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CHAP. but what is meant by “ Etruscan,” and how far

Etruscan art was itself derived from Greece, is a question which has been warmly disputed. The statue of Jupiter 15 in the capitol, and the fourhorsed chariot on the summit of the temple, together with most of the statues of the gods, were at this period wrought in clay; bronze was not generally employed till a later age. There is no mention of any

et Cereri, juxta Circum Maxi. But the question still returns, mum.” At any rate the two Greek what is meant by Etruscan art? artists must belong to a period later Are we to understand this term of than the foundation of the capitol. the Etruscans properly so called,

15 Pliny, XXXV. 12, quotes the conquerors of the 'Tyrrhenian Varro, as saying “ Turrianum a Pelasgians, or of these TyrrhenoFregellis accitum, cui locaret Tar- Pelasgians themselves, who must quinius Priscus effigiem Jovis in have held Agylla at least, if not capitolio dicandam.” He had just other places on the coast, down before said that all the images of to the time of the last kings of this period were Etruscan; how Rome; or, again, how much of then do we find the statue of Etruscan art was introduced diJupiter himself ascribed to an rectly into Italy from Greece itself, artist of Fregellæ, a Volscian town as is indicated in the story of on the Livis, with which the Ro. Demaratus coming from Corinth mans in Tarquinius' reign are to Tarquinii, with the artists Eunot known to have had any con- chir and Eugrammus, “ Cunning nexion ? Besides, “Turrianus” is hand” and “Cunning carver ?" apparently only another form of The paintings at Ardea and Care “Tyrrhenus," and seems to mark mentioned by Pliny both occur in the artist as an Etruscan. Are we towns of Pelasgian origin ; and the then to read Fregenæ instead of arts may have thus been cultivated Fregellæ, or are we to suppose the to a certain degree in Italy, even artist's fame to have been so emi. before the beginning of any comnent that the people of Fregellæ munication with Greece. But the had first invited him thither from vases and other monuments now his own country, and the Roman found in Etruscan towns, in the king afterwards brought him from ruins of Tarquinii for instance, and Fregellæ to Rome? In this man- of Vulci, belong to a later period, ner Polycrates of Samos sent for and are either actually of Greek Democedes the physician from workmanship, or were executed Athens; and the Athenians had by Etruscans to whom Greek art invited him from Æginia, where he was familiar. See M. Bunsen's had first settled after leaving his “ Discours,” in the 6th volume own country, Croton. Herodotus, of the Annals of the Antiquarian III. 131.

Institute of Rome, p. 40, &c.


paintings in Rome itself earlier than the time of the CHAP. Commonwealth ; but Pliny speaks of some frescoes at Ardea and at Cære, which he considered to be older than the very foundation of the city, and which in his own age preserved the freshness of their colouring, and in his judgment were works of remarkable merit. The Capitoline temple 16 itself was built nearly in the form of a square, each side being about two hundred feet in length; its front faced southwards, towards the forum and the Palatine, and had a triple row of pillars before it, while a double row inclosed the sides of the temple. These, it is probable, were not of marble, but made either of the stone of Rome itself, like the cloaca, or possibly from the quarries of Gabii or Alba.

The end of the reign of the last king of Rome Language falls less than twenty years before the battle of lectual chaMarathon. The age of the Greek heroic poetry was Romans. long since past; the evils of the iron-age, of that imperfect civilization, when legal oppression has succeeded to the mere violence of the plunderer and the conqueror, had been bewailed by Hesiod three centuries earlier; Theognis had mourned over the sinking importance of noble birth, and the growing influence of riches; the old aristocracies had been overthrown by single tyrants, and these again had everywhere yielded to the power of aristocracies under a mitigated form, which in some instances admitted a mixture of popular freedom. Alcæus and

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CHAP. Sappho had been dead for more than half a century;

- Simonides was in the vigour of life; and prose his

tory had already been attempted by Hecatæus of Miletus. Of the works of these last indeed only fragments have descended to us; but their entire writings, together with those of many other earlier poets, scattered up and down through a period of more than two hundred years, existed till the general wreck of ancient literature, and furnished abundant monuments of the vigour of the Greek mind, long before the period when history began faithfully to record particular events. But of the Roman mind under the kings, Cicero knew no more than we do. He had seen no works of that period, whether of historians or of poets; he had never heard the name of a single individual whose genius had made it famous, and had preserved its memory together with his own. A certain number of laws ascribed to the kings, and preserved, whether on tables of wood or brass in the Capitol, or in the collection of the jurist Papirius, were almost the sole monuments which could illustrate the spirit of the early ages of the Roman people. But even these, to judge from the few extracts with which we are acquainted, must have been modernized in their language; for the Latin of a law ascribed to Servius Tullius is perfectly intelligible, and not more ancient in its forms than that of the fifth century of Rome; whereas the few genuine monuments of the earliest times, the Hymns of the Salii, and of the Brotherhood of Husbandry, Fratres Arvales, required to be interpreted to the


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Romans of Cicero's time like a foreign language; CHAP. and of the Hymn of the Fratres Arvales we can ourselves judge, for it has been accidentally preserved to our days, and the meaning of nearly half of it is only to be guessed at. This agrees with what Polybius says of the language of the treaty between Rome and Carthage, concluded in the first year of the Commonwealth ; it was so unlike the Latin of his own time, the end of the sixth and beginning of the seventh century of Rome, that even those who understood it best found some things in it which with their best attention they could scarcely explain. Thus, although verses were undoubtedly made and sung in the times of the kings, at funerals and at feasts, in commemoration of the worthy deeds of the noblest of the Romans; and although some of the actual stories of the kings may perhaps have come down from this source, yet it does not appear that they were ever written; and thus they were altered from one generation to another, nor can any one tell at what time they attained to their present shape. Traces of a period much later than that of the kings may be discerned in them; and I see no reason to differ from the opinion of Niebuhr, who thinks that as we now have them they are not earlier than the restoration of the city after the invasion of the Gauls.

If this be so, there rests a veil not to be removed, not only on the particular history of the early Romans, but on that which we should much more desire to know, and which in the case of Greece stands


CHAP. forth in such full light, the nature and power of o their genius; what they thought, what they hated,

and what they loved. Yet although the legends of the early Roman story are neither historical, nor yet coeval with the subjects which they celebrate, still their fame is so great, and their beauty and interest so surpassing, that it would be unpardonable to sacrifice them altogether to the spirit of inquiry and of fact, and to exclude them from the place which they have so long held in Roman history, Nor shall I complain of my readers, if they pass over with indifference these attempts of mine to put together the meagre fragments of our knowledge, and to present them with an outline of the times of the kings, at once incomplete and without spirit; while they read with eager interest the immortal story of the fall of Tarquinius, and the wars with Porsenna and the Latins, as it has been handed down to us in the rich colouring of the old heroic lays of Rome.

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