s. Alkali Metals.
Magnesium and its compounds, s. Magne-

sium Group.
Magnesium group of elements (Mg, Cd, Zn,

Hg), 403-410

311, 315
Molecular heats of solid compounds, 303
Molecular weight of a gas, definition of, 294

of hydrogen=2, 292, 293
Molecular weights compared with reacting

weights, 310
determinations of, data

required for, 300
Molecule, applications of term, 307, 309-311

physical conception of, 287

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Molybdates, 416
Molybdenum and its compounds,s.Chromium

Group.
Monovalent atoms defined, 351

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Nascent action, use of term,

339
Nickel and its compounds, s. Iron Group.
Niobium and its compounds, 8. Nitrogen-

Phosphorus Group.
Nitrogen and its compounds, s. Nitrogen

Group and Nitrogen-Phosphorus Group.
Nitrogen group of elements (N, P, As, Sb, Bi),

206-225
allotropy shewn by, 219-222
general properties of, 206–

208
haloid compounds of, 223
hydrides of, 209, 213
oxides of, 214
oxyacids of, 215--217

sulphides of, 225
Nitrogen-Phosphorus group of elements (N,

P, V, As, Nb, Sb, Di, Er,

Ta, Bi), 424-433
general properties of, 424, 425
general relations of, 433
haloid compounds of, 429.
hydrides of, 427
oxides of, 428
oxyacids of, 431
salts of, 432

sulphides of, 430
Nomenclature, chemical, 142--148
Not-Elements divided into compounds and

mixtures, 33-44

Oxides and hydroxides of Chromium-Man-

ganese Group (Cr, Fe, Mn),

196
Copper Group (Cu, Ag,

Au), 439
Halogen Group (Cl, Br, I)

154
Jron Group (Fe, Ni, Co), 486
Magnesium Group (Mg, Cd,

Zn, Hg), 405
Nitrogen-Phosphorus

Group (N, P, V, As, Nb,

Sb, Di, Er, Ta, Bi), 429
Rhodium-Iridium Group

(Rh, Ru, Pd, Ir, Os, Pt),
493
Silicon Group (Si, Ge, Sn,

Pb), 477
Sulphur Group (S, Se, Te),

175
Oxyacids of Boron, 455

Chlorine Group (C1, Br, I), 154
Chromium-Manganese Group (Cr,

Fe, Mn), 196
Chromium Group (Cr, Mo, W, U),

416
Nitrogen-Phosphorus Group (N, P,

V, As, Nb, Sb, Ta), 215, 217, 431

Sulphur Group (S, Se, Te), 178
Oxyhaloid compounds, s. Halord Compounds.
Oxygen and hydrogen, chemical study of,

117-132
combinations of, with other ele-

ments, 121
relations of, to other members of

Group VI., 421
Ozone, 323, 324

92

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Osmium and its compounds, s. Rhodium-

Iridium Group.
Ostwald's work on affinities of acids and

bases, 252, 253
Oxidation and oxidisers, 183-185
Oxides, acidic and basic, 124--126, 130--132,

193, 199—201, 205
classification of, 124-126
corresponding to acids, 178, 215, 225
relations between composition and

properties of, 193, 200, 201
Oxides and hydroxides of Alkali metals, 164

Aluminium Group (Al, Ga,

In, Tl), 462
Boron Group (B, Sc, Yt,

La, Yb), 455
Calcium Group (Be, Ca, Sr,

Ba), 398
Carbon Group (C, Ti, Zr,

Ce, Th), 469
Chromium Group (Cr, Mo,

W, U), 413

Palladium and its compounds, s. Rhodium-

Iridium Group.
Periodic law, applied to atomic valencies, 498

compositions of com-

pounds, 499

predict elements, 482
illustrations of, 385, 387, 482, 497
notation used in, 395
statement of, 384
Tables illustrative of, 390, 394
use of terms Group and Series

in, 389
use of term Subgroup or Family

in, 394
Permanganates, 196
Peroxides, 199
Phosphorus and its compounds, s. Nitrogen

Group and Nitrogen-Phosphorus Group.
Physical state of interacting bodies, influence

of on chemical change, 228—230

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Radicle, compound, 211, 370
Reacting weight, meaning of term, 86
Reacting weights compared with molecular

weights, 315, 319, 320
Reactions, coexistence of, principle of, 248
Reductions and reducers, 183–185
Rhodium and its compounds, s. Rhodium-

Iridium Group.
Rhodium-Iridium group of elements (Rh,

Ru, Pd, Ir, Os, Pt), 491-495
general properties of, 491, 492
general relations of, 496
haloid compounds of, 494
oxides of, 493

salts of, 195
Rubidium and its compounds, S. Alkali

metals.
Ruthenium and its compounds, s. Rhodium-

Iridium Group.

Series, use of term in periodic law, 389
Silver and its compounds, s. Copper Group.
Silicon group of elements (Si, Ge, Sn, Pb),

474-481
general properties of,

474, 475
general relations of, 481
haloid compounds of,

479
oxides and oxyacids of,

477
salts of, 480

sulphides of, 478
Silicon, hydride of, 476
Sodium and its compounds, s. Alkali Metals.
Solution in water, 102
Strontium and its compounds, s. Calcium

Group.
Sulphides, acidic, 225
Sulphides of Alkali metals, 436

Aluminium Group (Al, Ga, In,

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Salts, 124, 134-141

derived from acids, 187–189

nomenclature of, 146
Salts of Alkali metals, 436

Aluminium Group (Al, Ga, In, Tl),

465
Boron Group (B, Sc, Yt, La, Yb), 458
Calcium Group (Be, Ca, Sr, Ba), 401
Carbon Group (Ti, Zr, Ce, Th), 472
Chromium Group (Cr, Mo, W, U),

419
Chromium-Manganese Group (Cr,

Mn, Fe), 197
Copper Group (Cu, Ag, Au), 442
Iron Group (Fe, Ni, Co), 489
Magnesium Group (M%, Cd, Zn, IIg),

408
Nitrogen-Phosphorus Group (V,

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Tl), 464
Boron Group (B, Sc, Yt, La,

Yb), 456
Calcium Group (Be, Ca, Sr, Ba),

399
Carbon Group (C, Ti, Zr, Ce,

Th), 470
Chromium Group (Cr, Mo, W,

U), 414

Nb, Sb, Di, Er, Ta, Bi), 432
Rhodium-Iridium Group (Rh, Ru,

Pd, Ir, Os, Pt), 495

Silicon Group (Ge, Sn, Pb), 480
Scandium and its compounds, s. Boron

Group.
existence of, predicted by Men-

delejeff, 432
Selenion and its compounds, s. Sulphur

Group.

Copper Group (Cu, Ay, Au), 440
Iron Group (Fe, Ni, Co), 487
Magnesium Group (Mg, Cd, Zn,

Hg), 406
Nitrogen Group (N, P, As, Sb,

Bi), 225
Nitrogen - Pliosphorus Group

(N, P, V, Nb, Sb, Di, Er, Ta,

Bi), 430
Silicon Group (Si, Ge, Sn, Pb),

478
Sulphur and its compounds, s. Sulphur

Group.
Sulphur group of elements (S, Se, Te,

170—181, 420
allotropy shewn by,

173
compounds of, with

metals, 179
contrasted with alka-

lis and halogens, 181
general properties of,

170-173
haloid compounds of,

176
hydrides of, 174
occurrence, 171
oxides of, 175

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