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and Libum, which are manifestly connected with the verb · Libare' (Reißw).

23. Succis dulcibus. It was the custom to pour honey over the ‘libum,' as we see below, vv. 49, 50, and Tibull. 1. 7, 54

Liba et Mopsopio dulcia melle feram;' and hence Ovid takes occasion to make a digression with regard to the discovery of honey, which he attributes to Bacchus.

25. Hebro. The Hebrus (Maritza) is the great river of Thrace, and one of the most important streams in Europe. It rises at the point where Mount Rhodope branches off from Mount Haemus and Mount Scomius (see above, p. 206), and after a course of nearly 300 miles, falls into the Aegean opposite to Samothrace, one of its branches emptying itself into the Stentoris Palus (G. of Aenos).

27. Rhodope (Despoto Dagh) is a snowy mountain range, sweeping down to the south from the great chains of Haemus and Scomius, and sending out a number of lateral ridges which spread over the whole of the southern and western districts of Thrace.

Mons Pangaeus v. Pangaeum (Pundhar Dagh) was the name given to the extremity of one of the branches of Rhodope which runs along the coast, from Amphipolis near the mouth of the river Strymon, westward. Pangaeus was celebrated for its mines of gold and silver, originally worked by the native tribes, and afterwards by a colony from the island of Thasos, who formed an establishment called “Crenides,' which was subsequently seized by Philip of Macedon, who built on the same site the city of Philippi, so celebrated in after times in the history of Rome, as the scene of the final struggle of the republicans under Brutus and Cassius against the triumvirs (42 B.C.). Philippi was the first spot in Europe where the gospel was preached by Saint Paul. (Acts xvi. 9.)

28. Aeriferae ...manus. The cymbals borne by the followers of Bacchus.

29. Volucres 'the bees,' novae 'hitherto unknown,' tinnitibus actae, every one knows that bees when swarming are frequently attracted and induced to alight upon a particular spot by a tinkling noise, nor does Virgil omit to notice this peculiarity, G. 4. 64

Tinnitusque cie, et Matris quate cymbala circum.' 33. Levis...senex, “the bald old man,' Silenus. See above, p. 148.

37. Residebat expresses the lazy slouching attitude of Silenus.

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42. Ora summa, i.e. "his bald head.'

47. Limumque inducere, 'to spread a coating of mud over his face. So 'Inducere aurum ligno' Pliny H. N. 35. 1, 6. "Inducere parieti ceram liquefactam’ 30. 1, 7.

52. Thyrso. See above, note on 2. 23. 53. Hoc faciat. We may understand ' libum’ to agree with hoc, and translate, “If you ask why an old woman bakes this cake;' or, more simply, ' If you ask why an old woman does this,' i. e. offers her cakes to passers by.

57. Nysiades Nymphae, 'the nymphs of Nysa.' Ancient writers are at variance as to the position of Nysa, where Bacchus was nursed; many places bore the name and claimed the honour. The most famous was the Indian city situated at the base of Mount Meros (see Quintius Curtius, 8, 10) and this is probably indicated by Apollodorus, when he calls Nysa'a city of Asia. There was however another in Arabia, another in Boeotia, another in the island of Naxos; no less than ten being enumerated by geographers.

Noverca, i.e. Juno.

59. Restat, &c. Ovid now proceeds to enquire why youths assumed the 'toga virilis' on the Liberalia. He assigns four different reasons, none of which are particularly interesting. The practice itself is alluded to by Cicero, Ep. Att. 6. I 'Quinto togam puram Liberalibus cogitabam dare: mandavit enim pater.' 33. CYBELE.

FAS. IV. 179. The poet has now arrived at the ‘Megalesia,' or festival games celebrated in honour of Cybele, to whom the Greeks gave the title of weyán výtnp De@v, “Magna Mater Deorum,' 'Great Mother of Gods. These solemnities, according to Ovid and the old Calendars, commenced Prid. Non. Apr. (April 4th), although Livy, in a passage which we shall quote below, asserts that Prid. Id. Apr. (April 12th), was the original day.

The Extract before us consists of two parts: first, we have a description and explanation of the extravagant and noisy ceremonies which characterised the worship of the goddess : after which the history of its introduction into Rome is circumstantially detailed. We may offer a few remarks in illustration of each portion separately.

1. Cybele or Cybelle, or Cybebe, was an Asiatic divinity, probably a personification of the earth and its productive powers. The chief seat of her worship was Phrygia, whose high places were her chosen haunts, and hence the names and epithets by which she is generally distinguished are derived from the mountains of Cybele, Berecynthus, Dindymene, and Ida.

She was represented under the form of a matron crowned with towers, seated in a chariot drawn by yoked lions; her mutilated priests, called 'Galli' or 'Corybantes,' were wont to roam about in disorderly array, some bearing the image on their shoulders, while others were beating drums, clashing cymbals, blowing horns and trumpets, shouting, howling, and hacking themselves with knives, like some of the fraternities of dervishes in the East at this day.

