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men and boys of Syracuse could bear to look on CHAP. idly from their walls no longer, but getting into the large punts or barges 62 which were ordinarily used for ferrying men and cattle across the harbour, they put out to sea, to save and capture such of the enemy's ships as the fire had not yet destroyed. But the walls were crowded with fresh spectators; for as the report of the victory became more and more decided, the women, children, and slaves, all poured out from their houses, and hastened to enjoy with their own eyes the sight of this wonderful deliverance. When the day was over, the Carthaginian naval force was almost utterly destroyed, while Dionysius encamped on the ground which he had won near the temple of Olympian Jupiter, having the remnant of the besieging army shut in between his position on one side, and the walls of Syracuse on the other. But Imilcon had no hope of continuing the contest Retreat of

the Carwith success any further. He offered all the treasure thaginians, in his camp, amounting to three hundred talents, to purchase the unmolested retreat of the remainder of his armament. “This,” said Dionysius, “ cannot be granted; but I will consent that the native Carthaginians shall be allowed to escape by night to Africa, stipulating nothing for their subjects and

62 Tà topOueia. Diodorus, XIV. No explanation is given by him, 74. This is one of the touches because the use of these top@ucia which seem to argue that the was to him so familiar, that he writer of the description was at could not fancy that any was reany rate a Syracusan, familiar quisite. with the harbour of Syracuse.


CHAP. allies.” He foresaw that if the head were thus taken

from the body, the body would instantly fall into his
power; and he was not sorry to impress the Africans,
Iberians, and Sikelians, with a strong sense of the
selfish arrogance of the Carthaginians, who thinking
only of themselves, abandoned their allies to destruc-
tion without scruple. Accordingly, when the Carthagi-
nians had escaped, the rest of the armament attempted
to provide as they could for their own safety. The
Sikelians and Africans were obliged to lay down
their arms, after the former had endeavoured in vain
to make good their retreat to their own country; but
the Iberians held together, and made so formidable
a show of resistance, that Dionysius readily listened
to their proposals of entering into his service. They
became a part of his mercenary army; and while
they helped to secure his power against his domestic
enemies, they also added to the glory of his arms
abroad: and in the strange vicissitudes of human
fortune, these same Iberians, who had been enlisted
in Spain, taken thence to Africa, and afterwards had
crossed the sea to Sicily as invaders, were, some years
later, sent over from Sicily to Greece 63, as a part of
the auxiliary force sent by Dionysius to aid the
Lacedæmonians; and fought with distinction in La-
conia under the eye of Agesilaus, against the invading

army of Epaminondas. State of the Thus was Dionysius saved from imminent ruin, nian power and the Greek power in Sicily was preserved. His




nian power in Sicily.

63 Xenophon, Hellenic. VII. 1. $ 20.





pares to


subsequent wars with Carthage were of no import- CHAP. ance; for amidst much variety of fortune in particular engagements, the relations of the two states were never materially altered; the Carthaginians remained masters of all the western part of the island, while the eastern part continued to be under the dominion of Dionysius.

After the destruction of this great armament, Dionysius Dionysius felt himself able to carry on his plans of attack the conquest against the Greeks of Italy. One of his Greeks. first measures was to people the important city of Messana. The remains of the old citizens, who had been driven out by the Carthaginians, returned to their home after Imilcon's defeat; but their numbers were so thinned, that Dionysius added to them a large body of new citizens from Locri on the Italian coast, his old and firm ally, and from a Locrian colony 64, Medama, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, which had probably been lately conquered by the Lucanians. With these there were at first joined some exiles from old Greece, of the race of the old Messenians; but afterwards, to satisfy the jealousy of Lacedæmon, they were removed from Messana, and founded for themselves the new city of Tyndaris 65. The principal object of Dionysius' hostility among Battle of

the Hellethe Greek cities of Italy was Rhegium. The Rhe- porus, aud

64 Diodorus, XIV. 78. The pre- Strabo, VI. 1. $ 5. p. 256, and, sent reading in the text of Dio- it is said, on one of its coins. Me. dorus is Mediuvalovs, for which dama, or Mesma, is described as Cluverius has conjectured Meduai- a Locrian colony by Strabo, in ους. Μεδαμαίους would be still the passage above quoted, and by nearer the present reading, and Scymnus Chius, V. 307. Médana is the name of the city in 65 Diodorus, XIV. 78.


CHAP. gians had favoured his political adversaries, and had

personally affronted him by refusing to allow him conquest of Rhegium. the right of intermarriage with their citizens. But

his ambition led him to desire the dominion of all the coast of Italy on the Ionian Sea ; and he entered into a league with the Lucanians, as has been already mentioned, hoping that they might exhaust the Greek cities, by their constant plundering warfare, and that he might then step in to reap the harvest. His defeat of the combined army of the Italian Greeks on the banks of the Helleporus, and his conquest of Rhegium 67, Caulon 6, and Hipponium 69, are the principal events of this contest. He enlarged Syracuse, by removing thither the whole or a great part of the population of the conquered cities; and his increased power and influence on the Italian coast facilitated those farther plans of aggrandizement which have been already noticed, his settlements at Issa and Lissus, and on the coast of Picenum, his alliance with the Illyrians, and his

trade in the Adriatic. Dionysius Thus powerful at home and abroad, and possesssends chariots to the ing a far greater dominion than any prince or state Olympian games, and in old Greece, Dionysius yet felt that Greece was as wins the prize of it were the heart and life of the civilized world, and

that no glory would be universal or enduring unless it had received its stamp and warrant from the genius of Athens. He sent chariots to Olympia, to

66 Polybius calls the river “El- would be “ Helleporus.” leporus," 1. 6. Diodorus calls it 67 Diodorus, XIV. 3. “ Helorus,” XIV. 104. I suspect 68 Diodorus, XIV. 106. that the true reading in Polybius 69 Diodorus, XIV. 107.




tragedy at Athens.


contend for the prize at the Olympic games 70; he CHAP. sent over also rhapsodists, most eminent for the powers of their voice and the charm of their recitation, to rehearse his poems; and he was repeatedly a candidate for the prize of tragedy at Athens. Alexander, indeed, scorned to contend for victory at the Olympic games unless kings could be his competitors; but in such matters there was a wide difference between a king and a tyrant, between the descendant of a long line of princes", sprung from Hercules, the son of Jove, and the humble citizen of Syracuse, whom his fortune had unexpectedly raised to greatness. There is a story that the public feeling at Olympia was so strong against Dionysius as a tyrant "?, that the tents of his theori, or deputies to the Olympic assembly, were plundered, and the recitation of his verses drowned amidst the clamour and hisses of the multitude. But whether this be true or false, we know that at Athens his tragedies were by no means regarded as contemptible; he gained on different occasions the second and third prizes, and at last his tragedy entitled, “ Hector ransomed 13,” was judged worthy of the highest prize.

This evident desire of intellectual fame, united His interwith the powers of earning it, tempted the philoso- Isocrates

and Plato. phers of Greece to believe that they should find in

Iis intercourse with

70 Diodorus, XIV. 109.

the prize at the Olympic games, 71 In an earlier age, however, an even in the foot-race, and he ran ancestor of the great Alexander, accordingly in the stadium. See the Macedonian king of the same Herodotus, V. 22. name, who reigned during the 72 Diodorus, XIV. 109. Persian invasion, was anxious to 73 Diodorus, XV. 74. be admitted as a competitor for

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