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Frigoribus parto agricolae plerumque fruuntur,
Mutuaque inter se laeti convivia curant,

Invitat genialis hiems curasque resolvit,' and see Dict. Biog. and Myth. s. v. Genius.

42. Actos. The oxen which have been driven off by robbers. Compare Livy 1. 4.

43. Audiěrunt. With regard to the quantity of the penultimate syllable in this and similar words, see · Manual of Latin Prosody,' p. 103.

Pater editus. The meaning of “editus,' as Gierig correctly observes, is here revealed' or disclosed, not as Burmann would have it, 'publicly proclaimed and known by all.'

15.

LVPERCALIA.

FAS. II. 267.

FAUNUS was an ancient Latin rural deity, who haunted woods and wilds, the object of peculiar adoration to the shepherd and husbandman!. When foreign superstitions became rife, he was confounded with the Arcadian Pan. Observe also, that while Faunus was recognised as an individual, he gave a name to a whole class of deities who were called 'Fauni ?' and bore a strong resemblance to the ‘Satyri’ of Grecian mythology, with whom they are generally identified in the works of the poets. Faunus was not considered by the Romans as a purely beneficent power, but as a wayward and tricky spirit, who loved to sport with the weakness and fears of men.

To him and to his train were attributed all strange sights and sounds which terrify the lonely wayfarer, spectral forms appearing under changing shapes, frightful dreams and nightmares,

'the thousand fantasies
Of calling shapes, and beckoning shadows dire,
And aery tongues that syllable men's names
On sands, and shores, and desert wildernesses 3.

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1 In the writers of the Augustan age, Faunus can scarcely be distinguished from Silvanus, concerning whom see introduction to 14.

2 As there were · Fauni,' so there were 'Silvani,' and in like manner among the Greeks, •Panes' and 'Sileni.'

3 See Dionys. Hal. 5. 16, Plin. H. N. 25. 4, Livy 5. 50, Augustin.

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'Faunus' and his sister 'Fauna' were possessed of prophetic powers also, and in this capacity were known by the epithets • Fatuus' and 'Fatua.' At an early period there were two oracles of this god situated in sacred groves, one near Tibur at the sources of the Albunea, the other on the Aventine. The former with its ceremonies has been fully described by Virgil, the latter by Ovid),

The festival of Faunus commenced on the Ides of February, and on the 15th the solemnities of the ‘Lupercalia' were celebrated, which, in the time of Ovid, were believed to appertain to the same divinity. On the last-mentioned day a body of priests styled 'Luperci,' divided into two colleges, distinguished as 'Quinctilii' and ' Fabii ?,' assembled at the ‘Lupercal,' a sacred inclosure on the Palatine, where a sacrifice of goats and dogs was offered up. The Luperci then stripped themselves naked, threw the goat-skins 3 over their shoulders 4, and brandishing in their hands thongs cut from the hides, ran through the most frequented streets of the city smiting all whom they encountered", especially married women, who eagerly offered themselves to receive the lash, since it was supposed to confer fertility. Thus Ov. Fast. 2. 425

“Nupta, quid expectas ? non tu pollentibus herbis,

Nec prece, nec magico carmine mater eris.
Excipe fecundae patienter verbera dextrae:

lam socer optati nomen habebit avi,'

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De Civ. Dei 15. 23, Serv. on Virg. Ae. 6. 766. As god of Nightmares he was styled • Incubus ;' another title borne by him was • Inuus, &c.

Virg. Ae. 7. 85, Ov. Fast. 4. 649. ? Or . Quinctiliani' and · Fabiani,' see Festus in verbb. Julius Caesar added a third college called after himself. See Suet. Jul. 76, Dio 44. 6.

3 The skin was called • Februus' (Serv. Virg. Ae. 8. 343), which shows that the sacrifice was of a purificatory nature. See notes on 19.

4. Hic exsultantes Salios, nudosque Lupercos' Virg. Aen. 8. 663.

• Marc Antony, when consul, did not scruple to exhibit himself in this guise, and his appearance afforded an excellent theme for the satire of Cicero (Philipp. 2. 34). It was on this occasion that he offered a kingly crown' to Caesar.

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and Juv. S. 2. 140

.... steriles moriuntur, et illis Turgida non prodest condita pyxide Lyde

Nec prodest agili palmas praebere Luperco.' In the two following extracts Ovid gives a description of these rites, and endeavours, in various ways, to explain their origin. He then proceeds to enquire into the etymology of the word 'Lupercal,' and first derives it from ‘Lupus,' supposing the den of the wolf who suckled Romulus and Remus to have been situated at this spot, which leads him to repeat the legend of the exposure of the twins. As a second derivation, we are told that we may consider ‘Lupercus' a translation of Aukasos, an ephithet of Pan, to whom the Aukalov opos, or Wolf Mountain in Arcadia, was sacred. This was the Greek version of the matter, and commonly current among the Romans in the age of Virgil, as we see from Ae. 8. 342

'Hic lucum ingentem, quem Romulus acer Asylum
Rettulit, et gelida monstrat sub rupe Lupercal,

