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1. Geniale, “merry,' jovial.' See Biog. Dict. art. "Genius.'

2. Advena Tibri. The Tiber is called a stranger, because it was considered an Etrurian river. Thus Virg. G. 1. 498

'Di patrii Indigetes, et Romule, Vestaque mater,

Quae Tuscum Tiberim et Romana palatia servas,' and again Aen. 2. 781

' Et terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius, arva

Inter opima virum, leni fluit agmine Tibris,' to which add Hor. Od. 3. 7, 27

Nec quisquam citus aeque=Tusco denatat alveo.' 4. Cum pare quisque sua, each with his mate.'

6. Such leafy huts were called 'umbrae,' as we learn from Festus,

Vmbrae vocabantur Neptunalibus casae frondeae pro tabernaculis.'

9, 10. They pray that their years may equal the number of cyathi' which they quaff, and they fail not to empty them, ad numerum,' i.e. up to the number of years desired; they fail not to drink off as many .cyathi' as they desire to

The cyathus was not, as it is often called, 'a drinkingcup, but a small vessel containing about one-third of a gill

, used for measuring out the wine into the 'poculum,' 'crater,'

calix,' or whatever the goblet might be called, in which it was mixed with water, and out of which the draught was drained.

Hence, when we consider that the ancient wines were much weaker than those which we are in the habit of drinking, and were, moreover, usually diluted, there is nothing very extravagant in the exclamation of Horace, Od. 3. 8, 13

‘Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici = Sospitis centum'.... Compare also Od. 3. 19, 9 'Da Lunae propere novae,=Da Noctis mediae, da, puer,

auguris Muraenae : tribus aut novem=Miscentur cyathis pocula

commodis. Qui Musas amat impares=Ternos ter cyathos adtonitus

petet Vates'.

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live years.

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It was common, when drinking the health of a friend, to pour into the poculum a cyathus of wine for every letter in his name. Martial, II. 37, 7, thus proposes the health of Caius Julius Proculus, Quincunces, et sex cyathos, bessemque bibamus,

Caius ut fiat, Iulius, et Proculus ;' i.e. let us drink five, and six, and eight cyathi, to make up the letters in the name of Caius Julius Proculus. Ch. id. 8. 51, 21 seqq.

11. Nestor, the aged counsellor of the Grecian host, had lived throughout three generations of men. Odyss. 3. 245

Tρίς γάρ δή μίν φασιν ανάξασθαι γένε' ανδρών, whence he was termed “trisaeclisenex' by Laevius (or Naevius,)' and in Horace Od. 2. 9, 13, we read “At non ter aevo functus amabilem = Ploravit omnes Anti

lochum senex Annos.' 12. Sibylla 2. The word Eißulla is usually considered 3 as a compound of olós, a dialectic form of deòs (or, perhaps, Alós,) and Boulń, and will thus signify one who declares the counsel of the gods.' Some authors 4 consider this appellation as common to all inspired women; an opinion at variance with the fact, that those who have written upon the subject usually speak of the number of Sibyls as definite 5; and Pausanias 6 specifies certain prophetesses who did not receive any such title. The most important passage in the works of the ancients now extant, with regard to Sibyls, is a quotation from Varro, given by the Latin Father Lactantius, in the first book of his Divine Institutions. According to the statement of the most learned of the Romans there were ten Sibyls, viz.,


1 See Aul. Gell. 19.7.

2 The principal authorities for the remarks which follow, are Varro ap. Lactant. 1. 6, Pausan. 10. 12, Aelian. V. H. 12. 35, Servius on Virg. Ae. 3. 444, 445; 6. 36, 72, 321. Suidas, as above, and Salmasius, Ex. Pliny p. 52.

3 Salmasius objects to this derivation, but it is more reasonable than the one proposed by himself.

e. g. Varro and Serv. Virg. Ae. 3. 445. 5 Thus Varro says that there were ten; Pausanias and Aelian recognise four; others assign different numbers.

10. I 2.



1. Persica. 2. Libyssa. 3. Delphica. 4. Cumaea (of Cumae in Italy). 5. Erythraea, who is said to have prophesied to the Greeks that Troy would fall, and that Homer would write falsehoods. 6. Samia. 7. Cumana', by name Amalthea, whom others call Herophile or Demophile, who brought the books to Tarquinius. 8. Hellespontica, born in the Trojan territory, in the village of Marpessus ?, near the town of Gergithium, who is said to have lived in the times of Solon and Cyrus. 9. Phrygia, who prophesied at Ancyra. 10. Tiburs, by name Albunea, worshipped at Tibur, as a goddess, on the banks of the Anio, in whose stream her image is said to have been found grasping a book.--So Varro.-Besides these, we hear of a Hebrew, a Chaldaean, a Babylonian, an Egyptian, a Sardian Sibyl, and some others.