The rites of Cybele were brought into Greece at an early period, probably before 500 B.C.', and from some real or fancied resemblance in attributes, she was identified with Rhea, the wife of Kronus (Saturn), while the Romans in their turn confounded her with their Ops, Tellus, Bona Dea, Vesta, &c 2. The explanation offered by Ovid of the noisy solemnities depends entirely upon the supposition that Cybele was the same as Rhea, and that the trumpets and drums were intended to represent the din raised by the Cretan Curetes to drown the cries of the infant Zeus 3.

Observe, also, that this commingling of legends was greatly favoured, if not caused, by Mount Ida in Crete being the reputed birthplace of Zeus, while Mount Ida in Phrygia was the abode of Cybele.

II. A circumstantial account of the events which induced the Romans to acknowledge the Phrygian Mother, most of which are strictly historical, and of the institution of the Megalesian games, is given in Livy 29. 10 and 14.

Lobeck Aglaophamus, p. 652. 2 See introduction to Extract 31.

3 See note, p. 242. Consult also Cic. de Harusp. Resp. 13, Pliny 7. 35, Appian. B. H. 56, Herodian, 1. 11, Dion. Cass. Ammiam. Marcell. 22. 22, Arnob. adv. Gent. 6, 7, Silius Italicus 17. I.

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Theatrical entertainments formed part of the amusements of the Megalesia from an early period: thus in 193 B.C. we find from Livy 34. 54 'Megalesia, ludos scenicos, C. Atilius Serranus, L. Scribonius Libo aediles curules primi fecerunt. Horum aedilium ludos Romanos primum senatus a populo secretus spectavit.' Again we find in 191 B. C., Livy 36. 36 * Per idem fere tempus aedes Matris Magnae Idaeae dedicata est, quam deam P. Cornelius advectam ex Asia, P. Cornelio Scipione, cui post Africano fuit cognomen, P. Licinio consulibus, in Palatium a mari detulerat. Locaverant aedem faciendam ex senatus consulto M. Livius, C. Claudius censores, M. Cornelio, P. Sempronio consulibus; tredecim annis postquam locata erat, dedicavit eam M. Iunius Brutus, ludique ob dedicationem eius facti, quos primos scenicos fuisse Antias Valerius est auctor, Megalesia appellatos.'

In later times, if not from the beginning, Circensian games formed a part of the shows, as we find from Juv. 11. 191.

Lucretius has some splendid lines descriptive of the worship of the Magna Mater, whom he supposes to be a personification of the earth, 2. 597-627.

With regard to the collection of money by the priests, we find in Dionys. Hal. 2. 21

According to the institutions of the Romans, the Praetors every year offer sacrifices and exhibit games in honour of the Idaean Mother, but her ministers are a Phrygian man and a Phrygian woman. These go round the city begging for the goddess, as their custom is, with images strung round their breasts, beating drums and singing the hymns of the Mother to the accompaniment of Autes, played by persons who follow. But no native Roman either collects alms for the Mother, or marches through the city to the sound of flutes, clad in a robe of divers colours, nor does he worship the goddess with wild Phrygian rites. This is ordained by a vote of the senate.'

Virgil, Ae. 3. III, supposes that Cybele came originally from Crete,

"Hinc mater cultrix Cybele, Corybantiaque aera,
Idaeumque nemus: hinc fida silentia sacris,

Et iuncti currum dominae subiere leones.' Again, Rome surrounded by her progeny of heroes, is said to be

'Felix prole virum: qualis Berecynthia Mater
Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes,
Laeta deum partu, centum complexa nepotes,
Omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes.'

Ae. 6. 785.
Compare also Ae. 10. 252

* Alma parens Idaea deum, cui Dindyma cordi,

Turrigeraeque urbes, biiugique ad frena leones.' 1. Perpetuo...axe. The original meaning of 'perpetuus' is "continuous,' 'uninterrupted,' 'unbroken.' Thus Pliny H. N. 3. 5 'Apenninus perpetuis iugis ab Alpibus tendens ad Siculum fretum,' i. e. 'in an unbroken range.' Again Virg. Ae. 7. 176

'Perpetuis soliti patres considere mensis,' i. e. a long straight table at which those who banquetted were placed in an unbroken line, up and down—not sitting round three sides after the fashion of the triclinia. Here it is equivalent to ‘long'—the long axle on which the heavens turn round. Virg. Ae. 4. 250

Vertitur interea caelum et ruit Oceano nox.' With regard to the different significations of axis, see note on Ov. Trist. 1. 3, 48, p. 66.

2. Titan, i. e. the Sun. See note on Hyperion, p. 203.

1, 2. The sense of these lines is simply “tribus exactis diebus,' three days having elapsed since the commencement of the month. The Megalesia were celebrated, as we have seen in the introduction, on the 4th of April. 3. Compare Hor. Od. 1. 18, 13

saeva tene cum Berecynthio

Cornu tympana’.... and Od. 4. 1, 21, addressing Venus,

Illic plurima naribus

Duces tura, lyraeque et Berecynthiae
Delectabere tibiae

Mixtis carminibus, non sine fistula.'

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