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CHAP. mans, he said, made no war with children. Upon this

the Faliscans, won by his magnanimity, surrendered to him at discretion, themselves, their city, and their country. Whether the city however was really surrendered' at this time may seem very doubtful; that it sued for and obtained peace is likely: it lost also a portion of its territory, for we read of a number of Faliscans as forming a part of the four new tribes 69 of Roman citizens, which were created immediately

after the Gaulish invasion. Submission In the same or in the following year may be of Nepete and su- placed also the submission of Nepete and Sutrium ?,

which appear immediately after the retreat of the Gauls as the dependent allies of Rome. They did not surrender themselves, “ dediderunt se,” but obtained a treaty of alliance, such as we find so often between the weaker and the stronger states in Greece. Nepete still exists with almost the same name, and is a well-known town on the Perugia road to Rome, standing in a beautiful country between the edge of the Campagna and the valley of the Tiber, a little to the north of Monterosi. Sutrium also exists in the modern town of Sutri, a little to the west of the present road from Monterosi to Ronciglione.

The Romans had now reached what may be called

The Romans reach the ridge

69 Livy, VI. 4.

buhr proposes to supply étrì, but 70 Diodorus places in the same the corruption lies, I think, in the year the peace with the Faliscans, verb, and in the preceding conand something in connexion with junction, kai. See Diodorus, XIV. Sutrium. The present text is cor- 98. rupt: Soutplov uèv õpungay. Nie


f the


the extreme natural boundary of the basin of the CHAP. Tiber on the side of Etruria. Sutrium and Nepete looked up immediately to the great and lofty ridge Ciminian of the Ciminian mountains, that ridge which the traveller ascends as soon as he leaves Viterbo, while from its summit he catches his first view of the neighbourhood of Rome, of the line of the Apennines skirting the Campagna to the north-east, and of the Alban hills in the furthest distance, and, although the particular objects cannot be distinguished, of that ever-memorable plain in which stands Rome, This ridge, in short, separates the streams which feed the Tiber from the valley of Viterbo and the basin of the lake of Bolsena, or to speak the language of the fourth century of Rome, it separated the territories of Veii and Falerii, the advanced posts, as it were, of the Etruscan confederacy, from those of Vulsinii and Tarquinii, two of the greatest and most distinguished states of the whole nation. Eighty years after this period, the passage of the They cross

them, and Ciminian mountains was regarded as a memorable are engaged

in war with event, as little less than the entrance into an un- the people of

Vulsinii and known world". But now, emboldened by their the Salpivictories over the nearer Etruscan cities, and aware, no doubt, that the dread of the Gauls on the northern frontier would render a general gathering of the whole nation impossible, the Romans seemed anxious to cross their natural boundary, and to penetrate into the heart of Etruria. A war broke out, we


71 Livy, IX. 36.

A.C. 388.


CHAP. know not on what grounds, between Rome and XVIII.

- Vulsinii 72; but in the first year the Romans were

crippled, according to their own account, by a famine and pestilence, and the Vulsinians, aided by the Salpinatians, a neighbouring people wholly unknown

to us, invaded the Roman territory without opposiA.U.C. 364. tion. In the next year however the Romans were

able to act on the offensive; a great victory was gained over the Vulsinians, the Salpinatians did not risk a battle, and after the lands of either people had been laid waste by the conquerors, the Vulsinians sued for and obtained a truce for twenty years 73, on the condition of giving satisfaction to the Romans to the extent of their demands, and furnishing a year's pay for the army employed against them. Of the Salpinatians we hear no further mention, either

now or at any future period. Conclusion. Thus Rome was gaining ground rapidly in Etruria,

while in Latium she could not yet dislodge her old enemies the Æquians even from the Alban hills. With so stubborn, so active, and so powerful an adversary on the south, any attempt to make extensive conquests on the north must ever have been full of danger; and an alliance between the Etruscan confederacy and the Opican nations, at this period of the Roman history, would probably have effected what the league between the Etruscan and Sabellian nations ninety years afterwards attempted in vain. But Providence, which designed that Rome

72 Livy, V. 31.

73 Livy, V. 32.



should win the empire of the world, altered the CHAP. course of events by turning the torrent of a Gaulish invasion upon Latium. This it was which crushed the Æquians for ever; and which obliged the Romans by its consequences to confine their attention again for a long period to the left bank of the Tiber. There, in many years of patient and arduous struggles, they laid deeper and firmer the foundations of their after greatness, by effectually subduing the remnant of their Opican enemies, and obtaining a more complete command than ever over the resources of the cities of the Latins. Thus the Gaulish invasion and conquest of Rome, was but the instrument of her greater and surer advance to the dominion of Italy.



“ Sicinius.—He's a disease that must be cut away.
Menenius.—Oh, he's a limb that has but a disease :
Mortal to cut it off; to cure it easy."

SHAKSPEARE, Coriolanus.

Φοβηθέντες γάρ αυτού οι πολλοί το μέγεθος της τε κατά το εαυτού σώμα παρανομίας ες την δίαιταν.... ως τυραννίδος επιθυμούντι πολέpLoL kadéotagav.-Thucydides, VI. 15.



CHAP. In the fourteen years which elapsed between the

- beginning of the last war with Veii and the invasion the plece os of the Gauls, the plebeian leaders reaped the fruit of

the seed which their predecessors had sown so perseveringly. Now for the first time we find plebeians not only admitted into the college of military tribunes, but forming in it the majority. Yet even this was as it were only the first fruits of the harvest; many years elapsed before the full crop was brought

to the sickle. The pa

In the year 352, the third year of the war with Veii, terferes with the Romans intending, as has been mentioned, to of tribunes. blockade the city, were obliged to keep a part of their

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