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provoked irritation in his convent, and in 1522 he left it, never to return. He found his way to Zurich, and when he was preaching in the cathedral on the intercession of the Virgin and the saints, Zwingle exclaimed—“ Brother, thou errest.”. The opponents of Zwingle thought that Lambert might show himself a match for the great Swiss reformer, and arranged for a disputation between them. The discussion lasted four hours, and then Lambert thanked God that by the light of God's Word he had been convinced of his error. He then gave up his monk's dress and went to Germany, being very anxious to see Luther. After many vicissitudes he found protection and support from Philip of Hesse. He died April 18, 1530. There is an excellent account of him under his name in Haag, La France Protestante, vi. 238–243; and in Waddington, i. (1200—1557), 357-383.
Congregational Ideas among Foreign Protestants The following story from Foxe is an illustration of the extent to which some at least of the principles of Congregationalism were held by foreign Protestants. 11 Aymond de la Voye, a French priest, was accused of heresy at Bordeaux, in 1543. In the course of his examination the judge asked him—“Dost thou believe in the Church ?"
The Martyr.-“I believe, as the Church regenerated by the blood of Christ, and founded in His Word, hath appointed."
J udge.—“ What Church is that?'
The Martyr.-" The Church is a Greek word, signifying as much as a congregation or assembly: and so I say that whensoever the faithful do congregate together to the honour of God, and the amplifying of Christian religion, the Holy Ghost is verily with them.”
Judge.—“By this it should follow that there be many Churches : and whereas any rustical clowns do assemble together, there must be a Church.”
The Martyr.-" It is no absurd thing to say that there be many Churches or congregations among the Christians : and so speaketh St. Paul, 'To all the churches which are in Galatia,' etc. And yet all these congregations make but one Church.”
Judge.-" The Church wherein thou believest, is it not the same Church which our creed doth call the Holy Church ? "
The Martyr.-“I believe the same.”
11 Foxe, Acts and Monuments (1631), ii. 131.
ENGLISH CONGREGATIONALISM UNDER
ENGLAND AND ROME: RESTLESSNESS WITHOUT REVOLT—The “WEA
OR “PUBLICANS”: THEIR TEACHING AND TREATMENTASSIZE OF CLARENDON : ORDER AGAINST HARBOURING HERETICS -OTHER HERETICS IN TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES THE Harlots ”—JOHN BALL-WYCLIF AND REVOLT AGAINST ROME—His INFLUENCE AND TEACHING-TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE: LAY EVANGELISTS—THE LOLLARDS— -Their PETITION FOR REFORM—THE ACT“ DE HERETICO COMBURENDO”—MARTYRDOM OF SAWTRE AND THORPE-OLDCASTLE'S REVOLT AND EXECUTION - PERSECUTION OF LOLLARDS-SECRET CONGREGATION AT CHESTERTON-MARTYRDOM OF THOMAS MAN PROGRESS OF FREE FAITH-HENRY VIII. AND THE POPE-SECRET ASSEMBLIES IN LONDON AND ESSEX DURING MARY'S REIGN: THEIR CHARACTER AND AIM.
OR three centuries after the Norman Conquest England
was loyal to all the traditions of the “ Catholic Church.” The persistent endeavour of the Papacy to use its authority as the final court of appeal in all ecclesiastical causes, to make appointments to English benefices, and to enrich Italian priests from the revenues of the English Church, provoked the resentment of the King, the nobles, the native clergy, and the people, and gave occasion to angry controversies in which sometimes the Crown and sometimes the Pope won a temporary success; but there was neither heresy nor schism. One or two obscure movements which indicated restlessness and discontent were promptly suppressed, and produced no apparent impression on the general religious faith of the nation.
In the reign of Henry II., about the year 1160, a singular company of foreigners appeared in England and awakened the alarm of the ecclesiastical authorities. There were about thirty of them-men and women. With the exception of Gerhard, their leader, who had some learning, they are described as altogether “unlettered, and perfect boors both in knowledge and conversation.” They spoke German, and had crossed the sea to preach a new faith. A Council was held at Oxford to inquire into their opinions.? Gerhard said that they were Christians and that the doctrine of the apostles was their rule of faith. On being pressed with questions about the details of their belief, it appeared that they held the orthodox creed on the Trinity and the Incarnation, but that they
rejected Baptism and the Holy Eucharist, declared against marriage and Catholic communion.” To prevent the spread of the heresy, the bishops handed them over to the King, and it was ordered that they should be branded in the forehead and publicly whipped out of the city. All persons were strictly forbidden to give them food or shelter. They bore their sentence with great courage, Gerhard marching at the head of them singing, “Blessed are ye when men shall hate you.” It was winter, and they all died a miserable death from starvation and cold. One poor woman, who was supposed to be their only convert, “confessed her error and deserved reconciliation."
These persons are described in the Annals of Tewkesbury
weavers,” and by a contemporary chronicler as “ of that class . . . which is generally called Publicans.”
They may, therefore, be identified with numerous "heretics," who in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were found in northern Italy, in France, in Germany, in the Low Countries, and even in Spain, and who were known under a great variety of names. In France they were called “ weavers ” and “publicans."
1 The Council at Oxford was held probably in January, 1165-6. See Wilkins, Concilia, 1. 438-439; and Hale, Pleas of the Crown, i. 398. Stow, however, places it in 1162, and some other authorities even earlier.
· Collier, ii. 263.