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Euboea, and hence is termed 'Euboean' and 'Chalcidian' by the poets. Thus Virg. Ae. 6. I

Sic fatur lacrimans, classique immittit habenas,

Et tandem Euboicis Cumarum adlabitur oris,' and in line 16 of Daedalus.

'Insuetum per iter gelidas enavit ad Arctos

Chalcidicaque levis tandem super adstitit arce.' 59. Paean. Apollo. See note, p. 276.

62. Phrygiae sceptra. The kingdom of Pergamus was one of those created out of the wrecks of the empire of Alexander. The fortress of Pergamus was entrusted by Lysimachus to Philetaerus, a native of Pontus, about 283 B.C., who, taking advantage of the misfortunes which befel his patron towards the close of his career, made himself independent. His successors were

i. EUMENES I (263 B.C.), son of Eumenes, a brother of Philetaerus.

ii. ATTALUS I (230 B.C.), son of Attalus, another brother of Philetaerus. This is the king Attalus of the passage before us.

iii. EUMENES II (197 B.C.), son of Attalus I. He was the firm friend and ally of the Romans against Antiochus and Perseus, and received a vast accession of territory upon the subjugation of the former.

iv. ATTALUS II (159 B.C.), brother of Eumenes II.

V. ATTALUS III (138 B.C.), son of Eumenes II. He died 133 B.C., and bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, who thus became masters of the finest part of Asia Minor.

Negat. This is directly at variance with the statement of Livy, and is probably a poetical fiction to heighten the dignity and solemnity of the event.

68. Nostra eris, you will still be ours.' Since the Romans were descendants of the Phrygian Aeneas, Attalus argues that the goddess in migrating from Pessinus to Rome, was only passing from Phrygians to Phrygians, and therefore would not be lost to the nation.

69. Observe that, according to the poet, she does not sail in the Roman ship, but in a vessel built of the pines that grew upon her own Phrygian hills.

70. Phryx pius. Aeneas.


72. Caelestum Matrem. It will be seen from the chapter of Livy quoted in the introduction, that this representation of the mother of the gods was a sacred stone. It is described more particularly by Arnobius adv. Gent. 7. 46.

73. The student will do well to trace the voyage of the goddess upon a map, from which he will see that Ovid's ideas of the relative position of some of the places mentioned were not perfectly accurate. Observe, however, that according to the account here given, the image was brought from Pessinus in Galatia, high up on the river Sangarius, to the sea coast in the neighbourhood of Troy, where it was embarked, and not at Pergamus, as some of the commentators say, which was at the mouth of the Caicus (Bergamo), far to the south of the Hellespont and Tenedos, which in that case would never have been approached.

Sui...nati. Cybele being identified with Rhea, would be considered as the mother of Poseidon or Neptune.

74. Longaque, &c. The Hellespont, named after Helle sister of Phrixus.

75. Rhoeteum and Sigeum were two promontories forming the northern and southern horns of the bay in which lay the fleet of the Greeks at the siege of Troy. On the former Ajax was interred, on the latter were the tombs of Achilles, Patroclus, and Antilochus. Towns having the same names were afterwards built in the neighbourhood of these capes.

Rapax. This epithet must refer to the swift current of the Hellespont. So Ov. Fast. 4. 566

'Ioniumque rapax, Icariumque legit.' and Catull. 64. 358

'Testis erit magnis virtutibus unda Scamandri,

Quae passim rapido diffunditur Hellesponto.' 76. Tenedum. See note on Ov. Amor. 1. 15. 9, p. 119. Eetionis opes. He means “Thebe' in Mysia, surnamed 'Hypoplacia,' from lying under the woody mountains of Placos. At the commencement of the Trojan war it was possessed by the Cilicians, whose king was Eetion, the father of Andromache. It was taken and sacked by Achilles, and never rebuilt. It is frequently mentioned by Homer, e. g. Il. 1. 366; 2. 691; 6. 397, 416.

77. Cyclades. The name given to the circular group of islands of which the holy Delos was considered the centre.


The most important were, Naxos, Paros, Siphnos, Melos, Seriphos, Cythnos, Andros, Tenos, Myconus, Gyarus. To the two last the floating Delos was ultimately moored. See Virg. Ae. 3. 73.

Lesbos is now called Mitelin, a corruption of Mitylene, its ancient capital.

78. Carystus (Castel Rosso), was situated at the southern extremity of Euboea (Negropont), and famed for its marbles. There was another Carystus in Laconia, far inland on the confines of Arcadia.

79. The Mare Icarium, if called after the son of Daedalus, would be that portion of the Cretan sea over which the ill-fated boy essayed to wing his flight toward Italy. The same name is given to a part of the Aegean, off the coast of Ionia, from the island of Icarus (Nicaria) near Samos.

81. Pelopeides undae will here mean the sea which lies to the south of the Peloponesus between Creta (Candia) and Cythera (Cerigo), the passage, as it were, from the Mare Aegeum into the Mare Ionium.

83. Mare Trinacrium or Mare Siculum, Sicilia being called “Trinacria' from its three promontories, and sometimes “Triquetra’ from its triangular form. "Sicilia’ and 'Sicania' are names derived from the tribes of Siceli and Sicani, by whom the island was anciently occupied.

