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compare ideas resembling each other, not in all, but only in some respects, or in the relation they bear to other ideas. When we use the word “move,' in its original meaning, it signifies to cause some body to change its position; as when we say, the stone was moved. But when we say that such a one was moved to tears by this news,' the meaning of the word is secondary. The change implied in the first sense does not, in the second, refer to external matter, but to internal feeling. There is here an analogy, or a comparison as regards circumstances. The power applied in the first case holds the same relation to the stone that the news received, in the second, holds to the person
affected by it.
Explain in writing the analogies by which the words in the list under Exercise IV. came to be used in a secondary sense; somewhat in the following manner.
The word “leg,' in its original and literal sense, signifies the limb which assists in sustaining the weight of the body. But this term is also applied, in a secondary sense, to those parts of mechanical contrivances which perform a similar office. Thus, we speak of the 'leg' of a chair, table, or stool; and in all these cases, the leg stands in the same relation to the chair, table, &c., as the leg of an animal does to its body.
Words, taken singly, express ideas; but in order to think, we must put ideas together. A thing is derived from to think; it is, in fact, whatever makes us think; and it is pretty clear that, were there no things, we could not think.
Therefore, whenever we think, we must think about some thing or person.
This thing, or person, is called the subject of our thought.
Whatever we say (or write) about the subject is called the predicate (which means what is declared or asserted ').2
But it is necessary to show that this predicate belongs to the subject; and for this purpose the copula is used.3
The word 'copula,' means a link or chain. It is, really, always some part of the verb “to be,' and it is employed to join the predicate to the subject.
These three parts, the subject, copula, and predicate, when put together, form a proposition,' a word which means ' an opinion laid down,' for example :
1.Subject' comes from the Latin subjacere, 'to cast, or put down. The word here means whatever is 'put down,' concerning which an assertion is to be made.
2 • Predicate' is derived from prædicare, 'to speak out, or proclai m
3 Copula, the Latin for a tie or band; from copulare, 'to couple.'
The term 'proposition' is from the Latin proponere ; composed of pro, before, and ponere, to place. It is an affirmation placed before’us, or laid down for our consideration.
subj. cop. pred.
subj. c. pred.
subj. cop. pred. 3. The pen was mended (a proposition).
In the first of these propositions, the subject is grass ;' the predicate green (what is declared of grass); and the copula, is, holds them together.
In the second, the dog is the subject; and barks is both the copula and the predicate; for it not only asserts something of the dog, but also shows that he exists or 'is.'
In the third, the pen is the subject; was the copula ; and mended the predicate.
Propositions are of three kinds : 1. Enunciative. 2. Active, and 3. Passive.
1. A proposition is enunciative when the predicate expresses the mere state or condition of the subject.
2. A proposition is active when the subject is represented as doing something.
3. A proposition is passive when the subject is represented as acted on, or having something done to it.
Of the above propositions, 'grass is green' is an enunciative form: it simply declares that the subject (grass) is in a certain condition expressed by the predicate (green); but it does not assert that the subject either acts or is acted on.
The second is an active form of proposition ; for it declares that the subject (the dog) does something (barks).
The third is a passive form : it shows that the sub
ject (the pen) received an action, or had something done to it (mended).
State to which of these three forms the following propositions belong.
The boy is attentive-The chair was broken-He writes—The girl is clever—The affair was settled — This is an excellent work—I am much pleased–The man refused to help us—
—She is in a hurry-Cæsar was an illustrious general—The woman deserves great praise—You have made a mistake — The passage was made in ten days—The general marched against the enemy-She has great discretion—The account was published—Leonidas was a hero—The child cries This affair is of no importance-This writer achieved a vast reputation—Justice is the queen of virtues-Louis XII. was called the father of his people—All were invited to subscribe The best portion of this work is the introduction—The colouring is gaudy–His style is wonderfully concise—Patriotism is the source of his inspiration—This picture of emigrant life is graphic and impressive—The book is well executed, and to younger readers we can recommend it as a work which they will be glad to add to their libraries.
Write eighteen propositions, consisting only of their three parts ; viz., the subject, copula, and predicate : six of them to be enunciative, six active, and six passive, like the following examples :
Enunciative. The paintings are beautiful.
His mother will be angry. This garden is large.
My aunt was kind. The streets are wet.
The night is dark.
Subjects of propositions often consist of several words, as 'To rise early is conducive to health.' Here the subject is not to rise,' but to rise early.'
Use the following expressions as subjects of propositions.
To be just in all our dealings—To compose elegantly - The habit of writing-To combat his argumentsWalking before breakfast—Sketching from Nature—To play without quarrelling—To write a foreign language accurately—A friend of mineOne of the noblest of Christian virtues-All the ship's guns—The companions of our childhood—Some of his adherents This glorious news—Very accurate experiments-King John of France—The habit of reading by candle-light -Collecting antiquities—These sensible remarksPersons born deaf-Many well-known specimens of this sort of literature—The best way to succeed.