This long catalogue may, however, be considerably curtailed. In the first place, it seems certain that the Cumaea, the Cumana, the Erythraea, and the Hellespontica, were one and the same. Aristotle (in admirandis) speaks of a subterranean cavern shown at Cumae, in Italy, the abode of the prophetic Sibyl, who lived to a great age, being a native of Erythrae. Servius 3 tells how Apollo promised to the Erythraean Sibyl that she should live as many years as there were grains in a handful of sand, provided that she quitted Erythrae and never again beheld her native soil. But she forgot to ask for an extension of the period of youth, and when, on retiring to Cumae, she became worn out and decrepit, and yet could not die, her former fellow-citizens sent to her in pity a letter sealed with the chalk of Erythrae: so soon as she looked on this she expired. The same legend is partially narrated by Ovid. Met. 14. 130 seqq.

iam mihi saecula septem
Acta vides: superest numeros ut pulveris aequem

Ter centum messes, ter centum musta videre.' The identity of the Erythraea and the Cumaea is thus established, and that of the Cumaea (Italian) and Cumana (Aeolian) needs almost no proof, for, with the exception of Varro, they are distinguished from each other by scarcely any ancient authority. Cumae, in Italy, was said to have been partly colonized from Cyme (Kúun), in Aeolis, and the adjectives 'Cumaea' and 'Cumana are used by the poets indifferently, while Erythrae being on the borders of Aeolis, 1 That is, of Cyme (Kúun) in Aeolis. 2 Others read · Mermessus.'

* Virg. Ae. 6. 321.


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the confusion of epithets becomes easily explained. But, according to the accounts preserved by Pausanias, the Erythraea was the same with the Samia and the Delphica, and manifestly with the Hellespontica also; and, in all probability, with the Phrygia, and the Sardiana of Aelian.

Again, Suidas informs us that the Chaldaean Sibyl was by some called the Hebrew, and by others the Persian, while Pausanias affirms that the Hebrew Sibyl was by some called the Babylonian, and by others the Egyptian. According to these views, the list of Varro will be thus reduced. (1.) Persica; otherwise Hebraea-Chaldaea-Babylonia

Egyptia: (2.) Cumaea; otherwise Cumana–Erythraea-Samia

Delphica—Hellespontica-(and probably, Phrygia

Sardiana). (3.) Libyssa. (4.) Tiburs. Nay, the process might be pushed still further, for Justin Martyr assures us that the Cumaean and Babylonian Sibyls were the same; and Lactantius, that the Erythraean declared, in the preface to her oracles, that she was born at Babylon; hence, we might conclude that (1) and (2) were identical, and we should thus have one Sibyl for Asia, one for Africa, and one for Europe.

It was generally believed among the Romans, that the Cumaean Sibyl was the authoress of their prophetic books', and Varro supposes that she in person offered them to King Tarquin 2. If the conclusion at which we arrived above is correct, this will not involve any contradiction to the statement, which he appears to have made elsewhere 3, that they were composed by the Erythraean. That they were supposed to be in some way derived from Erythrae, seems certain from the circumstance already mentioned, that the ambassadors, sent forth after their destruction for the purpose of recovering what had been lost, were specially enjoined to visit Erythrae.

The names of these ladies are involved in almost hopeless confusion. The most outstanding is Herophile, which, according to Pausanias, was the appellation of the oldest of

1 Serv. Virg. Ae. 6. 36.

? Varro, in Lactantius, expressly affirms that the Cumana brought the books to Tarquin.

3 Servius twice (Ae. 6. 36, & 72) states that Varro attributed them to the Frythraea.

all the Sibyls?. He adds that there was a second Herophile, namely, the Erythraean Sibyl, and in this he is followed by Suidas. Herophile, in Eusebius?, is the Samian; in Solinus, the Delphian 3: in Varro, the Cumana, which is an additional argument to prove that these are all the same 4. Varro, however, gives two other names for the Cumana, Amalthea and Demophile. The Cumaea, again, is, by Virgil, called Deiphobe; by Servius, Phemonoë 5; by Hyperochus himself, a native of Cumae, Demo 6. In Suidas, the Samian is Phyto, the Cumana both Amalthea and Herophile.

The Hebrew, Chaldaean, or Persian Sibyl is generally named Sabeé, or Sambethé, the daughter of Berosus and Erymanthe.

We may conclude this dissertation with the words of Salmasius, one of the most learned men that ever lived:

“Nihil est quod aeque diverse prodiderint antiqui scriptores, quam Sibyllarum aetatem, patriam, nomina.'

11, 12. Compare the couplet with Ov. E. ex P. 2. 8, 41, where the exile, when imploring the compassion of Tiberius, prays "Sic pater in Pylios, Cumaeos mater in annos

Vivant: et possis filius esse diu.' 14. Et iactant, i. e. they adapt their gesticulations to the words which they repeat. The Italians have in all ages possessed, in an eminent degree, the power of imparting life and feeling to dumb signs: the development of this faculty constituted the charm of the ancient pantomime, and forms the chief attraction of the modern ballet.

15. Posito...cratere. The drinking cup being laid aside, i. e. quitting their carousal in order to join in the dance. The words can scarcely mean, 'A cup of wine being placed on the altar as an offering, they proceed to join in the sacred dance,' although some commentators endeavour to wring this out of them.

1 According to the Greeks the daughter of Jupiter and Lamia, the daughter of Neptune. See Pausan.

2 Chron. Olymp. 16. 3 The editions of Solinus give · Erythraea, but Salmasius says that Delphica' is in the MSS. * Herophile is mentioned by Clem. Alex. Strom, 1, 304, 323.

Virg. Ae. 3. 445—on 6. 36 he calls her, along with Virgil, Deiphobe. * See Pausanias. Hyperochus considered Demo different from and later than the Erythraean Herophile.


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