84. The haughty-hearted Cyclops, who forged the thunderbolts of Jove, are mentioned by Hesiod (Theog. 140) as the sons of Earth and Heaven, three in number, Brontes, Steropes and Arges. These seem originally to have been quite distinct from Polyphemus and his tribe of monsters in the Odyssey. But when Sicily became familiarly known to the Greeks, and was fixed upon as the scene of the adventures of Ulysses, the volcanoes of Aetna and the Lipari islands were soon converted, by the imagination of the poets, into the workshops of Hephaestus, while the one-eyed Cyclopes of Hesiod and Homer were confounded with each other, and assigned to him as workmen. The names are derived from Bpovrň (thunder), OTEPOT) (lightning), åpyns (bright-flashing).

86. Ausonia. See note, p. 304.

87. Ostia in the plural, because the river near its mouth divided itself into two streams, and entered the sea by a double channel. Of these, the left or southern branch seems to have been preferred in ancient times, but it afterwards


became filled up with sand and ceased to be navigable. The celebrated harbour called the ‘Portus Augusti, commenced by Julius Caesar, and completed upon a most magnificent scale by the Emperor Claudius 3, was upon the right branch, but must not be confounded with the Portus Traiani or Centumcellae, now Civita Vecchia, situated at some distance to the north on the Etrurian coast. The town of Ostia, said to have been founded by Ancus Martius, was three or four miles from the mouth of the river and the harbour.

Dividit. Simply spreads itself out into the deep, disperses its waters. The point where the river " divides into two branches was at some little distance, and is mentioned at line 125.

90. Tusci fluminis. The Tiber, whose sources are in Etruria, and which passes through or bounds that district during the whole of its course. See note p. 250.

92. The Vestal Virgins who tended the sacred fire of Vesta. See note, p. 282. 96. Pressa carina, 'deep laden. Compare Virg. G. 1. 303

‘Ceu pressae cum iam portum tetigere carinae.' 101. This Claudia was probably the granddaughter of Claudius Appius Caecus, who was Consul for the second time, 296 B.C., in the great Etruscan and Samnite war, Livy 10. 18, 19, &c., and afterwards, when Censor, gave his name to the famous Appian Way.

Clauso... ab alto. Livy 2. 16 'Seditio inter belli pacisque auctores orta in Sabinis aliquantum inde virium abstulit ad Romanos; namque Attus Clausus, cui postea Appio Claudio fuit Romae nomen, cum pacis ipse auctor a turbatoribus belli premeretur, nec par factioni esset, ab Regillo, magna clientium comitatus manu, Romam transfugit. His civitas data agerque trans Anienim; vetus Claudia tribus, additis postea novis tribulibus, qui ex eo venirent agro, adpellata. Appius inter patres lectus haud ita multo post in principum dignationem pervenit.' Compare Virg. Ae. 7. 706

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1 See Rutilius Itiner. 1. 169, and the note of Wernsdorf. 2 Plutarch in Vita.

3 Sueton. Claud. 20, Dion. Cass. 60. 11, Pliny 9.6; 36. 15, Juv. S.


'Ecce Sabinorum prisco de sanguine, magnum Agmen agens Clausus, magnique ipse agminis instar, Claudia nunc a quo diffunditur et tribus et gens

Per Latium, postquam in partem data Roma Sabinis.' Those who desire further information with regard to the history and services of this most illustrious family, may read the two first chapters of the life of Tiberius by Suetonius.

119. Pignora. 'Pignus, argumentum, signum quo comprobatur aliquid' (G.). Re 'by the issue. You will give proof of the purity of my life by the event.

122. It appears from this line that the exploit of Claudia had been made the subject of some well-known drama, exhibited, doubtless, at the Megalesia.

124. Sonus, 'a shout.' 125. See note on line 87.

133. Almo. The Almo (Acqua Santa) is a rivulet which rises near Rome at the head of a little valley called La Cafarella, and after a very short course, 'cursuque brevissimus Almo' Ov. Met. 14. 329, passing near the ancient Porta Capena (Porta S. Sebastiano), falls into the Tiber. The 'lotio,' or washing of the goddess, here described, was performed regularly every year by the Archigallus, and is the subject of frequent allusions in the poets. See Lucan 1. 589. Compare also Silius 8. 364

Quique immite nemus Triviae, quique ostia Tusci

Amnis amant, tepidoque fovent Almone Cybeben.' and Martial 3. 47, I

• Capena grandi porta qua pluit gutta

Phrygiaeque matris Almo qua lavat ferrum.' Lubricus Almo, smoothly gliding.' So Ov. Amor. 3. 6, 81 • Supposuisse manus ad pectora lubricus amnis

Dicitur'.. and also 'lubrice Tibri' in Fast. 6. 238.

136. Dominam sacraque. The statue of Cybele and the sacred utensils.

138. Molles, 'effeminate,' as in line 7, 'molli cervice.' Taurea terga, 'the hides of bulls stretched upon drums.' 141. Porta Capena. See note, p. 258.



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