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was afterwards so strongly opposed to M. Manlius, CHAP. and whose enmity may have already begun before this period. It should be observed that the six military tribunes elected for the following year were all patricians. If Camillus had any undue share in effecting the Charge of

corruption resignation of the late consuls, he did not long enjoy against Ca

millus. He his triumph. L. Appuleius 23, one of the tribunes, retires from impeached him for having appropriated secretly to his own use a portion of the plunder of Veii. It was said 2that some doors of brass, the bullion of a country which at this time used only brass money, were found in his house; and that his numerous clients and friends told him plainly 25, when he applied to them for their aid, that they were ready to pay his fine for him, but that they could not acquit him. We are startled at finding the great Camillus brought to trial on a charge of personal corruption; but that strict integrity which Polybius ascribes to the Romans seems not always to have reached as high as the leaders of the aristocracy, for the great Scipio Africanus was impeached on a similar charge, and his brother, the conqueror of Antiochus, was not only accused, but condemned. Nor were the eminent men of the Spartan aristocracy free from the same reproach ; the suspicion attached itself to Leotychides, the immediate predecessor of Archidamus; to Pleistoanax the son of Pausanias; and just before

23 Livy, V. 32. 24 Plutarch, Camillus, 12.

25 Livy, V. 32.

CHAP. the banishment of Camillus, the famous Gylippus,

the conqueror of the Athenians at Syracuse, had been
driven from his country for a similar act of baseness.
Other accounts 26, as was natural, ascribed the con-
demnation of Camillus solely to the envy and hatred
of the commons; while, according to others ??, his
punishment was a sort of ostracism, because the
arrogance of his triumph, after the conquest of Veii,
seemed inconsistent with the conduct of a citizen in
a free commonwealth. It seems allowed by all that
no party in the state attempted to save him; and it
is clear also, that he incurred the forfeiture of all his
civil rights in consequence of his not appearing to
stand his trial, either as an outlawry, or because his
withdrawal was held equivalent to a confession of
guilt, and a man convicted of furtum incurred there-
by perpetual ignominy, and lost all his political
franchise. Perhaps his case was like that of the
Spartan Pausanias; and the treasure which he se-
creted may have been intended to furnish means
for making him tyrant of Rome. But at any rate he
withdrew from Rome before his trial came on, and
retired to Ardea. The annalists reported 28 that as
he went out of the gates, he turned round, and
prayed to the gods of his country, that if he were
unjustly driven into exile, some grievous calamity
might speedily befal the Romans, and force them to


26 Dionysius, XIII. 5. Fragm.
27 Diodorus, XIV. 117.

28 Livy, V. 32. Plutarch, Camillus, 12. Dionysius, XIII. 6.

call him back again. They who recorded such a CHAP.

XIX. prayer must have believed him innocent, and there 4 fore forgave him for it; they even thought that the gods heard it with favour, and fulfilled its petition by sending the Gauls in the very next year to be ministers of vengeance on his ungrateful country.




Το της ημετέρας πραγματείας ίδιον... τούτό έστιν ότι καθάπερ η τύχη σχεδόν άπαντα τα της οικουμένης πράγματα προς έν έκλινε μέρος,... ούτω και διά της ιστορίας υπό μίαν σύνοψιν αγαγείν τοις εντυγχάνουσι τον χειρισμός της τύχης, ο κέχρηται προς την τών όλων πραγμάτων συνTÉMelay.—Polybius, I. 4.


of foreign nations.

CHAP. THE furthest point hitherto reached by the soldiers

of any Roman army was scarcely more than fifty Introduction : to the view miles distant from Rome. The southern limit of of the state

Roman warfare had been Anxur; its northern was Vulsinii. Nor do we read of any treaties or commercial intercourse by which Rome was connected with foreign powers, since the famous treaty with Carthage, concluded in the first year of the Commonwealth. Still the nations of the ancient world knew more of one another than we are inclined to allow for: we do not enough consider how small a portion of their records has come down to us; how much must have been done, of which mere accident has hindered us from hearing About thirty' years later CHAP. than the Gaulish invasion, the author of that most curious survey of the coasts of the Mediterranean, known by the name of the Periplus of Scylax, mentions Rome and Ancona alone of all the cities of Italy, with the exception of the Greek colonies; and this notice is the more remarkable as Rome is not immediately on the coast, and the survey rarely extends to any place far inland. Aristotle also was not only acquainted with the fact that Rome was taken by the Gauls, but named an individual whom he called Lucius ', as its deliverer. Heraclides Ponticus 3 even spoke of Rome as a Greek city, which while it shows the shallowness of his knowledge concerning it, proves also, that it was sufficiently famous in Greece, to make the Greeks think it worthy of belonging to their race and name; and we see besides that a wide distinction was drawn between the


For the date of the Periplus of times men were designated by their Scylax, see Niebuhr's essay in the prænomen rather than by their nofirst volume of his “Kleine Histo- men or cognomen; and thus Arisrische Schriften,” Bonn, 1828, p. totle would call L. Furius “ Lu105; or, as translated by Mr. Hare, cius,” rather than “Furius," or in the second number of the Phi- “Camillus, just as Polybius calls lological Museum. I have said Scipio “ Publius," and Regulus that Scylax mentions no other “Marcus.” Italian cities but Rome and An- 3 Plutarch, Camillus, 22. He. cona, with the exception of the raclides noticed Rome in his treaGreek colonies. It is true that, tise, Ilepi yuxas; and said that according to other writers, Ancona “a report had come from the west, itself was a Greek colony, but Scy- telling how a host had come from lax does not describe it as such; the land of the Hyperboreans, whereas, in speaking of the cities without the Pillars of Hercules, on the Lucanian and Japygian and had taken a Greek city called coast, he expressly notices their Rome, which was situated some. Greek origin.

where in those parts about the ? Plutarch, Camillus, 22. It great sea.” need not be said, that in the old

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