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of Tullus Hostilius.

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CHAP. Mettius came after him, then, instead of giving batThe legend we, the wo!

nd tle, the two leaders agreed that a few in either army

should fight in behalf of the rest, and that the event of
this combat should decide the quarrel. So three twin
brothers were chosen out of the Roman army, called
the Horatii, and three twin brothers out of the Alban
army, called the Curiatii. The combat took place
in the sight of both armies; and after a time all the
Curiatii were wounded, and two of the Horatii were
slain. Then the last Horatius pretended to fly, and
the Curiatii each, as they were able, followed after
him. But when Horatius saw that they were a great .
way off from one another, he turned suddenly and
slew the first of them; and the second in like man-
ner; and then he easily overcame and slew the third.

So the victory remained to the Romans. How Hora: Then the Romans went home to Rome in trisister, and umph 54, and Horatius went at the head of the army, of the judge

nt passed bearing his triple spoils. But as they were drawing upon him deed. near to the Capenian gate, his sister came out to

meet him. Now she had been betrothed in marriage to one of the Curiatii, and his cloak, which she had wrought with her own hands, was borne on the shoulders of her brother; and she knew it, and cried out, and wept for him whom she had loved. At the sight of her tears Horatius was so wroth that he drew his sword, and stabbed his sister to the heart; and he said, “So perish the Roman maiden who shall weep for her country's enemy.” But men


54 Livy, I. 26.

said that it was a dreadful deed, and they dragged CHAP. him before the two judges who judged when blood mm

The legend had been shed. For thus said the law,

of Tullus


“ The two men shall give judgment on the shedder of blood.

If he shall appeal from their judgment, let the appeal be tried.
If their judgment be confirmed, cover his head.
Hang him with a halter on the accursed tree;
Scourge him either within the sacred limit of the city or without.”

So they gave judgment on Horatius, and were going to give him over to be put to death. But he appealed, and the appeal was tried before all the Romans, and they would not condemn him because he had conquered for them their enemies, and because his father spoke for him, and said, that he judged the maiden to have been lawfully slain. Yet as blood had been shed, which required to be atoned for, the Romans gave a certain sum of money to offer sacrifices to atone for the pollution of blood. These sacrifices were duly performed ever afterwards by the members of the house of the Horatii. The Albans were now become bound to obey the of the fear

ful punishRomans 55; and Tullus called upon them to aid him ment of

Mettius Fuin a war against the people of Veii and Fidenæ. fetius, and But in the battle the Alban leader, Mettius Fufe- destruction tius, stood aloof, and gave no true aid to the Romans. So, when the Romans had won the battle, Tullus called the Albans together as if he were going to make a speech to them; and they came to

of the

of Alba,

55 Livy, I. 27, et seqq.




killed by

CHAP. hear him, as was the custom, without their arms;

and the Roman soldiers gathered around them, and The legend of Tullus they could neither fight nor escape. Then Tullus

took Mettius and bound him between two chariots, and drove the chariots different ways, and tore him asunder. After this he sent his people to Alba, and they destroyed the city, and made all the Albans come and live at Rome; there they had the hill Cælius for their dwelling-place, and became one

people with the Romans. How king After this, Tullus made war upon the Sabines, and Tullus, having of- gained a victory over them 56. But now, whether it fended the gods, was were that Tullus had neglected the worship of the lightning. gods whilst he had been so busy in his wars, the

signs of the wrath of heaven became manifest. A plague broke out among the people, and Tullus himself was at last stricken with a lingering disease. Then he bethought him of good and holy Numa, and how, in his time, the gods had been so gracious to Rome, and had made known their will by signs whenever Numa inquired of them. So Tullus also tried to inquire of Jupiter, but the god was angry and would not be inquired of, for Tullus did not consult him rightly; so he sent his lightnings, and Tullus and all his house were burnt to ashes. This made the Romans know that they wanted a king who would follow the example of Numa; so they chose his daughter's son Ancus Marcius, to reign over them in the room of Tullus.

56 Livy, I. 31.






Ancient story does not tell much of Ancus Mar- Of the good cius. He published the religious ceremonies which Angust

Marcius. Numa had commanded, and had them written out upon whited boards, and hung up round the forum, that all might know and observe them 57. He had a war with the Latins and conquered them, and brought the people to Rome, and gave them the hill Aventinus to dwell on 58. He divided the lands of the conquered Latins amongst all the Romans 59; and he gave up the forests near the sea which he had taken from the Latins, to be the public property of the Romans. He founded a colony at Ostia, by the mouth of the Tiber 6. He built a fortress on the hill Janiculum, and joined the hill to the city by a wooden bridge over the river 61. He secured the city in the low grounds between the hills by a great dyke, which was called the dyke of the Quirites 62. And he built a prison under the hill Saturnius, towards the forum, because as the people grew in numbers, offenders against the laws became more numerous also 63. At last king Ancus died, after a reign of three-and-twenty years 64.

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37 Livy, 1.32. Dionysius, III.36. 6 Livy, I. 33.

58 Cicero de Repub. II.18. Livy, 6? Livy, L. 33. I 33.

63 Livy, I. 33. 59 Cicero de Repuh. II. 18. 64 Cicero de Repub. II. 18. Livy

60 Cicero, ib. Livy, I. 33. Dio. says, “twenty-four years." 1. 35. nysius, III. 44.



'Εκ των ειρημένων τεκμηρίων τοιαύτα άν τις νομίζων μάλιστα και διήλθον, ουχ αμαρτάνοι και ούτε ως ποιηταί υμνήκασι περί αυτών, επί το μείζον κοσμούντες, μάλλον πιστεύων, ούτε ως λογογράφοι ξυνέθεσαν επί το προσαγωγότερον τη ακροάσει η αληθέστερον, όντα ανεξέλεγκτα και τα πολλά υπό χρόνου αυτών απίστως επί το μυθώδες εκνενικηκότα, ευρήσθαι δε ήγησάμενος εκ των επιφανεστάτων σημείων, ώς παλαιά είναι, αποχρώντως. -THUCYDIDES, I. 21.

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CHAP. I HAVE given the stories of the early kings and

founders of Rome, in their own proper form; not The early history of wishing any one to mistake them for real history, but

thinking them far too famous and too striking to be omitted. But what is the real history, in the place of which we have so long admired the tales of Romulus and Numa? This is a question which cannot be satisfactorily answered: I shall content myself here with giving the few points that seem sufficiently established; referring those who desire to go deeply into the whole question, to that immortal work of Niebuhr, which has left other writers nothing else to do, except either to copy or to abridge it.

The first question in the history of every people is, What was their race and language? the next, What was the earliest form of their society, their social and

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