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' Deseruere sui Nymphae vineta Timoli,' and Virg. G. 2. 97

Sunt et Amineae vites, firmissima vina,

Tmolius assurgit quibus, et rex ipse Phanaeus.' The saffron also of this region was celebrated, Virg. G. 1. 56

• Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores, India mittit ebur, molles sua tura Sabaei.' 11. Laqueata, 'fretted.' 'Laquear' and 'lacunar' are the two words employed to denote a fretted roof.' The former, derived from · laqueus, denotes tracery-work in the form of knots or nooses; the latter, from ‘lacus,' the ornamented hollows or cavities which still may be seen in the ceilings of some ancient buildings. Gothic architecture affords examples of every variety of both kinds of ornaments.

Laqueata que. Observe that “que’ is here out of its proper place; a prose writer would have said, “laqueata tophis vivoque pumice.'

Tophis... pumice. The Romans gave the name of “tophus' (or “tofus ') to a rough, coarse-grained stone of volcanic origin, found in great quantities in the neighbourhood of Rome, and now called “tufo.' 'Scaber' is the distinctive epithet applied by Virgil, to which Pliny adds 'friabilis.' 'Pumex' is another volcanic product, but of a much finer texture; it has always been extensively used in the arts for smoothing and polishing rough surfaces. In the poets both these words are equivalent to 'native' or ' living rock. Thus in the exquisite lines of Juvenal on the marble decorated fountain of Egeria,

“In vallem Egeriae descendimus, et speluncas
Dissimiles veris, quanto praestantius esset
Numen aquae, viridi si margine clauderet undas
Herba, nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophum'

S. 3. 17. and Ov. Met. 3. 175

Caius in extremo antrum est nemorale recessu,
Arte laboratum nulla, simulaverat artem
Ingenio natura suo, nam pumice vivo,

Et levibus tophis nativum duxerat arcum.' 12. Garrulus, “babbling. So Horace of the Bandusian fount,

* Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium,
Me dicente cavis impositam ilicem
Saxis; unde loquaces

Lymphae desiliunt tuae.' 15. Gaetulo murice. See note, p. 304.

17. Vincla relaxat. He bursts the strings by which the tunic was drawn tight at the wrist.

22. The order of the words is, 'Et tela minora condita in sua pharetra;' the arrows are called "tela minora,' lesser weapons, in comparison with the heavy club; “sua pharetra,' the quiver which belonged to them.

23. Sic. In this guise, Hercules attired in the robes of Omphale—Omphale equipped with the accoutrements of the hero.

38.

FABIORVM CLADES.

FAS. II. 193.

The best introduction to this Extract-which contains the famous legend of the destruction of the Fabian clan, all, save one -- will be the narative of Livy 2. 48, 49.

1. Idibus. On the Ides of February the festival of Faunus was celebrated. See Introduction to 15.

2. Insula. The "Insula Tiberina,' which was situated near the point where the Capitoline hill abuts upon the river, is said not to have existed until after the expulsion of the Tarquins, and to have been formed in the following manner : Livy. 2. 5

Ager Tarquiniorum, qui inter urbem ac Tiberim fuit, consecratus Marti Martius deinde Campus fuit. Forte ibi tum seges farris dicitur fuisse matura messi, quem campi fructum quia religiosum erat consumere, desectam cum stramento segetem magna vis hominum simul immissa corbibus fudere in Tiberim tenui fluentem aqua, ut mediis caloribus solet; ita in vadis haesitantis frumenti acervos sedisse illitos limo; insulam inde paulatim, et aliis, quae fert temere flumen, eodem invectis, factam; postea credo additas moles, manuque adiutum, ut tam eminens area firmaque templis quoque ac porticibus sustinendis esset.'

This and contained temples Faunus, Aesculapius, and Jupiter, the shrines of the two last being contiguous, thus Ov. Fast. I. 291

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Accepit Phoebo Nymphaque Coronide natum

Insula, dividua quam premit amnis aqua.
Iupiter in parte est. Cepit locus unus utrumque :

Iunctaque sunt magno templa nepotis avo.' Jupiter was the father of Phoebus, and therefore grandfather of Aesculapius.

3. Veientibus arvis. The real position of the great, populous, and wealthy city of Veii, so long the rival and deadly foe of Rome, has been ascertained within the last few years only. The researches of Sir William Gell have fixed the site beyond a doubt, although nothing remains to gladden the eye of the antiquary, except a few crumbling fragments of walls and some sepulchres hewn in the rock. It stood upon a platform, surrounded on every side by deep hollows or ravines, in the immediate vicinity of a spot now known as the Isola Farnese, at a distance of little more than ten miles to the north of Rome. It was nearly encompassed by two streams, now the Fosso dei due Fossi, and the Fosso di Formello, which united below the citadel, and formed the Cremera. Dionysius says that Veii, in the days of its prosperity, was equal in extent to Athens—the actual circumference of the walls must have been upwards of five miles. After its capture by the Romans it speedily sunk into obscurity, and although colonies were planted there by Julius Caesar and Tiberius, it seems never to have revived. Propertius represents the place as completely desolate even in his time, although the following lines must have been written at the period when the attempt was making to repeople the deserted walls.

