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are not without some redeeming quality. Poverty itself, though certainly not desirable, may yet be turned to account by the virtuous and wise; for, as Shakspere says:

Sweet are the uses of adversity;
Which, like a toad, ugly and venomous,
Bears yet a precious jewel in her forehead.'

The following propositions are to be illustrated by quotations or allusions :

1. We should encourage a philanthropic feeling. 2. Indulgence in violent passion weakens the reason. 3. When occupied, we are never lonely. 4. A smattering of knowledge is worthless. 5. Defer not a duty which should be done to-day. 6. Violent changes are never lasting. 7. There should be moderation in all things. 8. Everything should be done at its proper time. 9. If you wish to succeed, help yourself. 10. Both good and evil examples are infectious. 11. Be not over familiar. 12. Music has a cheering and civilising influence. 13. Beware of the first steps to vice. 14. Reputation is more precious than wealth. 15. It is easier to preach than to practise. 16. Men are continually deceived by appearances. 17. The things of this world are fleeting and insigni

ficant. 18. There is an end to the greatest misfortunes. 19. Beware of a slanderous tongue. 20. Perseverance will overcome

the greatest difficulties.




Reasoning by analogy is drawing conclusions about one subject from its resemblance to another. This form of argument is rather illustrative than conclusive. It is often employed with good effect to explain our meaning more clearly to the reader; but it is scarcely sufficient to produce conviction. Analogy means a likeness, in a certain respect, between two things, which in other respects may be quite different. There is an analogy between the sovereign of a country and the father of a family. They are both rulers. The one stands in the same relation to his subjects as the other does to his children; but beyond this one point the likeness fails, for in all other respects they may be different from each other. This form of reasoning is frequently adopted in arguing on moral or practical questions; but we should take great care that our analogies be well founded, and that we do not argue concerning two things as if they were alike in all respects, because they resemble each other in one point.

The following paragraph is modelled upon the principle of analogy :


Given proposition .... Perfect equality is impossible.

Obedience is one of those principles by which society is held together. Take it away, and the whole fabric falls to the ground. Without it, none of the business of life could be carried on. There would be neither king nor subject, commander nor soldier, master nor servant. The opinion that there should be no difference of rank in society is about as absurd as to expect that all trees or all mountains should be of the same size, or that all men should be of the same height. No; Providence, for the wisest purposes, has created an infinite variety in external nature, and most undoubtedly intended a similar variety to exist in the moral world.

The propositions in the following list are to form the subjects of short paragraphs, and are to be argued upon as in the above model.

Propositions to be illustrated by Analogy. 1. Human life is brief and transitory. 2. The barbarians invaded the Roman Empire. 3. All that's bright must fade. 4. Nothing could appease his anger. 5. His head was turned by his success. 6. He had lost all his former tastes. 7. The conversation flagged. 8. The cholera appeared in the country. 9. The poor child died of a fever. 10. She was deeply afflicted. 11. The lady was gorgeously dressed. 12. The gentleman has great powers of conversation. 13. He is of a most benevolent disposition. 14. My friend was in high spirits at the news. 15. A precocious genius is seldom lasting. 16. There are limits to human knowledge. 17. The stately ship cleaves the calm waters. 18. Repeated attempts will at length succeed. 19. Treat others as you would be treated yourself. 20. Indolence corrodes the mind.



Another form of reasoning is where the writer refers to, or quotes, a fable in support of his position. Fables are short stories in which animals or inanimate objects carry on the action, and which convey some moral lesson. The principle example before precept'

. is here literally fulfilled, for the example is found in the story of the fable, and the precept in the moral which follows it. In the fable of the Hare and the Tortoise,' we are taught the superiority of steady and determined perseverance over a brilliant but irregular genius; and from the fable of the 'Dog and the Shadow,' we draw a lesson against greediness.


The following model will show how this form of reasoning may be practised:


Given proposition

Listen not to flattery. There is nothing more pernicious to the character than to listen to flattery. It increases our vanity, gives us a false idea of ourselves, and becomes an insurmountable barrier to all improvement. For it is obviously impossible for one who believes all the fulsome adulation poured into his ear, to make any progress either in knowledge or virtue; and he is sure at length to fall a victim to one who will profit by his folly. Had not the crow lent a willing ear to the artful in-sinuations of the fox, she would not have had to mourn, when too late, the consequences of her silly vanity.

Propositions to be supported by reference to Fables. 1. A known liar is never believed. 2. We must take the consequences of disregarding

good advice. 3. Honesty is the best policy. 4. Every one should provide for a future emergency. 5. Industry is the only sure road to wealth. 6. Envy makes ourselves as well as others miserable. 7. It is mean and cowardly to insult the unfortunate. 8. Great boasters are generally great cowards. 9. Persuasion is better than force. 10. Affectation is sure to meet with ridicule. 11. A comfortable competency is preferable to splendid

affluence. 12. We should never despise even the weakest. 13. Innocence falls an easy victim to tyranny. 14. Consider well the consequences of a change. 15. It is no merit to abstain from vices we cannot

practise. 16. Those who claim more than their due will get less

than their due. 17. We should not be over sanguine. 18. Do not attempt a task beyond your strength. 19. Heaven assists the industrious. 20. Be not dazzled by a brilliant appearance.


When we reason from examples, we adduce cases, drawn either from public or private life, in support of the proposition we desire to prove. It is better, when it can be done, to accumulate examples, as the greater the number of them that can be brought to support our

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