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Frankincense, however, was generally believed to grow exclusively in the land of the Sabaeans in Arabia Felix, ‘Tura, praeter Arabiam, nullis, ac ne Arabiae quidem universae,' &c. Plin. H. N. 12. 14.
Costum. The plant which yielded this perfume, and the substance itself, are alike unknown. Those curious in these matters will find the subject discussed in doctor Vincent's Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients. Pliny H. N. 12. 12, gives an account of 'Costum' and 'Nardus,' which, he says, were held in high estimation among the Indians; the former he describes as a root, the latter as a leaf which formed the principal ingredient in Roman ‘Unguenta.'
8. Croci. See note on 4. 22.
9. Herbis... Sabinis. The herb called Bpáov by the Greeks, supposed to be the same as our savin. Pliny H. N. 24. 11 'Herba Sabina brathy appellata a Graecis....
.... a multis in suffitus pro ture adsumitur.' So the author of the Culex, 403
'Herbaque turis opes priscis imitata Sabina.' Compare also Fast. 4. 741
‘Vre mares oleas, taedamque, herbasque Sabinas,
Et crepet in mediis laurus adusta focis.' 10. The laurel was thrown into the sacred fire, both in ordinary sacrifices and in magical incantations, and omens were drawn from the crackling sound emitted by the leaves. So Prop. 2. 28, 35
'Deficiunt magico torti sub carmine rhombi,
Et tacet extincto laurus adusta foco,' and Virgil's sorceress, E. 8. 83 'Daphnis me malus urit, ego hanc in Daphnide laurum.'
15. Compare Varro R. R. 2. 4 'A suillo genere pecoris immolandi initium primum sumptum videtur. Cuius vestigia quod initiis Cereris porci immolantur et quod initiis pacis, foedus cum feritur, porcus occiditur,' &c.
16. Vlta suas...opes, 'in vengeance for the injury inflicted on her possessions. Vlciscor’ signifies,
i. 'To take vengeance upon,' followed by the accusative of the object punished.
ii. “To take vengeance for, followed by the accusative of
the object or guilt, on account of which punishment is inAicted.
iii. “To take vengeance for,' followed by the accusative of the object on account of whose wrongs punishment is inflicted. (i) Odi hominem et odero: utinam ulcisci possem! sed
ulciscentur illum mores sui’ Cic. Ep. Att. 9. 12. (ii) “Si istius nefarium scelus Lampsaceni ulti vi manuque
essent' Cic. Verr. Act. 2. I, 27. (iii) ‘Hoc opus, haec pietas, haec prima elementa fuerunt Caesaris, ulcisci iusta per arma patrem'
Ov. Fast. 3. 709. 23, 24. This couplet is translated by Ovid from a Greek epigram, in which a vine thus addresses its persecutor,
Κήν με φάγης επί ρίζαν, όμως έτι καρποφορήσω
"Οσσον επισπεύσαί σοι, τράγε, θυoμένω. 25. Noxae...deditus, 'given over to punishment on account of guilt,' is a technical legal phrase. Thus Festus, ‘Cum lex iubet noxae dedere, pro peccato dedi iubet.'
29. Ovid ought now to assign the reason why the ox was offered in sacrifice. Instead of doing this he merely recounts the circumstances under which it was first slain, and thus takes occasion to narrate the story of Aristaeus and his bees, which the student will find detailed more fully and in a most exquisite vein of poetry by Virgil, G. 4. 280-558.
Aristaeus was the son of Apollo and the nymph Cyrene. Once upon a time, the Cyclades being scourged by excessive drought and famine, he was invited to visit Cea, and taught the inhabitants how they might appease the wrath of Sirius : upon which the Etesian winds began to blow, and by their coolness restored fertility to the land. Aristaeus was worshipped by the islanders under the titles of Iupiter Aristaeus' and 'Apollo Nomius.' He is spoken of by Virgil as connected with Thessaly and Arcadia, as well as Cea:
Pastor Aristaeus fugiens Peneia Tempe
G. 4. 317. et cultor nemorum cui pinguia Ceae Ter centum nivei tondent dumeta iuvenci’ G. I. 14. *Tempus et Arcadii memoranda inventa magistri Pandere'...
G. 4. 283. Those who wish to examine more particularly into the history
of Aristaeus will find references below to the principal authorities 1.
31. Caerula...genetrix. Cyrene was a water-nymph, the daughter (or granddaughter) of the river Peneus. Her chamber beneath the sources of the stream is described by Virg. G. 4. 333.
33. The account given here and by Virgil of the prophetic sea-god Proteus, the guardian of the marine herds of Poseidon, is borrowed from the fourth book of the Odyssey, where Menelaus being detained by contrary winds in the island of Pharos, is instructed by Eidothea, the daughter of Proteus, how her sire may be caught and compelled to point out the means of escape. 39. Transformis, 'changing his shape. The word is
' uncommon, but is found again in Met. 8. 871
'Ast ubi habere suam transformia corpora sentit.' Adulterare is 'to corrupt,' 'to falsify,' thus Cic. de Amicit. “Simulatio tollit iudicium veri, idque adulterat. So adulterini nummi,''counterfeit money;' adulterinae claves,' 'false keys;' adulteratum laser,"silphium debased by admixture of foreign substances,' &c.
Verbena, although usually considered the same with the herb we call vervain, seems to have been frequently used by the ancients in a wider sense to denote the leaves and branches of any sacred tree or shrub, such as the laurel, myrtle, olive, rosemary, or even grass, when it grew within a holy inclosure and was applied to holy purposes. Thus Servius on Virg. Ae.