"Et Veii veteres et vos tum regna fuistis,

Et vestro posita est aurea sella foro.
Nunc inter muros pastoris buccina lenti

Cantat, et in vestris ossibus arva metunt' 4. 10, 27. Haec fuit illa dies. This is directly contradicted by Livy, who says that the destruction of the Fabii took place on the same day of the year with the defeat of the Romans by the Gauls on the Allia, the 18th of July. Livy 6. I

"Tum de diebus religiosis agitari coeptum, diemque ante diem XV. Kalendas Sextiles, duplici clade insignem, quo die ad Cremeram Fabii caesi, quo deinde ad Alliam cum exitio urbis foede pugnatum, a posteriore clade Alliensem appellarunt, insignemque rei nulli publice privatimque agendae fecerunt.'

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6. Gentiles manus, 'the hands of the clansmen.' Those belonging to the same 'gens' were distinguished by the ephithet 'gentiles.

Arma professa. 'Quae se promiserant sumpturas.'

9. Carmentis, &c., 'the nearest way is through the right Janus of the Carmental gate. The meaning of these words seems to be this. Many of the ancient gates consisted of three archways, a large one in the middle, and a smaller one on each side 1. But every archway open at both ends, every 'pervia transitio,' was called a 'Ianus 2;' hence in a gate such as we have described, the smaller archways would be called respectively, 'Dexter Ianus' and “Sinister lanus.' Except upon extraordinary occasions, the middle archway, for the sake of security, would be kept closed, and those who went in and out, would pass through the wickets on the right and left. We shall illustrate this line still further, if we suppose that the same rule obtained in ancient times which is observed on bridges and in narrow streets in many parts of the continent, viz., that each person shall keep to his right hand, which separates the passengers going in opposite directions into two distinct streams, which never collide. Hence those who went out of a town, would, as a matter of course, take the Janus on their right; the contrary must have been the practice at the Carmental gate, and Ovid here gives an explanation of the anomaly.

13. Cremeram. The Cremera (La Volca), now called in the earlier part of its course the Fosso di Formello, is formed by a rivulet issuing from the Lacus Sabatinus (Lago di Baccano), and some streamlets in the immediate vicinity; it receives, as we have seen above, a small tributary under the citadel of Veii, and after a short course falls into the Tiber, immediately opposite to Castel Guibileo, the ancient Fidenae. In summer it is a small brook.

16. Tyrrhenum. It must be remembered that Veii was an Etrurian city.

23. Campus, &c. Ovid here paints from fancy, for there is no plain bounded by hills in the immediate neighbourhood of Veii. The whole of the Roman Campagna, however, is full of deep hollows, admirably calculated to conceal an ambushed foe,

1 As we see in the triumphal arches of Severus and Constantine. 2 See p. 161.

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25. Rara. Scattered up and down. See notes, p. 150, and p. 238.

31. Discursibus. See note, p. 192.
34. Simplex, 'free from guile,' "unsuspicious.'

39. Silvis...... Laurentibus. See note 22. 41. p. 228. The swampy thickets on the Latian coast still abound with wild boars.

43-48. Without entering into any critical discussion with regard to the truth or falsehood of the legend of the Fabii, it will be seen at a single glance that the representation of Ovid is improbable. If three hundred fighting men of the Fabian clan had marched out of Rome, as described by the poet, they must have left behind them double that number of old men and boys, without reckoning the females at all. The narrative of Livy is not open to the same objection, for we are told that the Fabii erected a fort upon the Cremera, a considerable period before the fatal event, and to this their wives and children might have been conveyed; but Dionysius is still more cautious, for he expressly states that they settled upon the Cremera, accompanied by their wives and a train of clients (9. 15), to which we may add the testimony of Aulus Gellius, Sex et trecenti Fabii cum familiis suis circumventi perierunt.

45. Herculeae ...gentis. The Fabii claimed descent from Hercules and a daughter of Evander.

49. Maxime. Quintus Fabius Maximus, who was chosen dictator 217 B.C., immediately after the battle of the Trasimene Lake, and for a time checked the progress of Hannibal by his wise policy, which consisted in perpetually harrassing the enemy, and cutting off his supplies, while, at the same time, he carefully avoided a general engagement. From his attachment to these tactics he received the appellation of 'Cunctator.'

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37. AGNOMINA.

FAS. I. 587. The more noble among the Romans had usually three names.

The 'Praenomen,' which stood first, marked the individual. The ‘Nomen,' which followed, marked the ‘Gens' or clan. The ‘Cognomen,' which came third, marked the 'Familia'

or family. Thus the name 'Publius Cornelius Scipio' indicated that the person so called belonged to the ‘Gens Cornelia,' to the

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