Parrhasio dictum Panis de more Lycaeil. Some curious details are given by Dionysius, who tells us that one of the first acts of the colony under Evander was to consecrate a shrine to Lycean Pan, the most ancient and honoured of the Arcadian deities,'having found out a fitting spot which the Romans call “ Lupercalium,” but we (the Greeks) would name “Lyceum.” The ground in every direction about the sacred inclosure being now covered with buildings, it has become difficult to form an idea of the original aspect of the place. But there was in ancient times, as we are told, a great cave under the hill, covered over by a dense thicket, deep springs welled from beneath the rocks, while the cliffs all round were shaded by numerous tall trees. Having there erected an altar to the god, they performed, in the manner of their country, a sacrifice which is still offered by the Romans in the month of February, after the winter

The note of Servius is worth reading.

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solstice, the ancient ceremonies being performed without change.'

There can be little doubt, however, that these derivations and explanations are all equally futile, for we find distinct traces of an ancient Latin god and goddess, ‘Lupercus' and ‘Luperca,' of whom the latter is said to be the very wolf who suckled the twins raised to the rank of a deity 2. Hence the Luperci' would be their priests, the ‘Lupercal' their shrine, the ‘Lupercalia’ their proper festival. Their worship was afterwards mixed up with that of Faunus, who in his turn was identified with Pan, thus forming one of those confused combinations so frequent in the religion of the later Romans 3.

1. Tertia post Idus. The "Faunalia' commenced on the Ides of February. See 36.

2. Fauni...bicornis. Below line 25 we have ‘Cornipedi Fauno.' The Fauns, however, are frequently represented in ancient works of art without the goat hoof, and are often distinguished merely by a short tail.

Eunt, i. e. 'proceed.' We have seen in the Introduction that the Lupercalia were considered as forming part of the festival of Faunus.

3. Pierides. See note on 5. 26.

5. Pan was the shepherd-god of the pastoral Arcadians, and his worship was for a long period confined to that region 4. When Phidippides, an Athenian courier, was traversing Mount Parthenius, above Tegea, a short time before the battle of Marathon, he was encountered by the deity, who, calling upon him by name with a loud voice, commanded him to ask the

1 We ought not to omit a very choice one preserved by Quinctilian, 1. 5, who tells us that some persons maintained that • Lupercal' was a triple compound of the words ó luere per capram.'

? See Justin 43. 1, Varro ap. Arnob. 4. 3, Lactant. 1. 20, Hartung. 2. p. 176.

3 There were ‘Faunalia' in December also, so that possibly Faunus may originally have had no connection with the festivals in February. See Horace, Ode to Faunus, Od. 3. 18

*Ludit herboso pecus omne campo=Quum tibi Nonae redeunt

Decembres,
estus in pratis vacat

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bove pagus.' 4 Herodotus, 2. 145, says that Hercules, Dionysus, and Pan were reckoned among the Greeks the most recent of the gods.

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Athenians why they paid no respect to a power who had ever been friendly to them, and was still willing to promote their welfare. In consequence of this remonstrance, after the defeat of the Persians, a temple was dedicated to Pan beneath the Acropolis, and his favour was propitiated by annual sacrifices and torch races!. He is not mentioned either by Homer or Hesiod, but in the Homeric Hymns 2 Hermes is said to have been enamoured of the nymph Dryops, who

Bore him a son monstrous to look upon:
Two-horned, goat-footed, noisy, full of glee.
The nurse sprung up and fleeing left the babe,
For she was filled with terror when she saw

His visage grim with shaggy hair o'ergrown.' Hermes, however, proud of his boy, wrapped him up in the skin of a mountain-hare and carried him to the celestial abodes, where he was welcomed with delight by the immortals, especially by Dionysus, and received the name of Pan, because he pleased all.

Πάνα δέ μιν καλέεσκον, ότι φρένα πάσιν έτερψε. According to other more recent authorities, he was the son of Zeus and Thymbris, of Zeus and Callisto, of Penelope and Hermes transformed into a goat, of Penelope and all her suitors, &c.3 The name (which is probably derived from Tráw, “to tend flocks,' 'to feed') evidently suggested the last of these genealogies, and led later writers 4 to assert that this god was a symbol of the Universe or of Universal nature, an idea to which Milton alludes in the lines,

while Universal Pan,
Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance,

Led on the eternal Spring'.. All wild voices heard echoing through the hills, strange and unearthly sounds of every description, and sudden inexplicable alarms 5 were attributed to Pan, and hence the terms Ilaveia, deiua Ilavikov, ‘Panici terrores,' &c., employed by the Greek and Roman writers, from whom the word panic has been adopted in our language 6.

1 Herod. 6. 105.

2 Hymn 17. 3 Apollod. 1. 4, 1, Schol. Theocrit. 1. 3. See also Hemsterh. ad Lucian. t. I. p. 270.

4 Hymn. Orphic. 10.
5 See Eurip. Rhes. 36, and Schol. and Valer. Flacc. 3. 46.

Compare remarks on Faunus in the introduction to this Extract.

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