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IV.

CHAP. nicans 0 also joined this league, and so did Ecetra

and Antium, cities of the Volscians. of his Then Tarquinius made war upon the rest of the buildings, and how he Volscians, and he took ? Suessa Pometia, in the lowprepared the ground for lands of the Volscians, and the tithe of the spoil was his new temple. forty talents of silver. So he set himself to raise

mighty works in Rome; and he finished what his
father had begun; the great drains to drain the low
grounds of the city, and the temple on the Capitoline
Hill. Now the ground on which he was going to build
his temple, was taken up with many holy places of the
gods of the Sabines, which had been founded in the
days of king Tatius. But Tarquinius consulted the
gods by augury whether he might not take away these
holy places, to make room for his own new temple.
The gods allowed him to take away all the rest,
except only the holy places of the god of Youth 22,
and of Terminus the god of boundaries, which they
would not suffer him to move. But the augurs said
that this was a happy omen, for that it showed how
the youth of the city should never pass away, nor
its boundaries be moved by the conquest of an
enemy. A human head was also found, as they were
digging the foundations of the temple, and this
too was a sign that the Capitoline Hill should be
the head of all the earth. So Tarquinius built a
mighty temple, and consecrated it to Jupiter 23, and
to Juno, and to Minerva, the greatest of the gods of
the Etruscans.
20 Dionysius, IV. 49.

the story of the elder Tarquinius. 21 Livy, l. 53. 55, 56.

23 Dionysius, IV. 61. 32 Dionysius, III. 69. He tells

Of the

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At this time there came a strange woman 24 to the CHAP. king, and offered him nine books of the prophecies de of the Sibyl for a certain price. When the king strange worefused them, the woman went and burnt three of brought the

books of the the books, and came back and offered the six at the Sibyl to same price which she had asked for the nine; but they mocked at her, and would not take the books. Then she went away, and burnt three more, and came back and asked still the same price for the remaining three. At this the king was astonished, and asked of the augurs what he should do. They said that he had done wrong in refusing the gift of the gods, and bade him by all means to buy the books that were left. So he bought them; and the woman who sold them was seen no more from that day forwards. Then the books were put into a chest of stone, and were kept under ground in the Capitol, and two men 25 were appointed to keep them, and were called the two men of the sacred books. Now Gabii 26 would not submit to Tarquinius, like How Tar

quinius won the other cities of the Latins; so he made war against Gabii

through the it; and the war was long, and Tarquinius knew not treachery of

his son how to end it. So his son Sextus Tarquinius pre-Sextus. tended that his father hated him, and fled to Gabii : and the people of Gabii believed him and trusted him, till at last he betrayed them into his father's power. A treaty was then made with them, and he

Gellius

24 Dionysius, IV. 62. A. Gellius, was the later number. I. 19.

gives “ Fifteen." 25 See Livy, III. 10, and VI. 37. 26 Livy, I. 53, 54. Dionysius gives “Ten," which

IV.

oppressed

and made

CHAP. gave them the right of becoming citizens of Rome ??,

- and the Romans had the right of becoming citizens of Gabii, and there was a firm league between the

two people. How he Thus Tarquinius was a great and mighty king ; his people, but he grievously oppressed the poor, and he took them work away all the good laws of king Servius, and let the

rich oppress the poor, as they had done before the days of Servius. He made the people labour at his great works : he made them build his temple, and dig and construct his drains; and he laid such burdens 28 on them, that many slew themselves for very misery; for in the days of Tarquinius the tyrant it was happier to die than to live.

like slaves.

27 Dionysius, IV. 58. 23 Cassius Hemina, quoted by Servius, Æn. XII. 603.

CHAPTER V.

THE HISTORY OF THE LATER KINGS OF ROME, AND

OF THE GREATNESS OF THE MONARCHY.

'Eni péya ndev ń Bao dela ioxúos.—Tuucyd. II. 97. 'Αποφανώ ούτε τους άλλους ούτε αυτους Αθηναίους περί των σφετέρων Tupávvwv åkpißès oúdèy déyovras.—Thucyd. VI. 54.

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CHAP.

V.

The

even of the

are not

The stories of the two Tarquinii and of Servius CHAP. Tullius are so much more disappointing than those of the earlier kings, inasmuch as they seem at first accounts to wear a more historical character, and as they later kings really contain much that is undoubtedly true; but historical. yet, when examined, they are found not to be history, nor can any one attach what is real in them to any of the real persons by whom it was effected. The great drains or cloacæ of Rome exist to this hour, to vouch for their own reality; yet of the Tarquinii, by whom they are said to have been made, nothing is certainly known. So also the constitution of the classes and centuries is as real as Magna Charta or the Bill of Rights; yet its pretended author is scarcely a more historical personage than King Arthur; we do not even know his name or race, whether he

VOL. I.

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CHAP.

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were Servius Tullius, or Mastarna', a Latin or an Etruscan; the son of a slave reared in the palace of the Roman king, or a military adventurer who settled at Rome together with his companions in arms, and was received with honour for his valour. Still less can we trust the pretended chronology of the common story. The three last reigns, according to Livy, occupied a space of 107 years; yet the king, who at the end of this period is expelled in mature but not in declining age, is the son of the king who ascends the throne a grown man in the vigour of life at the beginning of it: Servius marries the daughter of Tarquinius, a short time before he is made king, yet immediately after his accession he is the father of two grown-up daughters, whom he marries to the brothers of his own wife: the sons of Ancus Marcius wait patiently eight-and-thirty years, and then murder Tarquinius to obtain a throne which they had seen him so long quietly occupy. Still then we are in a manner upon enchanted ground; the unreal and the real are strangely mixed up together; but although some real elements exist, yet the general picture before us is a mere fantasy: single trees and buildings may be copied from nature, but their grouping is ideal, and they are placed in the

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1 This is the name by which he Lyons about two centuries since, was called in the Etruscan histo- and is now preserved in that city. ries, quoted by the emperor Clau. It was printed by Brotier at the dius in his speech upon admitting end of his edition of Tacitus, and the Gauls to the Roman franchise. has been also published in the colThis speech was engraved on a lections of inscriptions. brass plate, and was dug up at

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