Verbena proprie est herba sacra, ros marinus, ut multi volunt, id est leßavoris, sumpta de loco sacro Capitolii, qua coronabantur Fetiales et Pater Patratus foedera facturi vel bella indicturi. Abusive tamen verbenas iam vocamus omnes frondes sacratas, ut est laurus, oliva vel myrtus. Terentius 2 6" Ex ara hinc sume verbenas," nam myrtum fuisse Menander testatur, de quo Terentius transtulit 3.'
Verbena was employed, as intimated above, by the Romans, in ratifying treaties, and those plants which grew within the citadel were selected for this purpose. Thus in Livy 1. 24, where we find the history of the league concluded with the
Pind. Pyth. 9. 104, Schol. on Theocrit. 5. 53, Apollon. Rhod. 2. 500 ; 4. 1132, and his scholiast, Diodor. Sicul. 4. 81, Justin. 13. 7.
2 Andr. 4. 3, 2.
I 2. I 20
Albans after the memorable contest of the Horatii and Curiatii:
'Foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodem modo omnia fiunt, tum ita factum accepimus nec ullius vetustior foederis memoria est, fetialis regem Tullum ita rogavit “iubesne me, rex, cum patre patrato populi Albani foedus ferire ?” iubente rege “ sagmina" inquit “te, rex, posco, rex ait “puram tollito,” fetialis ex arce graminis herbam puram attulit.. fetialis erat M. Valerius ; patrem patratum Sp. Fusium fecit, verbena caput capillosque tangens,' &c.
Again in Lib. 30. 43, when heralds were despatched to Africa after the battle of Zama, we read,
Fetiales cum in Africam ad foedus feriendum ire iuberentur, ipsis postulantibus senatus consultum in haec verba factum est, ut privos lapides silices privasque verbenas secum ferrent: uti praetor Romanus his imperaret ut foedus ferirent, illi praetorem sagmina poscerent. Herbae id genus ex arce sumptum dari fetialibus solet.' Festus
Sagmina vocantur verbenae, id est, herbae purae.' We may conclude with the words of Pliny, H. N. 22. 2
'Sagmina in remediis publicis fuere et in sacris legationibusque Verbenae. Certe utroque nomine idem significatur, hoc est, gramen ex arce cum sua terra evulsum: ac semper et legati et cum ad hostes, clarigatumque mitterentur, id est, res raptas clare repetitum, unus utique Verbenarius vocabatur.'
51. Hyperiona. The Sun. Some confusion prevails with regard to this word among the ancients. Observe,
i. Hyperion, útreplov, is generally employed by Homer merely as an epithet of the Sun, in the sense ascending on high,' or 'rolling above,' as in Il. 8. 480
...ούτ' αυγής υπερίονος 'Ηελίοιο = τέρποντ’ ούτ' ανέμοισι ... and Il. 19. 398
Τεύχεσι παμφαίνων, ώστ’ ηλέκτωρ υπερίων.
οι μεν δυσομένου υπερίονος, οι δ' ανιόντος. Hence Ovid in the line before us, in Met. 15. 406 and 407, quoted p. 134, and Met. 8. 564
Iamque duas lucis partes Hyperione menso,'
Similarly in Odyss. 1. 8; 12. 133, 263, 346, 374.
considers Hyperion as 'The Sun,' and so also Stat. S. 4. 4,
ii. In one passage only of Homer, if the line be genuine, Helios (Sol) is described as the son of Hyperion (‘Ytteplovidns'), Odyss. 12. 176
'Ηελίου τ' αυγή, Υπεριονίδαο άνακτος. In Hesiod?, again, Hyperion is one of the Titans 3 who wedded his sister Theia, by whom he had three children, Helios (Sol), Selene (Luna), Eos (Aurora); and subsequent writers 4, for the most part, adopt this genealogy. Even Ovid, although in the passages given above he considers Hyperion as the Sun, yet in another place, taking Hesiod as his guide, he addresses the Sun as 'Hyperione nate,' Met. 4. 192
Quid nunc, Hyperione nate, Forma, calorque tibi, radiataque lumina prosunt?' and gives the title of Hyperionis to Aurora, Fast. 5. 159
Postera cum roseam pulsis Hyperionis astris
In matutinis lampada tollit equis.'
iii. Hyperion being recognised as the Sun, and Hyperion being also, according to other authorities, one of the Titans, the word “Titan' is employed by the poets to denote the Sun. Thus Virg. Aen. 4. 118
'In nemus ire parant, ubi primos crastinus ortus
Extulerit Titan, radiisque retexerit orbem,' and Ovid. Fast. 1. 617
Respiciet Titan actas ubi tertius Idus,' i. e. on the third day after the Ides.
In consequence of this connection, Circe, daughter of Helios (Sol), is termed 'Titanis' and 'Titania,' Colchis the kingdom
1 The hypothesis advanced by some scholars that ineplov, wherever it occurs in Homer, ought to be considered as a contraction for 'T tepuoviar (i.e. Son of Hyperion), seems altogether untenable.
Theog. 134. 371. 1011. 3 See note on 25. II. So Hymn. Cer. 25. 74. See also Apollod. 1. I, 3; 1. 2, 2. In the Homeric Hymn (31) to Helios, he is addressed as the offspring of Hyperion and his sister Euryphaessa.
4 Festus remarks the confusion
• Hyperionem alii patrem solis, alii ipsum, quod eat supra terras, ita appellatum putabant.'