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-Providentially—In the same way–By these means In this manner— Without doubt— Without difficulty - Universally-Without delay.



Complements of the Object.1 Use the following complements of the object in written propositions.

To obtain a view of the palace-Large manufactories - Many works on the subject — To improve his mind --Every member of the family-The enemy's forces

- This difficult question — Many histories—A large library-To undertake the expedition-His father's long letter - The cause of the clergy – The power of steam-The hand of Providence-To lose no timeA large fortune— The first page of that book, &c.


Complements of the Agent.? The following complements of the agent are to be used in written propositions, as in the above exercises.

By the violence of the wind-By my uncle's manservant- By the executors of the estate - By four beautiful horses—By the speaker-By my youngest sister- -By a celebrated artist—By all the clerks—By most of the inhabitants—By the cattle—By the best

As the complement of the object can be used only after the active form, all the propositions of this exercise must be active.

2 All the propositions in Exercise XVII. must be passive.

authors—By a skilful workman-By the council of the nation-By the railway directors—By a large

a Newfoundland dog-By my cousin, &c.


Complements of the Person. Use the following complements of the person in written propositions.

To my friend-For the workmen—His brother, To his agent-All his supporters— The public, The school-boys -- For the master -- The patient- To the


The traveller - The weary soldier-For the stranger— To his children — For himself—To the admiral of the Channel fleet-The landlord-To his fellow-townsmen—To all the shopkeepers in the town -To his father, &c.


Add to the following given propositions, complements of time, place, person, or object.

Example. (comp. time.) subject.

cop. pred.

comp. per. At that moment, the captain commanded (his men)

comp. object. (to charge the enemy).

The king ordered— The mother told— The master desired—My friend bought-He wished—His daughter

* The complement of the person (receiving) is mostly used after verbs signifying to give or to tell: as, offer, present, send, inform, mention, write, buy, purchase, relate, &c.

related - His brother informed — The prince conferred — The magistrate spoke — The witness gave— The gentleman sent — They mentioned — The servant brought—The carrier took — The man presentedMy sister will write — The general commanded, &c.


To the following given propositions add complements of circumstance, manner, place, or agent, &c.

Example. complement of circumstance. subject. cop. (In this disturbed state of affairs,) the coasts were comp. man. predic.

complement of place. (strictly) guarded in every part of the island)

complement agent. (by large bodies of soldiery).


A messenger was despatched - The proclamation was read — The ships were towed — Bread is sold — A letter will be sent- A communication was made-A

was preached — The way was cleared — The doctor was consulted—A fire was lighted— The tree was felled — The Exhibition was opened— The prisoner was locked up-The dinner was served

- Coals are bought— The pen was mended — The country was inundated–The country was disturbed—The room will be papered—Some visitors were announced, &c.


Propositions used as Complements. Propositions themselves are often used as complements. In this view, they may be considered as 1. Introductory; 2. Determinative; and 3. Explanatory.


comp. proposition. 1. After he had examined the witnesses,

principal proposition. THE MAGISTRATE REMANDED the prisoner for a week. principal prop.

comp. prop. 2. He showed me the books you spoke of.

prin complementary proposition. 3. The sun, which had been obscured during the

proposition whole morning, now FORTH with unusual splendour.


Explanation. In the first of the above sentences, the leading proposition is the magistrate remanded ;' and the complementary proposition, introductory to the principal, is 'he had examined.'

In the second sentence, the proposition you spoke of determines the books in question, and is therefore called determinative.

In the third, the sun burst forth ’ is the principal ; and 'which had been obscured,' inserted between its


parts, explains something connected with the other proposition.

EXERCISE XXI. The learner is required to point out the principal and the complementary propositions in the following sentences; also, to distinguish between the determinative and the explanatory forms in each of them.


Forms of Sentences. 1. Soon after we arrived here, a report was spread that the duke and his suite were daily expected.

2. No one can conceive with what pleasure I revisited these scenes.

3. The district where most of their town-houses stood lies between the city and the regions which are now considered as fashionable.

4. When the lands of the vanquished people were at length divided, the nobles despised the subjects too much to court their assistance in periods of danger.

5. How far this change ought to be lamented is not now a point of great dispute.

6. The Roman laws, though corrupted, were, in general, the best that human wisdom had framed.

7. The Roman arts and literature, though they had greatly declined, were still superior to anything found among rude nations.

8. The first London Coffee-house was set up, in the time of the Commonwealth, by a Turkey merchant, who had acquired among the Mahometans a taste for their favourite beverage.

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