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morals; to understand what they were in themselves, CHAP. and how they may have affected the fate of the S world, either in their own times, or in after-ages. These, however, are questions which the ancient writers were often as unable to answer as we are ; happier, it may be thought, than we in this, that they had no painful consciousness of ignorance. To repeat what the Greek and Roman writers have left on record of Carthage, and its dominion in Spain and Africa, would be an easy task, but at the same time most unsatisfactory. We look around for other witnesses, we question existing languages, and races, and manners, in the hope of gleaning from them some fuller knowledge of extinct nations than can be gained from the scanty accounts of foreigners or enemies.

The internal state of Carthage may fitly be re- CARTHAGE. served for a later period of this history. It will be enough now to fill up, so far as I can, that sketch of her dominion and foreign relations which has been begun in some measure in the two preceding chapters. In the middle of the fourth century before the Extent of

the CarthaChristian era, the Carthaginians possessed the north- ginian domiern coast of Africa, from the middle of the greater Africa. Syrtis to the pillars of Hercules, a country reaching from 19 degrees east longitude, to 6 degrees west; and a length of coast which Polybius' reckoned at above sixteen thousand stadia. But unlike the com


nion in

· Polybius, III. 39.

CHAP. pactness and organization of the provinces of the Ro

man empire, this long line of coast was for the most part only so far under the dominion of the Carthaginians, that they possessed? a chain of commercial establishments along its whole extent, and with the usual ascendancy of civilized men over barbarians, had obliged the native inhabitants of the country, whether cultivators of the soil or wandering tribes, to acknowledge their superiority. But in that part where the coast runs nearly north and south, from the Hermæan headland, or Cape Bon, to the lesser Syrtis, they had occupied the country more completely. This was one of the richest tracts to be found”; and here the Carthaginians had planted their towns thickly, and had covered the open country with their farms and villas. This was their neplokic, the immediate domain of Carthage, where fresh settlements were continually made as a provision for the poorer citizens*; settlements prosperous indeed and wealthy, but politically dependent, as was always the case in the ancient world; insomuch that the term nepiokoi, which in its origin expressed no more than “men who dwelt not in, but round about a

? "Osa yéypatta moliopata Ĥ of the irritation occasioned by it, európla év TV Außún útò tñs Eúp- has been exhibited to the notice of TLỒos tñs tap 'Eonepiðas uéxpı Europe on more than one occasion Ηρακλειων στηλών εν Λιβύη πάντα in Switzerland. Liechstal was one doti Kapxndoviwy. Scylax, Peri- of the treptockides of Basel ; and the plus, p. 51, 52. Ed. Húdson. disputes between the citizens of

3 Polybius, III. 23. Diodorus, Basel and the inhabitants of LiechXX. 8. Scylax, p 49.

stal and the other country towns, 4 Aristotle, Politica, VI. 5. With. seemed, to those familiar with anin the last ten years an exact cient history, like a revival of the image of the relation of the an. political relations of Lacedæmon cient Tepioikot to their roles, and and Carthage.



city,” came to signify a particular political relation, CHAP. theirs, namely, who enjoyed personal freedom, but had no share in the government of their country. Distinct from these settlements of the Carthagi- Phæni

colonies in nians themselves, were the sister cities of Carthage, Africa. founded immediately like herself by the Phænicians of Tyre and Sidon, although her fortune had afterwards so outgrown theirs. Amongst these Phænician colonies were Utica, more famous in Roman than in Carthaginian history, Adrumetum, the two cities known by the name of Leptis, situated, the one near the western extremity of the great Syrtis, and the other on the coast between the lesser Syrtis and the Hermæan headland, and Hippo, a name so closely connected in our minds with the piety and energy of its great bishop, Augustine. These were the allies of Carthage, and some of them were again at the head of a small confederacy of states?, who looked up to them for protection, as they in their turn looked up to Carthage. They enjoyed their own laws, and were independent in their domestic government; but in their foreign relations they found, in common with all the weaker states of the ancient world, that alliance with a greater power ended sooner or later in subjection. The Phænician colonists, who founded Carthage, Condition of

the African at first paid ' a tribute to the native Africans on subjects of


5 Justin, XVIII. 4.

“the people of Carthage, the peo6 Sallust, Bell. Jugurth. 22. 80. ple of Tyre, and the people of

7 In the second treaty between Utica, with their allies.” Polybius, Rome and Carthage, the contract. III. 24. ing parties on the one side are, 8 Justin, XVIII. 5. VOL. I.



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CHAP. whose land they had settled, as an acknowledgment

that the country was not their own. But in process of time they became what the Europeans have been in later times in India, no longer dependent settlers, but sovereigns; and the native Africans, driven back from the coast and confined to the interior, were reduced to the condition of strangers on their own soil. They understood and practised agriculture, but we know not how far they were allowed to retain the property of the land, or to what extent the rich Carthaginians had ejected them, and employed them as tenants and cultivators of the soil of which they had been once proprietors. At any rate, the Africans were in the condition of a Roman province; they' were ruled despotically by the Carthaginian officers sent amongst them, and were subject to taxes, and to a conscription of their youth to serve as soldiers, at the discretion of their governors. In the first Punic war, they were taxed to the amount of fifty per cent. on the yearly produce of their land, and the oppression to which they were subjected made them enter readily and zealously into the quarrel of the mercenary soldiers, during their famous war with the Car

thaginians. Differences The contrast between Carthage exercising absolute situation of dominion over her African subjects, and Rome surCarbage nded by her Latin and Italian allies, and grawith respect 2.. to their" dually communicating more widely the rights of subjects and allies. citizenship, so as to change alliance into union, has

between the

and Ro


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9 Polybius, 1. 72.

been often noticed, and is indeed quite sufficient to CHAP.

XXII. account for the issue of the Punic wars. But this —difference was owing rather to the good fortune of Rome and to the ill fortune of Carthage, than to the wisdom and liberality of the one and the narrowmindedness of the other. Rome was placed in the midst of people akin to herself both in race and language; Carthage was a solitary settlement in a foreign land. The Carthaginian language nearly resembled the Hebrew; it belonged to the Semitic or Aramaic family. Who the native Africans were, and to what family their language belonged, are among the most obscure questions of ancient history. But it is one of the consequences of that wider view of the connexion of races and languages which we have learnt of late to entertain, that the statements to be found in the traditional or mythic reports of the origin of nations appear in some instances to contain in them a germ of truth, and we do not venture, as formerly, to cast them aside as mere fables. Thus in that strange account of the peopling of Africa which Sallust'o copied from Carthaginian books, the stream of migration is described as having poured into northern Africa at its western, not at its eastern extremity, by the straits of Gibraltar, not by the isthmus of Suez and by Egypt. And we read that the invaders were Medians and Persians, who had marched through Europe into Spain, as a part of the great army of Hercules. They

10 Bell. Jugurthin, 20. Uti ex psalis dicebantur, interpretatuin libris Punicis, qui regis Hiem- nobis est.

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